R I Christopherson

University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Are you R I Christopherson?

Claim your profile

Publications (132)417.95 Total impact

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Outcomes for melanoma patients with stage III disease, differ widely even within the same sub-category. Molecular signatures that more accurately predict prognosis are needed to stratify patients according to risk. Proteomic analyses were used to identify differentially abundant proteins in extracts of surgically excised samples from patients with stage IIIc melanoma lymph node metastases. Analysis of samples from patients with poor (n = 14, < 1 year) and good (n = 19, > 4 years) survival outcomes identified 84 proteins that were differentially abundant between prognostic groups. Subsequent selected reaction monitoring analysis verified 21 proteins as potential biomarkers for survival. Poor prognosis patients are characterized by increased levels of proteins involved in protein metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism, angiogenesis, deregulation of cellular energetics and methylation processes, and decreased levels of proteins involved in apoptosis and immune response. These proteins are able to classify stage IIIc patients into prognostic sub-groups (p < 0.02). This is the first report of potential prognostic markers from stage III melanoma using proteomic analyses. Validation of these protein markers in larger patient cohorts should define protein signatures that enable better stratification of stage III melanoma patients.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research 07/2014; · 5.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Altered glycosylation is commonly observed in colorectal cancer. In vitro models are frequently used to study this cancer but little is known about differences that may exist between these model cell systems and tumour tissue. We have compared the membrane protein glycosylation of five colorectal cancer cell lines (SW1116, SW480, SW620, SW837, LS174T) with epithelial cells from colorectal tumours using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Remarkably, there were five abundant O-glycans in the tumour cells that were undetected in the low-mucin producing cell lines, although two were found in the mucinous LS174T cells. The O-glycans included the well-known glycan cancer marker, sialyl-Tn, which has been associated with mucins. Using qRT-PCR, sialyl-Tn expression was found to be associated with an increase in α2,6-sialyltransferase gene (ST6GALNAC1) and a decrease in core 1 synthase gene (C1GALT1) in LS174T cells. The expression of a subset of mucins (MUC2, MUC6, MUC5B) was also correlated with sialyl-Tn expression in LS174T cells. Overall, the membrane protein glycosylation of the model cell lines was found to differ from each other and from the epithelial cells of tumour tissue. These findings should be noted in the design of biomarker discovery experiments particularly when cell surface targets are being investigated.
    Journal of proteomics. 05/2014;
  • Source
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fludarabine (2-FaraAMP) is a purine analog that is effective against chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL). For some cases of CLL, 2-FaraAMP as a single agent can clear the blood of leukemia cells, but leukemia stem cells usually remain protected in sanctuary sites. It is clear that 2-FaraAMP has multiple mechanisms of action that may collectively result in strand breaks in DNA, accumulation of phosphorylated p53 and apoptosis. We have demonstrated using the human Burkitt's lymphoma B-cell line, Raji, that p53, p63 and p73 all accumulate in the nucleus, following treatment of cells with fludarabine nucleoside (2-FaraA). In addition, phosphorylated p53 accumulates in the cytosol and at mitochondria. Using sophisticated methods of proteomic analysis with mass spectrometry, proteins that become differentially abundant after treatment of cells with 2-FaraA have been identified, providing considerable additional information about the cellular responses of B-lymphoid cancers to this purine analog. The levels of proteins involved in the unfolded protein response increase, indicating that endoplasmic reticulum stress is likely to be one mechanism for induction of apoptosis. The levels of a number of proteins found on the outer plasma membrane change on cells treated with 2-FaraA, suggesting that signaling from the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) is stimulated, resulting in induction of apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway. Increased levels of the cell surface proteins, CD50, CD100 and ECE-1, would promote survival of these cells; the balance between these survival and death responses would determine the fate of the cell.
    Nucleosides Nucleotides &amp Nucleic Acids 04/2014; 33(4-6):375-383. · 0.