[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous GWAS studies have reported significant associations between various common SNPs and prostate cancer risk using cases unselected for family history. How these variants influence risk in familial prostate cancer is not well studied. Here, we analyzed 25 previously reported SNPs across 14 loci from prior prostate cancer GWAS. The International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ICPCG) previously validated some of these using a family-based association method (FBAT). However, this approach suffered reduced power due to the conditional statistics implemented in FBAT. Here, we use a case–control design with an empirical analysis strategy to analyze the ICPCG resource for association between these 25 SNPs and familial prostate cancer risk. Fourteen sites contributed 12,506 samples (9,560 prostate cancer cases, 3,368 with aggressive disease, and 2,946 controls from 2,283 pedigrees). We performed association analysis with Genie software which accounts for relationships. We analyzed all familial prostate cancer cases and the subset of aggressive cases. For the familial prostate cancer phenotype, 20 of the 25 SNPs were at least nominally associated with prostate cancer and 16 remained significant after multiple testing correction (p ≤ 1E
−3) occurring on chromosomal bands 6q25, 7p15, 8q24, 10q11, 11q13, 17q12, 17q24, and Xp11. For aggressive disease, 16 of the SNPs had at least nominal evidence and 8 were statistically significant including 2p15. The results indicate that the majority of common, low-risk alleles identified in GWAS studies for all prostate cancer also contribute risk for familial prostate cancer, and that some may contribute risk to aggressive disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence and clinical correlates of the G84E mutation in the homeobox transcription factor (or HOXB13) gene using DNA samples from 9,559 men with prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy.
DNA samples from men treated with radical prostatectomy at the University of Michigan and John Hopkins University were genotyped for G84E and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The frequency and distribution of this allele was determined according to specific patient characteristics (family history, age at diagnosis, pathologic Gleason grade and stage).
128 of 9,559 patients were heterozygous carriers of G84E (1.3%). Patients who possessed the variant were more likely to have a family history of prostate cancer (46.0% vs. 35.4% p=0.006). G84E carriers were also more likely diagnosed at a younger age compared to non-carriers (55.2 years vs. 58.1 years; p<0.0001). No difference in the proportion of patients diagnosed with high-grade or advanced stage tumors by carrier status was observed.
In our study, carriers of the rare G84E variant in HOXB13 were both younger at the time of diagnosis and more likely to have a family history of prostate cancer compared to homozygotes for the wild-type allele. No significant differences in allele frequency were detected according to select clinical characteristics of prostate cancer. Further investigation is required to evaluate the role of HOXB13 in prostate carcinogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer has a strong familial component but uncovering the molecular basis for inherited susceptibility for this disease has been challenging. Recently, a rare, recurrent mutation (G84E) in HOXB13 was reported to be associated with prostate cancer risk. Confirmation and characterization of this finding is necessary to potentially translate this information to the clinic. To examine this finding in a large international sample of prostate cancer families, we genotyped this mutation and 14 other SNPs in or flanking HOXB13 in 2,443 prostate cancer families recruited by the International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ICPCG). At least one mutation carrier was found in 112 prostate cancer families (4.6 %), all of European descent. Within carrier families, the G84E mutation was more common in men with a diagnosis of prostate cancer (194 of 382, 51 %) than those without (42 of 137, 30 %), P = 9.9 × 10(-8) [odds ratio 4.42 (95 % confidence interval 2.56-7.64)]. A family-based association test found G84E to be significantly over-transmitted from parents to affected offspring (P = 6.5 × 10(-6)). Analysis of markers flanking the G84E mutation indicates that it resides in the same haplotype in 95 % of carriers, consistent with a founder effect. Clinical characteristics of cancers in mutation carriers included features of high-risk disease. These findings demonstrate that the HOXB13 G84E mutation is present in ~5 % of prostate cancer families, predominantly of European descent, and confirm its association with prostate cancer risk. While future studies are needed to more fully define the clinical utility of this observation, this allele and others like it could form the basis for early, targeted screening of men at elevated risk for this common, clinically heterogeneous cancer.
