L C Cork

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States

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Publications (142)701.49 Total impact

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    Lee J Martin, Linda C Cork
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the postnatal ontogeny of the striatum in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to identify temporal and spatial patterns of histological and chemical maturation. Our goal was to determine whether this forebrain structure is developmentally static or dynamic in postnatal life. Brains from monkeys at 1 day, 1, 4, 6, 9, and 12 months of age (N = 12) and adult monkeys (N = 4) were analyzed. Nissl staining was used to assess striatal volume, cytoarchitecture, and apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize and measure substance P (SP), leucine-enkephalin (LENK), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and calbindin D28 (CAL) immunoreactivities. Mature brain to body weight ratio was achieved at 4 months of age, and striatal volume increased from ∼1.2 to ∼1.4 cm(3) during the first postnatal year. Nissl staining identified, prominently in the caudate nucleus, developmentally persistent discrete cell islands with neuronal densities greater than the surrounding striatal parenchyma (matrix). Losses in neuronal density were observed in island and matrix regions during maturation, and differential developmental programmed cell death was observed in islands and matrix regions. Immunohistochemistry revealed striking changes occurring postnatally in striatal chemical neuroanatomy. At birth, the immature dopaminergic nigrostriatal innervation was characterized by islands enriched in TH-immunoreactive puncta (putative terminals) in the neuropil; TH-enriched islands aligned completely with areas enriched in SP immunoreactivity but low in LENK immunoreactivity. These areas enriched in SP immunoreactivity but low in LENK immunoreactivity were identified as striosome and matrix areas, respectively, because CAL immunoreactivity clearly delineated these territories. SP, LENK, and CAL immunoreactivities appeared as positive neuronal cell bodies, processes, and puncta. The matrix compartment at birth contained relatively low TH-immunoreactive processes and few SP-positive neurons but was densely populated with LENK-immunoreactive neurons. The nucleus accumbens part of the ventral striatum also showed prominent differences in SP, LENK, and CAL immunoreactivities in shell and core territories. During 12 months of postnatal maturation salient changes occurred in neurotransmitter marker localization: TH-positive afferents densely innervated the matrix to exceed levels of immunoreactivity in the striosomes; SP immunoreactivity levels increased in the matrix; and LENK-immunoreactivity levels decreased in the matrix and increased in the striosomes. At 12 months of age, striatal chemoarchitecture was similar qualitatively to adult patterns, but quantitatively different in LENK and SP in caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens. This study shows for the first time that the rhesus monkey striatum requires more than 12 months after birth to develop an adult-like pattern of chemical neuroanatomy and that principal neurons within striosomes and matrix have different developmental programs for neuropeptide expression. We conclude that postnatal maturation of the striatal mosaic in primates is not static but, rather, is a protracted and dynamic process that requires many synchronous and compartment-selective changes in afferent innervation and in the expression of genes that regulate neuronal phenotypes.
    Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 09/2014; 8:294. · 4.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Griffin J.W., Gold B.G., Cork L.C., Price D.L. & Lowndes H.E. 1982 Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 8, 351–36IDPN neuropathy in the cat: coexistence of proximal and distal axonal swellingsAdministration of β, β'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) to rodents has previously been shown to produce neurofilament-filled axonal swellings in the proximal regions of motor and sensory nerve fibers. Because of the distinctive distribution of these swellings, IDPN has been classed as a proximal axonopathy and thereby distinguished from other disorders in which similar axonal swellings occur in the distal parts of the axon (distal axonopathies). This report describes the pathology in the peripheral nerves of cats which received intermittent injections of IDPN and calls attention to two previously undescribed pathological changes. First, in addition to the typical proximal swellings associated with IDPN, these animals developed numerous axonal swellings within the distal branches of the sciatic nerve. Distal swellings were present as early as 23 days after initiation of intoxication, indicating that they formed locally (rather than developing in the proximal axon and undergoing transport into the distal regions). The second finding was Wallerian-like degeneration within the affected nerve branches.These changes in the distal sciatic nerve and its branches closely resembled the pathology of the distal axonopathies produced by agents such as the neurotoxic hexacarbons and carbon disulfide. The pathological similarities suggest that IDPN may share with these agents pathogenetic mechanisms to an extent not previously suspected.
    Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 06/2008; 8(5):351 - 364. · 4.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The phenotypes of many neurological diseases, including motor neuron disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; ALS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), are determined by the vulnerabilities of populations of nerve cells and the character/evolution of cellular abnormalities. Because different cell types respond selectively to individual trophic factors, these factors may be useful in ameliorating pathology in cells that express their cognate receptors. To test therapies for ALS and AD, investigators require model systems. Although there are a variety of models of ALS, two models are particularly attractive: transgenic mice that express human superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD-1) mutations linked to familial ALS develop paralysis associated with a gain of adverse property of the mutant SOD; and axotomy of facial axons in neonatal rats, a manipulation that causes retrograde cell degeneration, which can be ameliorated by several trophic factors.
    Ciba Foundation Symposium 196 - Growth Factors as Drugs for Neurological and Sensory Disorders, 09/2007: pages 3 - 17; , ISBN: 9780470514863
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    ABSTRACT: The human neurological disorders — amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) — share certain features: they occur in later stages of adult life; are slowly progressive; and involve specific groups of nerve cells. Different clinical syndromes result from dysfunction and death of these specific groups of neurons. In ALS, patients are weak due to disease of motor neurons in the spinal cord. The clinical features of PD, e.g. slow movements, tremor and rigidity, are attributed, in part, to degeneration of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. Impairments of cognition and memory in AD result from disease of neurons in a number of regions, including brainstem, basal forebrain, amygdala, hippocampus, and neocortex. In each of these diseases, affected neurons exhibit abnormalities of the neuronal cytoskeleton: in ALS, neurofilaments accumulate and distend proximal motor axons; in PD, nigral perikarya show Lewy bodies — intracytoplasmic inclusions containing neurofilament antigens; in AD, neurons develop neurofibrillary tangles, Hirano bodies, granulovacuolar degeneration and filament-filled neurites in plaques.Certain features of ALS, PD and AD are recapitulated in animal models, three of which are described in this review. Hereditary canine spinal muscular atrophy (HCSMA), a dominantly inherited motor neuron disease, shows many clinical and pathological features in common with ALS, including weakness, muscle atrophy, neurofilamentous swellings of proximal axons, impaired transport of neurofilament proteins, and degeneration of motor neurons. In primates, intoxication with l-methyl-4-phenyl-l,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) produces a parkinsonian syndrome due to injury of nigral dopaminergic neurons and associated denervation of the striatum. Finally, aged macaques exhibit memory deficits, and their cerebral cortices show senile plaques and filament-filled neurites derived from a variety of transmitter-specific populations of nerve cells.In human diseases, the causes and mechanisms leading to dysfunction and death of nerve cells are unknown. Investigators have begun using a variety of techniques derived from neurobiology to study animal models in an effort to clarify the mechanisms, evolutions, and consequences of structural–chemical abnormalities occurring in different neuronal systems implicated in human disease. Understanding such processes in these models should provide important new insights into the pathogeneses of similar processes occurring in ALS, PD and AD.
    Ciba Foundation Symposium 126 - Selective Neuronal Death, 09/2007: pages 30 - 48; , ISBN: 9780470513422
  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 12/2006; 396(1):145 - 164. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aberrant accumulation of extensively phosphorylated heavy (high molecular weight) neurofilament (NFH) and neurodegeneration are features of hereditary canine spinal muscular atrophy (HCSMA), an animal model of human motor neuron disease. In this study, the canine NFH gene was mapped, cloned, and sequenced, and electrospray/mass spectrometry was used to evaluate the phosphorylation state of NFH protein from normal dogs and dogs with HCSMA. The canine NFH gene was localized to a region on canine chromosome 26 that corresponds to human NFH on chromosome 22q. The predicted length of the canine NFH protein is 1135 amino acids, and it shares an 80.3% identity with human NFH and >74.6% with murine NFH proteins. Direct sequencing of NFH cDNA from HCSMA dogs revealed no mutations, although cDNA sequence and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis indicates that there are at least three canine NFH alleles, differing in the position and number (61 or 62) of Lys-Ser-Proline (KSP) motifs. The two longest alleles (L1 and L2), each with 62 KSP repeats, contain an additional 24-base insert and were observed in both normal and HCSMA dogs. However, the shorter allele (the C allele), with 61 KSP sites and lacking the 24-base insertion, was absent in dogs with HCSMA. Mass spectrometry data indicated that almost all of the NFH KSP phosphorylation sites were occupied. No new or extra sites were identified in native NFH purified from the HCSMA dogs. The predominance of the two longest NFH alleles and the additional KSP phosphorylation sites they confer probably account for the presence of extensively phosphorylated NFs detected immunohistochemically in dogs with HCSMA.
