S Hisano

University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki-ken, Japan

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Publications (125)322.81 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The regulation of transcription of the growth hormone (GH) gene by glucocorticoids was studied in MtT/S cells, a cell line derived from estrogen induced mammotropic tumor in the rat, and in the primary culture of the anterior pituitary gland of adult mice. The levels of the GH heteronuclear RNA (GH hnRNA), which are mainly determined by the transcription rate, increased by 25-fold during 24 h in response to dexamethasone (DEX, 1μM) in MtT/S cells which have been cultured in the medium containing charcoal-stripped serum for 7 days. The stimulatory effect of DEX on the GH hnRNA levels was detectable as early as 30 min. This rapid effect of DEX did not require on-going protein synthesis, while it was considered that DEX requires the presence of unknown cellular proteins produced independent of DEX stimulation. In contrast, on-going protein synthesis was required for DEX action when incubated for 6h as has been observed in the previous studies. The specific inhibitor of glucocorticoid receptor, RU486, inhibited both rapid (30 min) and delayed (6 h) effects of glucocorticoids on GH hnRNA levels. Membrane impermeable glucocorticoid, corticosterone-bovine serum albumin conjugate (CSBSA), was found to have the similar effects as those of DEX and free corticosterone (CS), suggesting that glucocorticoids regulate GH gene transcription at least in part through the membrane bound receptors. From pharmacological studies, it was suggested that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) activation is involved in the rapid effects, but not in the delayed effects of glucocorticoids. This also suggests that the delayed effects of glucocorticoids depend on the mechanisms other than the activation of PI3-kinase. Finally, both rapid and delayed effects of CS and CSBSA were observed not only in MtT/S cells, but also in the mouse pituitary cells in primary culture. Therefore, it is possible that the membrane initiated action of glucocorticoids is involved in the regulation of the GH-transcription in the normal pituitary cells as well as in the pituitary tumor cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Neuroendocrinology 01/2014; · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanism for the inhibition of growth hormone (GH) expression by the epidermal growth factor (EGF) was examined in two clonal cell lines, MtT/E and MtT/S. The former has a negligible basal level of GH, whereas the latter has a high basal GH. The treatment of MtT/E cells with retinoic acid resulted in a significant increase in GH mRNA and subsequently GH. This stimulatory response to retinoic acid was strongly suppressed by EGF. This suppression was associated with an increase in the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (Erk1/2). The MEK [mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinases that activate ERK1 and ERK2] inhibitor, PD98059, clearly inhibited the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and restored the stimulatory effects of retinoic acid. These results suggest that the inhibitory effects of EGF on GH expression are mediated by MAPK activation in these cells. By contrast to the GH-producing clones examined previously, EGF showed a marked stimulation of proliferation of the MtT/E cells through a mechanism dependent on MAPK activation. On the other hand, the inhibitory effect of EGF on GH expression was less pronounced and the stimulation of cellular proliferation was not seen in MtT/S cells, even though it induced Erk-phosphorylation similar to that seen in MtT/E. The distinct difference in the response to EGF between these two GH cell lines appears to be attributed to differences in the function of MAPK cascade in each cell line. This may reflect the developmental stage of the cells from which MtT/E and MtT/S are derived.
    Journal of Neuroendocrinology 02/2012; 24(2):357-65. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pineal gland secretes melatonin under circadian control via nocturnal noradrenergic stimulation, and expresses vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) 1, VGLUT2 and a VGLUT1 splice variant (VGLUT1v). Although we previously reported that VGLUT2 mRNA level of rat pineal gland at postnatal day 21 is higher in the nighttime than in daytime, questions remained as to the time of postnatal onset of this phenomenon and a 24-h change in the mRNA or protein level at postnatal days. The day-night difference in VGLUT2 mRNA level was evident 14 days after birth. In the adult, VGLUT2 mRNA and protein levels increased in the dark phase, with the protein level showing a 6-h delay. The nocturnal elevation in VGLUT2 mRNA level diminished under the constant light condition but persisted under the constant dark condition. The present data suggest that VGLUT2 in the rat pineal gland is involved in some nocturnal glutamatergic function.
