Ching-Ming Chien

Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

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Publications (32)72.81 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Furano-1,2-naphthoquinone (FNQ), a biologically active component of Avicennia marina, has been demonstrated to display anticancer activity. FNQ exerted cytotoxicity with the G(2)/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in Ca9-22 cells. FNQ-induced G(2)/M arrest was correlated with a marked decrease in the expression levels of cyclin A and cyclin B, and their activating partner cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) 1 and 2 with concomitant induction of p27. FNQ-induced apoptosis was accompanied by Bax and Bad upregulation, and the downregulation of Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), Mcl-1, and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), resulting in cytochrome C release and sequential activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Mechanistic studies showed that FNQ suppressed Src phosphorylation, PI3K, and Akt activation in Ca9-22 cells. Moreover, the Src inhibitor PP2 reduced the phosphorylation of Src and activation of PI3K/Akt, which was comparable with FNQ treatment. The combined treatment of FNQ with PP2 enhanced the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and also led to the downregulation of Bcl-X(L), Mcl-1, XIAP, cyclin A, cyclin B, CDK1, and CDK2 and upregulation of p27, Bax, and Bad. These findings suggest that FNQ-mediated cytotoxicity of Ca9-22 cells is related with the G(2)/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via inactivation of Src and PI3K/Akt-mediated signaling pathways.
    Integrative Cancer Therapies 04/2012; · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to determine whether cardiotoxin III (CTX III) inhibited the metastasis in MDA-MB-231 cells and to further explain its possible mechanisms. The MTT assay, wound healing assay, Boyden chamber invasion assay, zymography analysis, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), inhibitor assay, and Western blot analysis were used to reveal molecular events of CTX III in this study. During treatment with non-toxic doses of CTX III, not only cell migration and invasion were markedly suppressed but the expression/activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was also significantly and selectively suppressed in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, CTX III decreased the nuclear protein level of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and pretreatment with NF-κB inhibitor (PDTC) or IκB protease inhibitor (TPCK) also reduced MMP-9 expression/activity and cell migration. Our biochemical assays indicated that CTX III potently suppressed the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt. Additionally, the treatment of inhibitors specific for p38 MAPK (SB203580) or PI3K (wortmannin) to cells could result in a reduced expression of NF-κB and MMP-9 expression, concomitantly with an inhibition on cell metastasis. These results demonstrated that CTX III inhibition of MDA-MB-231 cells may occur through inactivation of both PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK signaling pathways, exerting inhibitory effects on NF-κB transcriptional factor, thereby decreasing the activity of MMP-9 and then posing an anti-metastatic effect in the cells.
    Life sciences 10/2011; 90(1-2):54-65. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiotoxin III (CTX III), a basic polypeptide with 60-amino acid residues isolated from Naja naja atra venom, has been reported to have cytotoxic activity. CTX III exerted cytotoxicity with the S-phase cell cycle arrest, correlated with a marked decrease in the expression levels of cyclin A, cyclin B, and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), and apoptosis, accompanied with Bax and Bad up-regulation, and the down-regulation of Bcl-2, p-Bad, and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) with cytochrome c release and sequential activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 in Ca9-22 cells. Mechanistic studies showed that CTX III suppressed the phosphorylation of Src, EGFR, STAT3, STAT5, Akt, and activation of PI3 K (p110). Moreover, Src inactivation was observed earlier than that of the EGFR and the Src inhibitor PP2 suppressed the levels of phospho-EGFR, phospho-STAT3, phospho-STAT5, phospho-Akt, and PI3 K(p110). The PP2 also caused the S-phase arrest and apoptosis, and led to down-regulation of Bcl-2, p-Bad, XIAP, cyclin A, cyclin B, and CDK1, and up-regulation of Bax and Bad, similar to that observed in CTX III treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that CTX III induces apoptosis and S-phase arrest in Ca9-22 cells via concomitant inactivation of the Src, EGFR, STAT3, STAT5, PI3 K(p110), and Akt signaling pathways.