    Journal of Comparative Pathology 02/2005; 132(1):33-50. · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Successful cleft palate repair (palatoplasty) was accomplished in a male canine pup from a kindred with autosomal recessive transmission for a complete cleft palate phenotype. This case represents the potential application of a new animal model for cleft palate repair. This reproducible congenital defect provides a clinically relevant model to improve research into the human anomaly, as compared with previous iatrogenic or teratogenically induced animal models. This case report presents the basis for new repair techniques and for studying the genetic basis of the cleft palate defect.
    Contemporary topics in laboratory animal science / American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 12/2004; 43(6):17-21; quiz 58. · 0.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Successful cleft palate repair (palatoplasty) was accomplished in a male canine pup from a kindred with autosomal recessive transmission for a complete cleft palate phenotype. This case represents the potential application of a new animal model for cleft palate repair. This reproducible congenital defect provides a clinically relevant model to improve research into the human anomaly, as compared with previous iatrogenic or teratogenically induced animal models. This case report presents the basis for new repair techniques and for studying the genetic basis of the cleft palate defect.
    Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS 10/2004; 43(6):17-21. · 0.73 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Neurobiology 10/2004; 23(9):1277 - 1294. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hereditary canine spinal muscular atrophy (HCSMA) is an autosomal dominant degenerative disorder of motor neurons. In homozygous animals, motor units produce decreased force output and fail during repetitive activity. Previous studies suggest that decreased efficacy of neuromuscular transmission underlies these abnormalities. To examine this, we recorded muscle fiber endplate currents (EPCs) and found reduced amplitudes and increased failures during nerve stimulation in homozygotes compared with wild-type controls. Comparison of EPC amplitudes with muscle fiber current thresholds indicate that many EPCs from homozygotes fall below threshold for activating muscle fibers but can be raised above threshold following potentiation. To determine whether axonal abnormalities might play a role in causing motor unit dysfunction, we examined the postnatal maturation of axonal conduction velocity in relation to the appearance of tetanic failure. We also examined intracellularly labeled motor neurons for evidence of axonal neurofilament accumulations, which are found in many instances of motor neuron disease including HCSMA. Despite the appearance of tetanic failure between 90 and 120 days, average motor axon conduction velocity increased with age in homozygotes and achieved adult levels. Normal correlations between motor neuron properties (including conduction velocity) and motor unit properties were also observed. Labeled proximal motor axons of several motor neurons that supplied failing motor units exhibited little or no evidence of axonal swellings. We conclude that decreased release of transmitter from motor terminals underlies motor unit dysfunction in HCSMA and that the mechanisms determining the maturation of axonal conduction velocity and the pattern of correlation between motor neuron and motor unit properties do not contribute to the appearance or evolution of motor unit dysfunction.
    Journal of Neurophysiology 01/2003; 88(6):3293-304. · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), a major cytosolic antioxidant enzyme in eukaryotic cells, have been reported in approximately 20% of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) patients. Hereditary canine spinal muscular atrophy (HCSMA), a fatal inherited motor neuron disease in Brittany spaniels, shares many clinical and pathological features with human motor neuron disease, including FALS. The SOD1 coding region has been sequenced and cloned from several animal species, but not from the dog. We have mapped the chromosomal location, sequenced, and characterized the canine SOD1 gene. Extending this analysis, we have evaluated SOD1 as a candidate for HCSMA. The 462 bp SOD1 coding region in the dog encodes 153 amino acid residues and exhibits more than 83% and 79% sequence identity to other mammalian homologues at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. The canine SOD1 gene maps to CFA31 close to syntenic group 13 on the radiation hybrid (RH) map in the vicinity of sodium myo/inositol transporter (SMIT) gene. The human orthologous SOD1 and SMIT genes have been localized on HSA 21q22.1 and HSA 21q21, respectively, confirming the conservation of synteny between dog syntenic group 13 and HSA 21. Direct sequencing of SOD1 cDNA from six dogs with HCSMA revealed no mutations. Northern analysis indicated no differences in steady-state levels of SOD1 mRNA.