    Neuroscience Research 01/2012; 72(1):16-22. · 2.20 Impact Factor
  • Sachine Yoshida, Setsuji Hisano
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    ABSTRACT: Melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland, is closely related physiologically to circadian rhythm, sleep and reproduction, and also psychiatrically to mood disorders in humans. Under circadian control, melatonin secretion is modulated via nocturnal autonomic (adrenergic) stimulation to the gland, which expresses vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) 1, VGLUT2 and a VGLUT1 splice variant (VGLUT1v), glutamatergic markers. Expression of VGLUT2 gene and protein in the intact gland has been reported to exhibit a rhythmic change during a day. To study VGLUT2 expression is under adrenergic control, we here performed an in vitro experiment using dispersed pineal cells of rats. Stimulation of either β-adrenergic receptor or cAMP production to the pineal cells was shown to increase mRNA level of VGLUT2, but not VGLUT1 and VGLUT1v. Because an ability of glutamate to inhibit melatonin production was previously reported in the cultured gland, it is likely that pineal VGLUT2 transports glutamate engaged in the inhibition of melatonin production.
    Kansei Engineering International Journal. 01/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Perception of particular sensory stimuli from the surroundings can influence emotion in individuals. In an uncomfortable situation, humans protect themselves from some aversive stimulus by acutely evoking a stress response. Animal model studies have contributed to an understanding of neuronal mechanisms underlying the stress response in humans. To study a possible anti-stressful effect of lemon odor, an excitation of neurons secreting corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) as a primary factor of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) was analyzed in animal model experiments, in which rats are restrained in the presence or absence of the odor. The effect was evaluated by measuring expression of c-Fos (an excited neuron marker) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), a key structure of the HPA in the brain. We prepared 3 animal groups: Groups S, L and I. Groups S and L were restrained for 30 minutes while being blown by air and being exposed to the lemon odor, respectively. Group I was intact without any treatment. Two hours later of the onset of experiments, brains of all groups were sampled and processed for microscopic examination. Brain sections were processed for c-Fos immunostaining and/or in situ hybridization for CRH. In Group S but not in Group I, c-Fos expression was found in the PVN. A combined in situ hybridization-immunohistochemical dual labeling revealed that CRH mRNA-expressing neurons express c-Fos. In computer-assisted automatic counting, the incidence of c-Fos-expressing neurons in the entire PVN was statistically lower in Group L than in Group S. Detailed analysis of PVN subregions demonstrated that c-Fos-expressing neurons are fewer in Group L than in Group S in the dorsal part of the medial parvocellular subregion. These results may suggest that lemon odor attenuates the restraint stress-induced neuronal activation including CRH neurons, presumably mimicking an aspect of stress responses in humans.
    Kansei Engineering International Journal. 01/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: To study the development of glutamatergic neurons during the main olfactory bulb morphogenesis in rats, we examined the expression of vesicular glutamate transporters 1 (VGLUT1) and 2 (VGLUT2). On VGLUT1, expressions of mRNA and immunoreactivity were first detected in the mitral cell layer on embryonic day (E) 17.5 and E18.5, respectively, and persisted in the E20.5 olfactory bulb. Much earlier (on E12.5) than VGLUT1, expressions of VGLUT2 mRNA and/or immunoreactivity were found in the olfactory epithelium, migratory cells and telencephalon. On E14.5, the mRNA expression was also observed in the prospective bulbar region and vomeronasal organ, while immunoreactivity existed in migratory cells and growing fibers. Some fibers were observed in the deep telencephalic wall. From E16.5 onward, mRNA expression became gradually detectable in cells of the mitral cell layer with development. On E17.5, immunoreactivity was first found in fibers of the developing olfactory bulb and in some immature mitral cells from E18.5 to E20.5. The present study clarifies the expression of VGLUT2 precedent to VGLUT1 during olfactory bulb morphogenesis, suggesting differential contribution of the two VGLUT subtypes to glutamate-mediated embryonic events.