    Toxicon 09/2010; 56(4):508-20. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Naphtho[1,2-b]furan-4,5-dione (NFD), prepared from 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and chloroacetaldehyde in an efficient one-pot reaction, exerts an anti-tumor effect. This study was performed to elucidate whether the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathways are involved in NFD-induced apoptosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Immunoblot showed that NFD suppressed the phosphorylation of EGF receptor and activation of PI3K/Akt, downstream molecules of EGF receptor signaling pathway, in Ca9-22 cells. The levels of downstream targets of Akt, including phospho-glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (p-GSK-3beta), GSK-3beta, forkhead transcription factor (FKHR), and cyclin D1, were also reduced after NFD treatment. Moreover, inactivation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF kappaB), modulation of I kappa K beta and I kappaB alpha, up-regulation of Bad, and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins including phospho-Bad, Bcl-X(L), myeloid cell leukemia-1(Mcl-1), and XIAP were found in NFD-treated cells. In addition, NFD treatment disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta Psi m), resulted in release of cytochrome c, and activation of both caspases-9 and caspase-3. Taken together, these results indicate that NFD induces apoptosis in Ca9-22 cells via inactivation of the EGF receptor-mediated survival pathway.
    European journal of pharmacology 04/2010; 636(1-3):52-8. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1. Cardiotoxin (CTX) III, a basic polypeptide with 60 amino acid residues isolated from Naja naja atra venom, has potential anticancer therapeutic activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the apoptotic effect (and the underlying mechanism of action) of CTX III in human adenocarcinoma A549 cells. 2. It was found that CTX III induces apoptosis in A549 cells, as indicated by an increase in the sub-G(1) population, phosphatidylserine externalization, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Psi(m)) with cytochrome c release and activation of caspases 9 and 3. These actions were correlated with upregulation of Bax and Bad and downregulation of various anti-apoptotic proteins, including Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), Mcl-1, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and p-Bad in CTX III-treated cells. 3. The signal transduction pathways involved in the effects of CTX III in A549 cells were evaluated using 5 micromol/L AG1478, an inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and exposing cells to the drug for 8 h. The results indicated that CTX III suppresses phosphorylation of EGFR and activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt and Janus tyrosine kinase (JAK) 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3, all of which are downstream molecules in the EGFR signalling pathway. 4. Exposure of cells for 8 h to the PI3-K inhibitor wortmannin (10 micromol/L) blocked JAK2 and STAT3 activation, whereas exposure of cells to the JAK2 inhibitor AG490 (5 micromol/L) decreased levels of phosphorylated (p-) JAK2 and p-STAT3 without affecting PI3-K/Akt activation. These observations suggest that PI3-K is an upstream activator of JAK2/STAT3. Furthermore, 5 micromol/L AG490 and 10 micromol/L wortmannin treatment of A549 cells for 8 h resulted in upregulation of Bax and Bad and downregulation of Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), XIAP and p-Bad. 5. Together, the results of the present study indicate that CTX III induces apoptosis in A549 cells by inactivating the EGFR, PI3-K/Akt and JAK2/STAT3 signalling pathways.
    Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 04/2010; 37(8):833-40. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiotoxin III (CTX III), a basic polypeptide with 60 amino acid residues isolated from Naja naja atra venom, has been reported to have anticancer activity. Exposure of MDA-MB-231 cells with 0.03, 0.09, and 0.15 microM of CTX III for 18 h, CTX III-induced cell apoptosis, as evidenced by accumulation of sub-G1 population, externalization of phosphatidylserine, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim) with subsequent release of cytochrome c, and activation of both capases-9 and caspase-3. This correlated with up-regulation in Bax and Bad, and down-regulation of various anti-apoptotic proteins, including Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), and survivin in CTX III-treated cells. Mechanistic studies showed that CTX III suppressed the phosphorylation of JAK2, STAT3, Akt, and activation of PI3K. Moreover, the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin blocked activation of STAT3 and Akt without affecting the JAK2 activation, whereas JAK2 inhibitor AG490 suppressed the levels of phospho-STAT3, phospho-Akt, and PI3K, suggesting that PI3K activation occurs after JAK2 phosphorylation, and both PI3K and JAK2 kinases cooperate to mediate STAT3 and Akt phosphorylation. Both AG490 and wortmannin also led to up-regulation in Bax and Bad, and down-regulation of Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), and survivin in MDA-MB-231 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that CTX III induces apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells via concomitant inactivation of the JAK2, STAT3, PI3K, and Akt signaling pathways.