Human Genetics 01/2013; 132(1):5-14. · 4.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Genetic variants are likely to contribute to a portion of prostate cancer risk. Full elucidation of the genetic etiology of prostate cancer is difficult because of incomplete penetrance and genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Current evidence suggests that genetic linkage to prostate cancer has been found on several chromosomes including the X; however, identification of causative genes has been elusive. METHODS: Parametric and non-parametric linkage analyses were performed using 26 microsatellite markers in each of 11 groups of multiple-case prostate cancer families from the International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ICPCG). Meta-analyses of the resultant familyspecific linkage statistics across the entire 1,323 families and in several predefined subsets were then performed. RESULTS: Meta-analyses of linkage statistics resulted in a maximum parametric heterogeneity lod score (HLOD) of 1.28, and an allele-sharing lod score (LOD) of 2.0 in favor of linkage to Xq27- q28 at 138 cM. In subset analyses, families with average age at onset less than 65 years exhibited a maximum HLOD of 1.8 (at 138 cM) versus a maximum regional HLOD of only 0.32 in families with average age at onset of 65 years or older. Surprisingly, the subset of families with only 2-3 affected men and some evidence of male-to-male transmission of prostate cancer gave the strongest evidence of linkage to the region (HLOD = 3.24, 134 cM). For this subset, the HLOD was slightly increased (HLOD = 3.47 at 134 cM) when families used in the original published report of linkage to Xq27-28 were excluded. CONCLUSIONS: Although there was not strong support for linkage to the Xq27-28 region in the complete set of families, the subset of families with earlier age at onset exhibited more evidence of linkage than families with later onset of disease. A subset of families with 2-3 affected individuals and with some evidence of male to male disease transmission showed stronger linkage signals. Our results suggest that the genetic basis for prostate cancer in our families is much more complex than a single susceptibility locus on the X chromosome, and that future explorations of the Xq27-28 region should focus on the subset of families identified here with the strongest evidence of linkage to this region.
BMC Medical Genetics 06/2012; 13(1):46. · 2.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Family history is a significant risk factor for prostate cancer, although the molecular basis for this association is poorly understood. Linkage studies have implicated chromosome 17q21-22 as a possible location of a prostate-cancer susceptibility gene.
We screened more than 200 genes in the 17q21-22 region by sequencing germline DNA from 94 unrelated patients with prostate cancer from families selected for linkage to the candidate region. We tested family members, additional case subjects, and control subjects to characterize the frequency of the identified mutations.
Probands from four families were discovered to have a rare but recurrent mutation (G84E) in HOXB13 (rs138213197), a homeobox transcription factor gene that is important in prostate development. All 18 men with prostate cancer and available DNA in these four families carried the mutation. The carrier rate of the G84E mutation was increased by a factor of approximately 20 in 5083 unrelated subjects of European descent who had prostate cancer, with the mutation found in 72 subjects (1.4%), as compared with 1 in 1401 control subjects (0.1%) (P=8.5x10(-7)). The mutation was significantly more common in men with early-onset, familial prostate cancer (3.1%) than in those with late-onset, nonfamilial prostate cancer (0.6%) (P=2.0x10(-6)).
The novel HOXB13 G84E variant is associated with a significantly increased risk of hereditary prostate cancer. Although the variant accounts for a small fraction of all prostate cancers, this finding has implications for prostate-cancer risk assessment and may provide new mechanistic insights into this common cancer. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).
New England Journal of Medicine 01/2012; 366(2):141-9. · 54.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple prostate cancer (PCa) risk-related loci have been discovered by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) based on case-control designs. However, GWAS findings may be confounded by population stratification if cases and controls are inadvertently drawn from different genetic backgrounds. In addition, since these loci were identified in cases with predominantly sporadic disease, little is known about their relationships with hereditary prostate cancer (HPC). The association between seventeen reported PCa susceptibility loci was evaluated with a family-based association test using 1,979 hereditary PCa families of European descent collected by members of the International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics, with a total of 5,730 affected men. The risk alleles for 8 of the 17 loci were significantly over-transmitted from parents to affected offspring, including SNPs residing in 8q24 (regions 1, 2 and 3), 10q11, 11q13, 17q12 (region 1), 17q24 and Xp11. In subgroup analyses, three loci, at 8q24 (regions 1 and 2) plus 17q12, were significantly over-transmitted in hereditary PCa families with five or more affected members, while loci at 3p12, 8q24 (region 2), 11q13, 17q12 (region 1), 17q24 and Xp11 were significantly over-transmitted in HPC families with an average age of diagnosis at 65 years or less. Our results indicate that at least a subset of PCa risk-related loci identified by case-control GWAS are also associated with disease risk in HPC families.