    Neuroscience Research 05/2011; 70(4):376-82. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Expression of the first exon variants of the rat growth hormone receptor mRNA was studied in the brain and the pituitary gland. Four of the five different variant mRNA previously identified in the liver were detected in the cerebral cortex by a conventional reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and, unlike the data reported previously, a quantitative analysis revealed that approximately 90% of the total growth hormone receptor mRNA in the cerebral cortex is V1 form. The present results suggest that the V1 was also a dominant transcript in other brain areas and the pituitary gland, not only in adult but also in fetal and postnatal period. The growth hormone receptor expression in the brain was lower during fetal period than in adults, while in the pituitary gland, the expression is markedly higher in fetuses, suggesting a yet unknown role of growth hormone in the development of this organ.
    Growth hormone & IGF research: official journal of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the International IGF Research Society 02/2011; 21(1):11-5. · 2.35 Impact Factor
  • Koji Sugimoto, Fumihiro Shutoh, Setsuji Hisano
    Neuroscience Research - NEUROSCI RES. 01/2011; 71.
  • Neuroscience Research - NEUROSCI RES. 01/2011; 71.
  • Taeko Fukuda, Setsuji Hisano, Makoto Tanaka
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    ABSTRACT: Nociceptive behaviors might attenuate pain sensation. Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) was recently reported to be induced by noxious stimuli in dorsal horn neurons. We investigated, in a formalin test, whether pERK of the dorsal horn is affected by licking. Twenty-four adult male rats were divided into four groups: control, formalin test, restricted control, and restricted formalin test. Ten percent formalin was injected subcutaneously into the left rear paw of the formalin test and restricted formalin test groups. The control and formalin test group rats were kept in a clear plastic chamber, whereas the restricted control and restricted formalin test group rats were kept in a modified-restraint, pipe-shaped chamber. All rats were killed after 25 min. Twelve sections of the lumbar spinal cord were processed for p-ERK immunohistochemistry using the avidin-biotin peroxidase method. The number of p-ERK positive cells in the restricted formalin test group was significantly higher than in the other three groups in the ipsilateral-side superficial dorsal horn (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference between the formalin test group and the two control groups in pERK expression. Licking decreased pERK of the spinal cord of the formalin test group. The findings suggested that licking attenuated the pain of the formalin test.
    Anesthesia and analgesia 10/2009; 109(4):1318-22. · 3.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Olfactory information is initially processed through intricate synaptic interactions between glutamatergic projection neurons and GABAergic interneurons in the olfactory bulb. Although bulbar neurons and networks have been reported to develop even postnatally, much is yet unknown about the glutamatergic neuron development. To address this issue, we studied the postnatal ontogeny of vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1 and VGLUT2) in the main olfactory bulb of rats, using in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and their combination. In situ hybridization data showed that VGLUT1 mRNA is intensely expressed in differentiating mitral cells and smaller cells of the mitral cell layer (MCL) on postnatal day 1 (P1), and also at lower levels in small- and medium-sized cells, presumably tufted cell populations, of the external plexiform layer (EPL) from P5 onward. VGLUT2 mRNA was expressed in many MCL cell populations on P1, also in small- and medium-sized cells of the EPL at almost the same level as MCL cells between P5 and P7, and became apparently less intense in the MCL than in the EPL from P10 onward. The expression, unlike VGLUT1 mRNA, was also found in small-sized cells of the interglomerular region. In partial agreement with these data, immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that subsets of mitral and EPL cells are stained for VGLUT1 or VGLUT2, with the former cells coexpressing both subtypes until P5. Moreover, a combined fluorescence in situ hybridization-immunohistochemical dual labeling of the P10 bulb revealed that neither VGLUT1 nor VGLUT2 mRNA is expressed in GABAergic or dopaminergic periglomerular cells, implying their expression in other periglomerular cell subclasses, external tufted cells and/or short-axon cells. Thus, the present study suggests that early in the postnatal development distinct glutamatergic bulbar neurons of rats express spatiotemporally either or both of the two VGLUT subtypes as a specific vesicular transport system, specifically contributing to glutamate-mediated neurobiological events.