    Toxicon 02/2010; 55(7):1263-73. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Naphtho[1,2-b]furan-4,5-dione (NFD), prepared from 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and chloroacetaldehyde in an efficient one-pot reaction, exhibits an anti-carcinogenic effect. NFD-induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells, as indicated by the accumulation of sub-G1 population, externalization of phosphatidylserine, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim) with subsequent release of cytochrome c, and activation of both capase-9 and caspase-3. This correlated with up-regulation in Bax and Bad, and down-regulation of various anti-apoptotic proteins, including Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), Mcl-1, and survivin in NFD-treated cells. In the analysis of signal transduction pathway, NFD suppressed the phosphorylation of JAK2 in MDA-MB-231 cells without altering the expression of JAK2 protein. Activation of STAT3, Src, and PI3K/Akt were also inhibited by NFD. Moreover, the JAK2 inhibitor AG490 blocked JAK2, STAT3, Src, PI3K, and Akt activation, whereas both Src inhibitor PP2 and PI3K inhibitor wortmannin did not affect JAK2 activation. This suggests that STAT3, Src, and PI3K/Akt are downstream molecules of the JAK2 signaling pathway. AG490 treatment also mimics the cytotoxic effects of NFD. Taken together, these results indicate that NFD disrupts JAK2 pathway and induces apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells.
    Toxicology in Vitro 02/2010; 24(4):1158-67. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Naphtho[1,2-b]furan-4,5-dione (NFD), prepared from 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and chloroacetaldehyde in an efficient one-pot reaction, exhibits an anti-carcinogenic effect. This study was performed to elucidate whether EGFR and PI3K signaling pathways are involved in NFD-induced apoptosis of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The effect of NFD on cell viability and apoptosis was measured by the MTT assay and flow cytometry. The phosphorylation levels of EGFR and its regulatory molecules by NFD treatment were studied by immunoblots. Immunoblot showed that NFD inhibited EGFR phosphorylation and the activation of PI3K/Akt, downstream molecules of EGFR pathway, in A549 cells. The levels of downstream targets of Akt, including phospho-glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (p-GSK-3beta), GSK-3beta, forkhead transcription factor (FKHR), and cyclin D1, were also reduced after NFD treatment. Moreover, inactivation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NFkappaB), modulation of IkappaKalpha/beta and IkappaBalpha, up-regulation of Bad and Bax, and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins including phospho-Bad, Bcl-2, survivin, and XIAP were also found in NFD-treated cells. In addition, NFD treatment disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim) and resulted in release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and activation of both caspases-9 and caspase-3. These findings indicate that EGFR and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways play important roles in NFD-induced apoptosis of A549 cells.
    Life sciences 01/2010; 86(5-6):207-13. · 2.56 Impact Factor
  • Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology - CLIN EXP PHARMACOL PHYSIOL. 01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: This study was performed to elucidate whether mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are involved in the modulation of apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest by N'-(11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinolin-6-yl)-N,N-dimethylethane-1,2-diamine (IQDMA), in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The effect of IQDMA on cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry, and phosphorylation levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and its regulatory molecules were studied by immunoblots. IQDMA-induced G(2)/M arrest was associated with a marked decrease in the protein expressions of cyclin A, cyclin B, and cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)1. IQDMA-induced apoptosis was accompanied with up-regulation of the protein expression of Bax and down-regulation of the protein levels of Bcl-2, Mcl-1, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), and survivin, resulting in cytochrome c release and sequential activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. IQDMA activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 MAPK (p38) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) on A549 cells in a time-dependent manner. Unlike the ERK inhibitor (PD98059), inhibitors of JNK (SP600125) and p38 MAPK (SB203580) suppressed IQDMA-induced apoptosis and G(2)/M phase arrest in A549 cells. Both SP600125 and SB203580 attenuated the activation of Bax and cytochrome c release, and reversed down-regulation of Bcl-2, XIAP, survivin, cyclin A, cyclin B, and Cdk1 in IQDMA-treated cells. These findings indicate that JNK/p38 MAPK pathways play an important role in IQDMA-induced G(2)/M arrest and apoptosis of A549 cells.
    Life sciences 09/2009; 85(13-14):505-16. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiotoxin III (1), a basic polypeptide with 60 amino acid residues isolated from Naja naja atra venom, has potential therapeutic activity in cancer. Treatment with 1 reduced phosphorylation of EGFR and Akt, as well as ERK in Ca9-22 cells. Moreover, 1-treatment inhibited constitutive activation of STAT3 and STAT5 in a time-dependent manner. Up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins including Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), and myeloid cell leukemia-1(Mcl-1) were also found in cells treated with 1. In addition, 1-treatment disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim) and resulted in release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and activation of both caspases-9 and -3. AG1478, a specific pharmacological inhibitor of EGFR activation, mimics the cytotoxic effects of 1. Taken together, these results showed that 1 causes significant induction of apoptosis in Ca9-22 cells via abolition of the EGFR-mediated survival pathway of these cells. Thus, cardiotoxin III appears to be a potential therapeutic agent for killing oral squamous carcinoma Ca9-22 cells.