Human Genetics 12/2011; 131(7):1095-103. · 4.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), representing a large proportion of non-coding transcripts across the human genome, are evolutionally conserved and biologically functional. At least one-third of the phenotype-related loci identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are mapped to non-coding intervals. However, the relationships between phenotype-related loci and lncRNAs are largely unknown. Utilizing the 1000 Genomes data, we compared single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the sequences of lncRNA and protein-coding genes as defined in the Ensembl database. We further annotated the phenotype-related SNPs reported by GWAS at lncRNA intervals. Because prostate cancer (PCa) risk-related loci were enriched in lncRNAs, we then performed meta-analysis of two existing GWAS for discovery and an additional sample set for replication, revealing PCa risk-related loci at lncRNA regions. The SNP density in regions of lncRNA was similar to that in protein-coding regions, but they were less polymorphic than surrounding regions. Among the 1998 phenotype-related SNPs identified by GWAS, 52 loci were located directly in lncRNA intervals with a 1.5-fold enrichment compared with the entire genome. More than a 5-fold enrichment was observed for eight PCa risk-related loci in lncRNA genes. We also identified a new PCa risk-related SNP rs3787016 in an lncRNA region at 19q13 (per allele odds ratio = 1.19; 95% confidence interval: 1.11-1.27) with P value of 7.22 × 10(-7). lncRNAs may be important for interpreting and mining GWAS data. However, the catalog of lncRNAs needs to be better characterized in order to fully evaluate the relationship of phenotype-related loci with lncRNAs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies have identified prostate cancer susceptibility alleles on chromosome 11q13. As part of the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) Initiative, the region flanking the most significant marker, rs10896449, was fine mapped in 10 272 cases and 9123 controls of European origin (10 studies) using 120 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected by a two-staged tagging strategy using HapMap SNPs. Single-locus analysis identified 18 SNPs below genome-wide significance (P< 10(-8)) with rs10896449 the most significant (P= 7.94 × 10(-19)). Multi-locus models that included significant SNPs sequentially identified a second association at rs12793759 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.14, P= 4.76 × 10(-5), adjusted P= 0.004] that is independent of rs10896449 and remained significant after adjustment for multiple testing within the region. rs10896438, a proxy of previously reported rs12418451 (r(2)= 0.96), independent of both rs10896449 and rs12793759 was detected (OR = 1.07, P= 5.92 × 10(-3), adjusted P= 0.054). Our observation of a recombination hotspot that separates rs10896438 from rs10896449 and rs12793759, and low linkage disequilibrium (rs10896449-rs12793759, r(2)= 0.17; rs10896449-rs10896438, r(2)= 0.10; rs12793759-rs10896438, r(2)= 0.12) corroborate our finding of three independent signals. By analysis of tagged SNPs across ∼123 kb using next generation sequencing of 63 controls of European origin, 1000 Genome and HapMap data, we observed multiple surrogates for the three independent signals marked by rs10896449 (n= 31), rs10896438 (n= 24) and rs12793759 (n= 8). Our results indicate that a complex architecture underlying the common variants contributing to prostate cancer risk at 11q13. We estimate that at least 63 common variants should be considered in future studies designed to investigate the biological basis of the multiple association signals.
Human Molecular Genetics 07/2011; 20(14):2869-78. · 7.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In spite of intensive efforts, understanding of the genetic aspects of familial prostate cancer (PC) remains largely incomplete. In a previous microsatellite-based linkage scan of 1,233 PC families, we identified suggestive evidence for linkage (i.e., LOD ≥ 1.86) at 5q12, 15q11, 17q21, 22q12, and two loci on 8p, with additional regions implicated in subsets of families defined by age at diagnosis, disease aggressiveness, or number of affected members.