    Neuroscience 04/2009; 160(2):419-26. · 3.12 Impact Factor
  • Kazue Sanada, Fumihiro Shutoh, Setsuji Hisano
    Neuroscience Research - NEUROSCI RES. 01/2009; 65.
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    Haruo Nogami, Setsuji Hisano
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have disclosed the molecular mechanisms responsible for the phenotype determination of the anterior pituitary cell types. However, as far as growth hormone (GH) cells are concerned, particular extra-cellular cues are required for the initiation of GH and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH)-receptor gene production in addition to the expression of the cell type specific transcription factor, pit-1. The glucocorticoids play a principal role in the functional maturation of nascent GH cells in the fetal pituitary glands in rodents, inducing GH and GHRH-receptor gene expression, and establish the GH secretory system regulated by the brain in late gestation. Research supporting this role for glucocorticoid in the development of GH cells is discussed.
    Growth Hormone & IGF Research 11/2008; 18(5):379-88. · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The developmental process of prolactin (PRL) cells in the fetal pituitary gland was studied in mice. Although PRL cells were hardly detectable in the pituitary gland of intact fetuses, a treatment with 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) in vitro induced a number of PRL cells that varied drastically in number depending on the stage of gestation with a peak at embryonic d 15. This effect was specific to E(2), with epidermal growth factor, insulin, and forskolin failing to induce PRL cells. Although both estrogen receptor (ER)alpha and ERbeta were expressed in the fetal pituitary gland, the results from ER knockout models showed that only ERalpha mediates E(2) action on PRL cells. A few PRL cells were observed in ERalpha-deficient mice as well as in their control littermates, suggesting that estrogen is not required for the phenotype determination of PRL cells. Unexpectedly, the effect of E(2) on the induction of PRL cells in vitro was diminished after embryonic d 15. Present results suggest that the exposure of fetal PRL cells to glucocorticoids (GCs) results in a reduction of sensitivity to E(2). The mechanism underlying the down-regulation of estrogen sensitivity by GCs was found not to be down-regulation of ER levels, induction of annexin 1, a GC-inducible inhibitor of PRL secretion, or a decrease in the number of PRL precursors by apoptosis. The effect of GCs appeared within 2 h and did not require a de novo protein synthesis. GCs are considered to be involved in the mechanisms of silencing pituitary PRL in gestation possibly through a novel mechanism.
    Endocrinology 11/2008; 150(2):1061-8. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the effect of adrenal steroids on neuropeptide Y (NPY) synthesis in the hypothalamic-pituitary system, we examined NPY expression in rats treated with dexamethasone (a synthetic glucocorticoid) by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Rats were injected daily with dexamethasone (0.2mg/100g/day for 10 days, sc) or sesame oil (vehicle control), or non-injected (intact control). Relative staining area for corticotropin-releasing hormone or neurophysin II, a vasopressin carrier protein, was increased in the external zone of the median eminence in vehicle control, but was equivalent to that of intact control in the dexamethasone-injected group. Density of NPY-stained fiber varicosities was drastically increased in the external, but not the internal, zone of dexamethasone-injected group, coinciding with the increased NPY hybridization signal level in the arcuate nucleus. Dual-labeling experiments revealed no colocalization of NPY with hypophysiotropic or other peptides examined in single fibers of the median eminence. In the dexamethasone-injected group, expressions of NPY mRNA and peptide were detectable in a few pituitary cells, with some being corticotropes. These results suggest that NPY plays hormonal roles in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.