    Journal of Natural Products 09/2009; 72(10):1735-40. · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Naphtho[1,2-b]furan-4,5-dione (NFD), prepared from 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and chloroacetaldehyde in an efficient one-pot reaction, exhibits anti-carcinogenic effect. The results of present study showed that NFD inhibited the proliferation of breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells through the induction of S-phase arrest and apoptosis. NFD-induced S-phase arrest was associated with a marked decrease in the protein expression of cyclin A, cyclin B, and cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)2. NFD-induced apoptosis was characterized by increase of sub-G1 population, phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, and activation of caspases. Moreover, up-regulation of Bad and down-regulation of Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), and survivin led to the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim), the release of cytochrome c and sequential activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. NFD activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in MDA-MB-231 cells. Inhibitors of JNK (SP600125) and ERK (PD98059), but not p38 MAPK (SB203580) suppressed NFD-induced S-phase arrest and apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. Both SP600125 and PD98059 attenuated Bad up-regulation, and reversed down-regulation of Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), survivin, cyclin A, cyclin B, and Cdk2 in NFD-treated cells. Taken together, our data show that JNK and ERK-signaling pathways play important roles in NFD-mediated S-phase arrest and apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells.
    Toxicology in Vitro 09/2009; 24(1):61-70. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Compounds 4a-f, 5a-f and 6-9, showed significant growth inhibition activity against human tumor cell lines. Of these compounds, 1-(2-((Z)-6-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)hexa-3-en-1,5-diynyl)phenyl)piperidin-2-one (8) displayed the most potent growth inhibition activity. Compound 8 also arrested cancer cells in G2/M phase and induced apoptosis via activation of caspase-3 and -9. According to western-blotting analysis, compound 8 can up-regulate Bax, down-regulate Bcl-2 and XIAP, as well as promote cytochrome c release.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 09/2009; 17(21):7412-7. · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: N'-(11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinolin-6-yl)-N,N-dimethylethane-1,2-diamine (IQDMA), an indoloquinoline derivative, synthesized in our laboratory, has been demonstrated to be an effective antitumor agent in human leukemia cells. In the present study, treatment with IQDMA inhibited phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), Src, Bcr-Abl, and Janus-activated kinase (JAK2) in a time-dependent manner. IQDMA also degraded JAK2 protein. Moreover, signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) signaling were also blocked by IQDMA. However, IQDMA did not inhibit other oncogenic and tumor survival pathways such as those mediated by Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Furthermore, IQDMA upregulated the expression of p21 and p27 and downregulated the expression of cyclin D1, myeloid cell leukemia-1(Mcl-1), Bcl-X(L), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Taken together, these results indicate that IQDMA causes significant induction of apoptosis in K562 cells via downregulation of EGFR, Src, Bcr-Abl, JAK2, and STAT5 signaling and modulation of p21, p27, cyclin D1, Mcl-1, Bcl-X(L), and VEGF proteins. Thus, IQDMA appears to be a potential therapeutic agent for treating leukemia K562 cells.
    Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology 01/2009; 22(6):396-404. · 1.60 Impact Factor
  • Oncology Research - ONCOL RES. 01/2009; 17(7):311-321.
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    ABSTRACT: Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are a family proteins that mediate cytokine and growth factor-induced signals playing a role in cell differentiation, proliferation, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. One STAT family member, STAT5, is often constitutively active in myeloid leukaemia. Agents that can suppress STAT5 activation have potential for prevention and treatment of cancer. N'-(11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinolin-6-yl)-N,N-dimethylethane-1,2-dia-mine (IQDMA), an indoloquinoline derivative, synthesized in our laboratory, has been demonstrated to be an effective anti-tumor agent in human leukemia cells. In the present report, we tested IQDMA for its ability to suppress STAT5 activation. We found that IQDMA inhibited constitutive activation of STAT5 in HL-60 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The activation of Src and interleukin-6 (IL-6), implicated in STAT5 activation, was also inhibited by the IQDMA. Furthermore, IQDMA up-regulated Bax, and down-regulated Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), cyclin D1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as followed by growth arrest of HL-60 cells, but the expression of survivin did not change in the presence of IQDMA. Taken together, these results indicate that IQDMA causes significant induction of apoptosis in HL-60 cells via down-regulation of Src, IL-6, and STAT5 signaling and modulation of Bcl-2 family, cyclin D1 and VEGF proteins. Thus, IQDMA appears to be a potential therapeutic agent for treating leukaemia HL-60 cells.