In an attempt to replicate these findings and increase linkage resolution, we used the Illumina 6000 SNP linkage panel to perform a genome-wide linkage scan of an independent set of 762 multiplex PC families, collected by 11 International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ICPCG) groups.
Of the regions identified previously, modest evidence of replication was observed only on the short arm of chromosome 8, where HLOD scores of 1.63 and 3.60 were observed in the complete set of families and families with young average age at diagnosis, respectively. The most significant linkage signals found in the complete set of families were observed across a broad, 37 cM interval on 4q13-25, with LOD scores ranging from 2.02 to 2.62, increasing to 4.50 in families with older average age at diagnosis. In families with multiple cases presenting with more aggressive disease, LOD scores over 3.0 were observed at 8q24 in the vicinity of previously identified common PC risk variants, as well as MYC, an important gene in PC biology.
These results will be useful in prioritizing future susceptibility gene discovery efforts in this common cancer.
The Prostate 07/2011; 72(4):410-26. · 3.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous genome-wide association studies have identified two independent variants in HNF1B as susceptibility loci for prostate cancer risk. To fine-map common genetic variation in this region, we genotyped 79 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 17q12 region harboring HNF1B in 10 272 prostate cancer cases and 9123 controls of European ancestry from 10 case-control studies as part of the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) initiative. Ten SNPs were significantly related to prostate cancer risk at a genome-wide significance level of P < 5 × 10(-8) with the most significant association with rs4430796 (P = 1.62 × 10(-24)). However, risk within this first locus was not entirely explained by rs4430796. Although modestly correlated (r(2)= 0.64), rs7405696 was also associated with risk (P = 9.35 × 10(-23)) even after adjustment for rs4430769 (P = 0.007). As expected, rs11649743 was related to prostate cancer risk (P = 3.54 × 10(-8)); however, the association within this second locus was stronger for rs4794758 (P = 4.95 × 10(-10)), which explained all of the risk observed with rs11649743 when both SNPs were included in the same model (P = 0.32 for rs11649743; P = 0.002 for rs4794758). Sequential conditional analyses indicated that five SNPs (rs4430796, rs7405696, rs4794758, rs1016990 and rs3094509) together comprise the best model for risk in this region. This study demonstrates a complex relationship between variants in the HNF1B region and prostate cancer risk. Further studies are needed to investigate the biological basis of the association of variants in 17q12 with prostate cancer.
Human Molecular Genetics 06/2011; 20(16):3322-9. · 7.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because of the dramatically different clinical course of aggressive and indolent prostate carcinoma (PCa), markers that distinguish between these phenotypes are of critical importance. Apoptosis is an important protective mechanism for unrestrained cellular growth and metastasis. Therefore, dysfunction in this pathway is a key step in cancer progression. As such, genetic variants in apoptosis genes are potential markers of aggressive PCa. Recent work in breast carcinoma has implicated the histidine variant of CASP8 D302H (rs1045485) as a protective risk allele.
We tested the hypothesis that the H variant was protective for aggressive PCa in a pooled analysis of 796 aggressive cases and 2,060 controls.
The H allele was associated with a reduced risk of aggressive PCa (OR(per allele) = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.54-0.83, P(trend) = 0.0003). The results were similar for European-Americans (OR(per allele) = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.54-0.86) and African-Americans (OR(per allele) = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.34-1.10). We further determined from the full series of 1,160 cases and 1,166 controls in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, Ovarian (PLCO) population that the protective effect of the H allele tended to be limited to high-grade and advanced PCa (all cases OR(per allele) = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.79-1.11; localized, low-grade disease OR(per allele) = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.79-1.23; and aggressive disease OR(per allele) = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.50-1.07).
These results suggest that histidine variant of CASP8 D302H is a protective allele for aggressive PCa with potential utility for identification of patients at differential risk for this clinically significant phenotype.
The Prostate 05/2010; 70(6):646-53. · 3.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genetic variants associated with susceptibility to prostate cancer (PrCa). In the two-stage Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility prostate cancer scan, a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs10486567, located within intron 2 of JAZF1 gene on chromosome 7p15.2, showed a promising association with PrCa overall (P=2.14x10(-6)), with a suggestion of stronger association with aggressive disease (P=1.2x10(-7)).