    Neuroscience Research 04/2008; 60(3):259-65. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pineal gland expresses vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 (VGLUT1 and VGLUT2), which are thought to transport glutamate into synaptic-like microvesicles in the pinealocytes. Recently, we reported that the rat pineal gland also expresses VGLUT1v which is a novel variant of VGLUT1 during the perinatal period. To explore the biological significance of these VGLUT expressions in pineal development, we studied the ontogeny of VGLUT in this gland by in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using rats. Histological analysis revealed that intensities of VGLUT1 hybridization signal and immunostaining drastically increase by postnatal day (P) 7, whereas VGLUT2 expression exhibits high levels of mRNA and protein at birth and decreases gradually from P7 onward. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis supported these histological observations, showing that expressions of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 exhibit opposite patterns to each other. Coinciding with VGLUT1-upregulation, RT-PCR data showed that expressions of dynamin 1 and endophilin 1, which are factors predictably involved in the endocytotic recovery of VGLUT1-associated vesicle, are also increased by P7. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of VGLUT1v demonstrated that its mRNA expression is upregulated by P7, kept at the same level until P14, and apparently decreased at P21, suggesting its functional property required for a certain developmental event. Moreover, a comparison of mRNA expressions at daytime and nighttime revealed that neither VGLUT1 nor VGLUT1v shows any difference in both P7 and P21 glands, whereas VGLUT2 is significantly lower at daytime than at nighttime at P21 but not P7, the time point at which the melatonin rhythm is not yet generated. The present study shows that expressions of these VGLUT types are differentially regulated during postnatal pineal development, each presumably participating in physiologically distinct glutamatergic functions.
    Neuroscience 04/2008; 152(2):407-16. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although virtually all of serotonin (5-HT) neurons in the midbrain raphe nuclei of rats are known to express vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3), VGLUT3-positive 5-HT fibers have been identified only in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Thus, our understanding of forebrain sites where 5-HT-glutamate interaction may be potentially managed by such possible glutamatergic 5-HT fibers themselves, is still largely fragmentary from a morphological point of view. To address this issue, we analyzed the rat forebrain by immunohistochemistry and chemical lesion experiment of 5-HT neurons by intracerebroventricular injection of a neurotoxin, 5,7-dihydroxytriptamine. Contrary to expectation, the double-label immunofluorescence staining revealed that the incidence of VGLUT3-positive 5-HT fibers is generally low over the forebrain, demonstrating occasional fibers with one or two double-labeled varicosities. The most extreme example was the nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract (LOT), which seemed to be devoid of double-labeled fibers despite high densities of 5-HT fibers and VGLUT3-positive fibers. In sharp contrast, robust plexuses of VGLUT3-positive 5-HT fibers were found in the dorsal, but not ventral, part of the lateral septum. The lesion experiment carried out to explore whether VGLUT3 exists in 5-HT fibers showed that in lesioned rats VGLUT3-positive fibers almost completely disappear from the septal region but seemed unchanged in the LOT. The present study shows that midbrain raphe-derived 5-HT fibers can be classified into two subtypes depending on co-expression with VGLUT3 staining in the forebrain.
    Neuroscience Letters 03/2008; 432(2):132-6. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal disorder characterized by hypersensitivity of the skin to sunlight specifically to ultraviolet (UV) which can lead to high rate of susceptibility to skin cancer and other kinds of neurodegenerative problems. Compared to normal individuals, XP patients have a more than 1000-fold increased risk of developing skin cancer on sun-exposed areas of their body. Genetic and molecular analyses have revealed that the repair of UV-induced DNA damage is impaired in XP patients owing to mutations in genes that form part of a DNA-repair pathway known as nucleotide excision repair (NER). XP is, therefore, regarded as a convincing human example of the link between DNA repair deficiency and cancer risk. However, this relationship has not been examined in detail in humans due to the limited number of XP patients and their frequent early death due to skin cancer and neurological problems. For these reasons are required the generation of equivalent animal models to determine their exact molecular mechanisms.