    Chemico-Biological Interactions 10/2008; 176(1):40-7. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiotoxin (CTX) III, a basic polypeptide with 60 amino acid residues isolated from Naja naja atra venom, has been reported to have anticancer activity. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the anticancer activity of CTX III in human leukaemia (HL-60 cells). Cardiotoxin III activated the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) pathway of apoptosis in HL-60 cells, as indicated by increased levels of calcium and glucose-related protein 78 (Grp78), and triggered the subsequent activation of micro-calpain and caspase 12. In addition, CTX III initiated the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in HL-60 cells, as evidenced by an increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, the release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase 9. In the presence of 50 micromol/L Z-ATAD-FMK (a caspase 12 inhibitor) and 100 micromol/L Z-LEHD-FMK (a caspase 9 inhibitor), the CTX III-mediated activation of caspase 9 and caspase 3 was significantly reduced. There was no significant effect of the caspase 12 inhibitor Z-ATAD-FMK on mitochondrial cytochrome c release. Cardiotoxin III-mediated activation of caspase 12 was not abrogated in the presence of the caspase 9 inhibitor Z-LEHD-FMK, indicating that caspase 12 activation was not downstream of caspase 9. These results indicate that CTX III induces cell apoptosis via both ER stress and a mitochondrial death pathway.
    Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 09/2008; 35(9):1059-64. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 2-(6-(2-thieanisyl)-3(Z)-hexen-1, 5-diynyl) aniline (THDA), an enediyne compound, was identified in our laboratory as a novel antineoplastic agent against human leukemia K562 cells. THDA-induced apoptosis was associated with the upregulation of Bax, downregulation of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), as well as the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. In addition, the mitogen-activated protein family kinases, including c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) kinases, and the transcription factor c-Jun were all activated by phosphorylation after 6 h exposure to THDA. Phosphorylation (activation) of JNK and ERK kinases by THDA was blocked by an ERK inhibitor, PD98059, or a JNK inhibitor, JNK-1, respectively, suggesting that THDA-induced apoptosis in K562 cells is ERK and JNK dependent. Moreover, the blockade of ERK and JNK also attenuated the modulation of Bax and XIAP, as well as the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 induced by THDA. These findings suggest that the activation of JNK and ERK is involved in the THDA-induced apoptosis of K562 cells. Therefore, this investigation, for the first time, uncovered the biological properties of this novel antitumor enediyne.
    Cell Biology and Toxicology 08/2008; 24(4):291-302. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiotoxin III (CTX III), a basic polypeptide with 60 amino acid residues isolated from Naja naja atra venom, has been reported to have anticancer activity. CTX III-induced apoptosis in human breast MCF-7 cancer cells was confirmed by sub-G1 formation, phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage with an IC50 of 2 microg/ml at 48 h. Effects of CTX III on proliferation and apoptosis correlated with upregulation of Bax, and downregulation of Bcl-XL, Bcl-2, and XIAP, with no appreciable alteration on the protein levels of Bid, Bim, and survivin. CTX III treatment also caused release of mitochondrial cytochrome c to the cytosol, which led to subsequent activation of capase-9. Moreover, CTX III inhibited the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation through inhibition of IkappaB kinase (IkappaK) activity. Overall, our results indicate that CTX III downregulates NF-kappaB in MCF-7 cells, leading to the suppression of proliferation and induction of apoptosis. These findings suggest the molecular basis for CTX III-induced apoptotic death of MCF-7 cells.
    Oncology Research Featuring Preclinical and Clinical Cancer Therapeutics 02/2008; 17(7):311-21. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiotoxin III (CTX III), a basic polypeptide with 60 amino acid residues isolated from Naja naja atra venom, has been reported to have anticancer activity. When K562 cells were treated with CTX III, cytosolic calcium concentration was rapidly and persistently increased. This CTX III-induced cell death was partially reversed by pretreatment with BAPTA/AM (20 microM), a chelator of intracellular Ca2+. Moreover, CTX III-induced apoptotic signals, such as caspase-12 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, were induced in a time-dependent manner and inhibited by BAPTA/AM. In contrast, the neutral protease micro-calpain, a key enzyme in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related apoptosis via caspase-12 activation, was unchanged during apoptosis. Taken together, our findings suggest CTX III-induced apoptosis is triggered by Ca2+ influx, then activated caspase-12 and JNK through micro-calpain-independent cascade, and consequently caused apoptosis.
    Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology 02/2008; 22(3):209-18. · 1.60 Impact Factor