In the third stage of genome-wide association studies, we genotyped 106 JAZF1 SNPs in 10,286 PrCa cases and 9,135 controls of European ancestry.
The strongest association was observed with the initial marker rs10486567, which now achieves genome-wide significance [P=7.79x10(-11); ORHET, 1.19 (95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.27); ORHOM, 1.37 (95% confidence interval, 1.20-1.56)]. We did not confirm a previous suggestion of a stronger association of rs10486567 with aggressive disease (P=1.60x10(-4) for aggressive cancer, n=4,597; P=3.25x10(-8) for nonaggressive cancer, n=4,514). Based on a multilocus model with adjustment for rs10486567, no additional independent signals were observed at chromosome 7p15.2. There was no association between PrCa risk and SNPs in JAZF1 previously associated with height (rs849140; P=0.587), body stature (rs849141, tagged by rs849136; P=0.171), and risk of type 2 diabetes and systemic lupus erythematosus (rs864745, tagged by rs849142; P=0.657).
rs10486567 remains the most significant marker for PrCa risk within JAZF1 in individuals of European ancestry.
Future studies should identify all variants in high linkage disequilibrium with rs10486567 and evaluate their functional significance for PrCa.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (PC) is generally believed to have a strong inherited component, but the search for susceptibility genes has been hindered by the effects of genetic heterogeneity. The recently developed sumLINK and sumLOD statistics are powerful tools for linkage analysis in the presence of heterogeneity.
We performed a secondary analysis of 1,233 PC pedigrees from the International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ICPCG) using two novel statistics, the sumLINK and sumLOD. For both statistics, dominant and recessive genetic models were considered. False discovery rate (FDR) analysis was conducted to assess the effects of multiple testing.
Our analysis identified significant linkage evidence at chromosome 22q12, confirming previous findings by the initial conventional analyses of the same ICPCG data. Twelve other regions were identified with genome-wide suggestive evidence for linkage. Seven regions (1q23, 5q11, 5q35, 6p21, 8q12, 11q13, 20p11-q11) are near loci previously identified in the initial ICPCG pooled data analysis or the subset of aggressive PC pedigrees. Three other regions (1p12, 8p23, 19q13) confirm loci reported by others, and two (2p24, 6q27) are novel susceptibility loci. FDR testing indicates that over 70% of these results are likely true positive findings. Statistical recombinant mapping narrowed regions to an average of 9 cM.
Our results represent genomic regions with the greatest consistency of positive linkage evidence across a very large collection of high-risk PC pedigrees using new statistical tests that deal powerfully with heterogeneity. These regions are excellent candidates for further study to identify PC predisposition genes.
The Prostate 03/2010; 70(7):735-44. · 3.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autopsy studies suggest that most aging men will develop lesions that, if detected clinically, would be diagnosed as prostate cancer (PCa). Most of these cancers are indolent and remain localized; however, a subset of PCa is aggressive and accounts for more than 27,000 deaths in the United States annually. Identification of factors specifically associated with risk for more aggressive PCa is urgently needed to reduce overdiagnosis and overtreatment of this common disease. To search for such factors, we compared the frequencies of SNPs among PCa patients who were defined as having either more aggressive or less aggressive disease in four populations examined in the Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) study performed by the National Cancer Institute. SNPs showing possible associations with disease severity were further evaluated in an additional three independent study populations from the United States and Sweden. In total, we studied 4,829 and 12,205 patients with more and less aggressive disease, respectively. We found that the frequency of the TT genotype of SNP rs4054823 at 17p12 was consistently higher among patients with more aggressive compared with less aggressive disease in each of the seven populations studied, with an overall P value of 2.1 x 10(-8) under a recessive model, exceeding the conservative genome-wide significance level. The difference in frequency was largest between patients with high-grade, non-organ-confined disease compared with those with low-grade, organ-confined disease. This study demonstrates that inherited variants predisposing to aggressive but not indolent PCa exist in the genome, and suggests that the clinical potential of such variants as potential early markers for risk of aggressive PCa should be evaluated.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2010; 107(5):2136-40. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a genome-wide association study in 10,286 cases and 9,135 controls of European ancestry in the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) initiative. We identify a new association with prostate cancer risk on chromosome 8q24 (rs620861, P = 1.3 x 10(-10), heterozygote OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.10-1.24; homozygote OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.21-1.45). This defines a new locus associated with prostate cancer susceptibility on 8q24.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) at 11q13 were recently implicated in prostate cancer risk by two genome-wide association studies and were consistently replicated in multiple study populations. To explore prostate cancer association in the regions flanking these SNPs, we genotyped 31 tagging SNPs in a approximately 110 kb region at 11q13 in a Swedish case-control study (Cancer of the Prostate in Sweden), including 2,899 cases and 1,722 controls. We found evidence of prostate cancer association for the previously implicated SNPs including rs10896449, which we termed locus 1. In addition, multiple SNPs on the centromeric side of the region, including rs12418451, were also significantly associated with prostate cancer risk (termed locus 2). The two groups of SNPs were separated by a recombination hotspot. We then evaluated these two representative SNPs in an additional approximately 4,000 cases and approximately 3,000 controls from three study populations and confirmed both loci at 11q13. In the combined allelic test of all four populations, P = 4.0 x 10(-11) for rs10896449 at locus 1 and P = 1.2 x 10(-6) for rs12418451 at locus 2, and both remained significant after adjusting for the other locus and study population. The prostate cancer association at these two 11q13 loci was unlikely confounded by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) detection bias because neither SNP was associated with PSA levels in controls. Unlike locus 1, in which no known gene is located, several putative mRNAs are in close proximity to locus 2. Additional confirmation studies at locus 2 and functional studies for both loci are needed to advance our knowledge on the etiology of prostate cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four genome-wide association studies, all in populations of European descent, have identified 20 independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 20 regions that are associated with prostate cancer risk. We evaluated these 20 SNPs in a combined African American (AA) study, with 868 prostate cancer patients and 878 control subjects. For 17 of these 20 SNPs, implicated risk-associated alleles were found to be more common in these AA cases than controls, significantly more than expected under the null hypothesis (P = 0.03). Two of these 17 SNPs, located at 3p12, and region 2 at 8q24, were significantly associated with prostate cancer risk (P < 0.05), and only SNP rs16901979 at region 2 of 8q24 remained significant after accounting for 20 tests. A multivariate analysis of additional SNPs across the broader 8q24 region revealed three independent prostate cancer risk-associated SNPs, including rs16901979, rs13254738, and rs10086908. The first two SNPs were approximately 20 kb apart and the last SNP, a novel finding from this study, was approximately 100 kb centromeric to the first two SNPs. These results suggest that a systematic evaluation of regions harboring known prostate cancer risk SNPs implicated in other races is an efficient approach to identify risk alleles for AA. However, studies with larger numbers of AA subjects are needed, and this will likely require a major collaborative effort to combine multiple AA study populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP; rs5945572 and rs5945619) at Xp11 were recently implicated in two genome-wide association studies of prostate cancer. Using a family-based association test for these two SNPs in 168 families with prostate cancer, we showed in this study that the risk alleles of the two reported SNPs were overtransmitted to the affected offspring (P= 0.009 for rs5945372 and P = 0.03 for rs5945619), which suggested that the observed association in case-control studies were not driven by potential population stratification. We also did a fine-mapping study in the approximately 800 kb region at Xp11 between two independent case-control studies, including 1,527 cases and 482 controls from Johns Hopkins Hospital and 1,172 cases and 1,157 controls from the Prostate, Lung, Colon and Ovarian Cancer screening trial. The strongest association was found with SNPs in the haplotype block in which the two initial reported SNPs were located, although many SNPs in the approximately 140 kb region were highly significant in the combined allelic tests (P = 10(-5) to 10(-6)). The second strongest association was observed with SNPs in the approximately 286 kb region at another haplotype block (P = 10(-4) to 10(-5)), approximately 94 kb centromeric to the first region. The significance of SNPs in the second region decreased considerably after adjusting for SNPs at the first region, although P values remained at <0.05. Additional studies are warranted to test independent prostate cancer associations at these two regions.