    Advances in experimental medicine and biology 02/2008; 637:152-60. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the light of the various neurobiological effects of glutamate in brain development, although some embryonic cells are a probable source of glutamate involved in the development of precursor cells and/or immature neurons, little is known about when and where glutamate plays its crucial roles during corticogenesis. To investigate these roles, we focused on the developmental expression of vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT)1 and VGLUT2, which are regarded as the best markers for verifying glutamatergic neuron identity, especially the spatiotemporal distributions of their transcripts and proteins in the developing mouse cortex and hippocampus. In situ hybridization studies revealed that VGLUT1 mRNA is expressed in preplate and marginal zone cells at embryonic day (E)10 and in subplate cells by E13, whereas VGLUT2 mRNA is expressed in preplate and marginal zone cells at E10 and in cells of the subventricular zone by E13. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis detected full-length VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 gene transcripts in the embryonic brain. By dual labeling combined with immunostaining for microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) or reelin, we showed that MAP2-positive preplate and marginal zone neurons and subplate neurons express VGLUT1, while reelin-positive preplate and marginal zone cells and MAP2-negative subventricular zone cells express VGLUT2. The present study is the first to provide morphologically reliable evidence showing that Cajal-Retzius cells and subplate neurons are glutamatergic, and that the two cells differentially express VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, respectively, as the specific transport system of glutamate in some events orchestrated by these cells during the cortical development of mice.
    European Journal of Neuroscience 09/2007; 26(3):615-23. · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have revealed the occurrence of five first exon variants of the rat prolactin receptor mRNA, suggesting that multiple promoters direct prolactin receptor transcription in response to different regulatory factors. In the present study, regional expression of these first exon variants, as well as two prolactin receptor subtypes generated by alternative splicing, was examined in the brains and anterior pituitary glands of female rats. Expression of the long-form was detected in the choroid plexus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, cerebral cortex and anterior pituitary gland, whereas the short form was detected only in the choroid plexus. E1-3 mRNA, a first exon variant, was detected in the choroid plexus, hypothalamus, and anterior pituitary gland, whereas E1-4 was detected only in the choroid plexus. Other variants were not detectable by the polymerase chain reaction protocol employed in this study. Ovariectomy increased the short form in the choroid plexus and the E1-3 expression in the choroid plexus and pituitary gland, but changes in the long-form and E1-4 expression were minimal. Replacement of oestrogens and prolactin suggest that oestrogens down-regulate E1-3 expression in the choroid plexus and pituitary gland, and that the negative effect of oestrogen is mediated by prolactin in the pituitary gland. The present results revealed the region-specific promoter usage in prolactin receptor mRNA transcription, as well as the involvement of oestrogens in the regulation of E1-3 mRNA expression in the brain and pituitary gland.
    Journal of Neuroendocrinology 09/2007; 19(8):583-93. · 3.33 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
322.81 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2012
    • University of Tsukuba
      • • Institute of Basic Medical Sciences
      • • Department of Anatomy
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki-ken, Japan
  • 2009–2011
    • Dokkyo Medical University
      • Department of Histology and Neurobiology
      Tochigi, Tochigi-ken, Japan
  • 2004
    • Tokyo Metropolitan Institute
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1981–2004
    • The University of Tokushima
      • • Department of Anatomy and Developmental Neurobiology
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Department of Clinical Nutrition
      Tokusima, Tokushima, Japan
  • 1993
    • Kurume University
      • Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
      Куруме, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 1989
    • Russian Academy of Sciences
      • Institute of Developmental Biology
      Moscow, Moscow, Russia
  • 1987
    • Shanghai Medical University
      • Institute of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China