    Journal of Heredity 01/2002; 93(2):119-24. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hereditary canine spinal muscular atrophy (HCSMA) is an inherited motor neuron disease affecting a kindred of Brittanies. We have examined the clinicopathologic abnormalities in 57 animals with HCSMA, including 43 affected adult dogs and 14 homozygote pups. We also measured selected biochemical indices of oxidative stress: serum vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) and Se concentrations; serum concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mg, and Fe; and total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in red blood cells. Dogs with HCSMA had the following abnormalities: regenerative anemia, hypoglobulinemia, hypochloremia, and abnormally high creatine kinase and liver alkaline phosphatase activities. Serum Cu concentration was significantly (P = .01) increased in adult dogs with HCSMA compared to control dogs. Serum vitamin E concentrations tended to be lower in adult dogs with HCSMA compared to controls, and were significantly (P = .01) lower in homozygote pups compared to control pups.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 03/2001; 15(2):112-9. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hereditary canine spinal muscular atrophy (HCSMA) features rapidly progressive muscle weakness that affects muscles in an apparent proximal-to-distal gradient. In the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle of homozygous HCSMA animals, motor unit tetanic failure is apparent before the appearance of muscle weakness and appears to be presynaptic in origin. We determined whether structural changes in neuromuscular junctions or muscle fibers were apparent at times when tetanic failure is prevalent. We were surprised to observe that, at ages when motor unit tetanic failure is common, the structure of neuromuscular junctions and the appearance of muscle fibers in the MG muscle were indistinguishable from those of symptom-free animals. In contrast, in more proximal muscles, many neuromuscular junctions were disassembled, with some postsynaptic specializations only partially occupied by motor nerve terminals, and muscle fiber atrophy and degeneration were also apparent. These observations suggest that the motor unit tetanic failure observed in the MG muscle in homozygous animals is not due to synaptic degeneration or to pathological processes that affect muscle fibers directly. Together with previous physiological analyses, our results suggest that motor unit failure is due to failure of neuromuscular synaptic transmission that precedes nerve or muscle degeneration.
    Annals of Neurology 06/2000; 47(5):596-605. · 11.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hereditary canine spinal muscular atrophy (HCSMA) is a dominantly inherited motor neuron disease in Brittany spaniels that is clinically characterized by progressive muscle weakness leading to paralysis. Histopathologically, degeneration is confined to motor neurons with accumulation of phosphorylated neurofilaments in axonal internodes. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), a kinase related to the cell cycle kinase cdc2, phosphorylates neurofilaments and regulates neurofilament dynamics. We examined CDK5 activity, protein levels, and cellular immunoreactivity in nervous tissue from dogs with HCSMA, from closely age-matched controls and from dogs with other neurological diseases. On immunoblot analysis, CDK5 protein levels were increased in the HCSMA dogs (by approximately 1.5-fold in both the cytosolic and the particulate fractions). CDK5 activity was significantly increased (by approximately 3-fold) in the particulate fractions in the HCSMA dogs compared to all controls. The finding that CDK5 activity was increased in the young HCSMA homozygotes with the accelerated form of the disease, who do not show axonal swellings histologically, suggests that alterations in CDK5 occurs early in the pathogenesis, prior to the development of significant neurofilament pathology. Immunocytochemically, there was strong CDK5 staining of the nuclei, cytoplasm and axonal processes of the motor neurons in both control dogs and dogs with HCSMA. Further immunocytochemical studies demonstrated CDK5 staining where neurofilaments accumulated, in axonal swellings in the dogs with HCSMA. Our observations suggest phosphorylation-dependent events mediated by CDK5 occur in canine motor neuron disease.
    Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 12/1998; 57(11):1070-7. · 4.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hereditary canine spinal muscular atrophy (HCSMA) is an autosomal dominant motor neuron disease that is similar in pathology and clinical presentation to various forms of human motor neuron disease. We have tested the hypothesis that the canine survival motor neuron (SMN) gene is responsible for HCSMA by genetic and molecular analysis of a colony of mixed breed dogs, all descended from a single affected individual. We cloned the canine SMN gene and determined the DNA sequence in an affected and an unaffected dog. We found no germline mutations in the SMN gene of the affected individual. Using conventional linkage analysis with canine-specific microsatellite repeat markers we screened the canine genome and identified a single linkage group likely to contain the HCSMA gene. Analysis with a panel of canine/rodent hybrid cell lines revealed that the SMN gene did not map to the same chromosome as the HCSMA linkage group. Collectively these results suggest that the molecular basis for HCSMA is distinct from that of phenotypically similar human disorders caused by inherited mutations in the SMN gene. This further suggests that additional studies on the molecular nature of HCSMA may reveal an unknown element of the molecular pathway leading to motor neuron disease.
    Journal of Heredity 11/1998; 89(6):531-7. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic overexpression of the neurite growth-promoting factor S100β has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neuritic plaques in Alzheimer’s disease. Such plaques are virtually universal in middle-aged Down’s syndrome, making Down’s a natural model of Alzheimer’s disease. We determined numbers of astrocytes overexpressing S100β, and of neurons overexpressing β-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP), and assayed for neurofibrillary tangles in neocortex of 20 Down’s syndrome patients (17 weeks gestation to 68 years). Compared to controls, there were twice as many S100β-immunoreactive (S100β+) astrocytes in Down’s patients at all ages: fetal, young, and adult (p = 0.01, or better, in each age group). These were activated (i.e., enlarged), and intensely immunoreactive, even in the fetal group. There were no neurofibrillary changes in fetal or young Down’s patients. The numbers of S100β+ astrocytes in young and adult Down’s patients correlated with the numbers of neurons overexpressing β-APP (p < 0.05). Our findings are consistent with the idea that conditions—including Down’s syndrome—that promote chronic overexpression of S100β may confer increased risk for later development of Alzheimer’s disease.
    Neurobiology of Aging 09/1998; 19(5):401-405. · 4.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetically determined deficiency of the third component of complement (C3) in the dog is characterized by a predisposition to recurrent bacterial infections and to type 1 membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. The current studies were undertaken to characterize the cDNA for wild-type canine C3 and identify the molecular basis for hereditary canine C3 deficiency. Amplification, cloning, and sequence analysis indicated that canine C3 is highly conserved in comparison with human, mouse, and guinea pig C3. Southern blot analysis failed to show any gross deletions or rearrangements of DNA from C3-deficient animals. Northern blot analysis indicated that the livers of these animals contain markedly reduced quantities of a normal length C3 mRNA. The full-length 5.1-kb canine C3 cDNA was amplified in overlapping PCR fragments. Sequence analysis of these fragments has shown a deletion of a cytosine at position 2136 (codon 712), leading to a frameshift that generates a stop codon 11 amino acids downstream. The deletion has been confirmed in genomic DNA, and its inheritance has been demonstrated by allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization.
    The Journal of Immunology 03/1998; 160(6):2824-30. · 5.36 Impact Factor
  • L C Cork, S L Green, M J Pinter
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences 11/1997; 152 Suppl 1:S74. · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hereditary Canine Spinal Muscular Atrophy (HCSMA) is an autosomal dominant disorder of motor neurons that shares features with human motor neuron disease. In animals exhibiting the accelerated phenotype (homozygotes), we demonstrated previously that many motor units exhibit functional deficits that likely reflect underlying deficits in neurotrans-mission. The drug 4-aminopyridine (4AP) blocks voltage-dependent potassium conductances and is capable of increasing neurotransmission by overcoming axonal conduction block or by increasing transmitter release. In this study, we determined whether and to what extent 4AP could enhance muscle force production in HCSMA. Systemic 4AP (1-2 mg/kg) increased nerve-evoked whole muscle twitch force and electromyograms (EMG) to a greater extent in older homozygous animals than in similarly aged, symptomless HCSMA animals or in one younger homozygous animal. The possibility that this difference was caused by the presence of failing motor units in the muscles from homozygotes was tested directly by administering 4AP while recording force produced by failing motor units. The results showed that the twitch force and EMG of failing motor units could be significantly increased by 4AP, whereas no effect was observed in a nonfailing motor unit from a symptomless, aged-matched HCSMA animal. The ability of 4AP to increase force in failing units may be related to the extent of failure. Although 4AP increased peak forces during unit tetanic activation, tetanic force failure was not eliminated. These results demonstrate that the force outputs of failing motor units in HCSMA homozygotes can be increased by 4AP. Possible sites of 4AP action are considered.
    Journal of Neuroscience 07/1997; 17(11):4500-7. · 6.75 Impact Factor
  • Science 06/1997; 276(5313):758-9. · 31.48 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
701.49 Total Impact Points


  • 1981–2006
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 1997–2004
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Comparative Medicine
      Stanford, CA, United States
    • Allegheny University
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2003
    • Emory University
      • Department of Physiology
      Atlanta, GA, United States
  • 1997–2001
    • Stanford Medicine
      • Department of Comparative Medicine
      Stanford, California, United States
  • 2000
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Neuroscience
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1993
    • Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1991
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Universität Heidelberg
      • Department of Pathology
      Heidelberg, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
  • 1989
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Neurobiology
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 1984
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • Department of Pathology
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States