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is an urgent need to identify more accurate prognostic biomarkers in melanoma patients, particularly in those with metastatic disease. This study aimed to identify melanoma and leukocyte surface antigens predictive of survival in a prospective series of AJCC stage IIIb/c melanoma patients (n = 29). Live cell suspensions were prepared from melanoma metastases within lymph nodes (LN). The suspensions were immuno-magnetically separated into CD45(+) (leukocyte) and CD45(-) (non-hematopoietic, enriched melanoma cell) fractions. Surface antigens on CD45(-) and CD45(+) cell populations were profiled using DotScan™ microarrays (Medsaic Pty. Ltd.) and showed differential abundance levels for 52 and 78 antigens respectively. Associations of the surface profiles with clinicopathologic and outcome data (median follow-up 35.4 months post LN resection) were sought using univariate (log-rank test) and multivariate (Wald's test; modelled with patient's age, gender and AJCC staging at LN recurrence) survival models. CD9 (p = 0.036), CD39 (p = 0.004) and CD55 (p = 0.005) on CD45(+) leukocytes were independently associated with distant metastasis-free survival using multivariate analysis. Leukocytes with high CD39 levels were also significantly associated with increased overall survival (OS) in multivariate analysis (p = 0.016). LNs containing leukocytes expressing CD11b (p = 0.025), CD49d (p = 0.043) and CD79b (p = 0.044) were associated with reduced OS on univariate analysis. For enriched melanoma cells (CD45(-) cell populations), 11 surface antigens were significantly correlated with the disease-free interval (DFI) between diagnosis of culprit primary melanoma and LN metastasis resection. Nine antigens on CD45(+) leukocytes also correlated with DFI. Following validation in independent datasets, surface markers identified here should enable more accurate determination of prognosis in stage III melanoma patients and provide better risk stratification of patients entering clinical trials.
    Clinical and Experimental Metastasis 01/2014; · 3.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is an urgent need to identify more accurate prognostic biomarkers in melanoma patients, particularly in those with metastatic disease. This study aimed to identify melanoma and leukocyte surface antigens predictive of survival in a prospective series of AJCC stage IIIb/c melanoma patients (n=29). Live cell suspensions were prepared from melanoma metastases within lymph nodes (LN). The suspensions were immuno-magnetically separated into CD45+ (leukocyte) and CD45- (non-hematopoietic, enriched melanoma cell) fractions. Surface antigens on CD45- and CD45+ cell populations were profiled using DotScanTM microarrays (Medsaic Pty. Ltd.) and showed differential abundance levels for 52 and 78 antigens respectively. Associations of the surface profiles with clinicopathologic and outcome data (median follow-up 35.4 months post LN resection) were sought using univariate (log-rank test) and multivariate (Wald’s test; modelled with patient’s age, gender and AJCC staging at LN recurrence) survival models. CD9 (p=0.036), CD39 (p=0.004) and CD55 (p=0.005) on CD45+ leukocytes were independently associated with distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) using multivariate analysis. Leukocytes with high CD39 levels were also significantly associated with increased overall survival (OS) in multivariate analysis (p=0.016). LNs containing leukocytes expressing CD11b (p=0.025), CD49d (p=0.043) and CD79b (p=0.044) were associated with reduced OS on univariate analysis. For enriched melanoma cells (CD45- cell populations), 11 surface antigens were significantly correlated with the disease-free interval (DFI) between diagnosis of culprit primary melanoma and LN metastasis resection. Nine antigens on CD45+ leukocytes also correlated with DFI. Following validation in independent datasets, surface markers identified here should enable more accurate determination of prognosis in stage III melanoma patients and provide better risk stratification of patients entering clinical trials.
    Clinical & experimental metastasis 01/2014; In Press. · 3.91 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Citation: Alomari M, Mactier S, Kaufman KL, Best OG, Mulligan SP, et al. (2014) Profiling the Lipid Raft Proteome from Human MEC1 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells. J Proteomics Bioinform S7: 005. doi:10.4172/jpb.S7-005 Copyright: © 2014 Alomari M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
    Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics 01/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is clinically heterogeneous. While some patients have indolent disease for many years, 20-30% will progress and ultimately die of their disease. CLL may be classified by the Rai or Binet staging systems, mutational status of the immunoglobulin variable heavy-chain gene (IGVH), ZAP-70 over-expression, cytogenetic abnormalities (13q-, +12, 11q(-), 17p(-)) and expression of several cell surface antigens (CD38, CD49d) that correlate with risk of disease progression. However, none of these markers identify all CLL cases at risk. In a recent review (Huang et al. Leukemia & Lymphoma 2012; 53:1046-56), we summarised those CD antigens known to correlate with the prognosis of CLL. The present study has identified surface profiles of CD antigens that distinguish clinically progressive CLL from slow-progressive and stable CLL. Using an extended DotScan CLL antibody microarray (Version 3, 182 CD antibodies), and with refined analysis of purified CD19+ B-cells, the following 27 CD antigens were differentially abundant for progressive CLL: CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD18, CD19, CD20 (2 epitopes), CD21, CD22, CD23, CD24, CD25, CD38, CD40, CD43, CD45, CD45RA, CD52, CD69, CD81, CD84, CD98, CD102, CD148, CD180, CD196, and CD270. The extensive surface profiles obtained provide disease signatures with an accuracy of 79.2%, a sensitivity of 83.9% and a specificity of 72.5% that could provide the basis for a rapid test to triage CLL patients by probability of clinical progression and potential earlier requirement for treatment.
    Leukemia & lymphoma 12/2013; · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The proteomic effects of the Hsp90 inhibitor, SNX-7081, have been determined on the p53-mutated B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cell line, MEC1. Following SNX-7081 treatment (500 nM, 24 h), 51 proteins changed abundance by more than 2-fold (p<0.05); 7 proteins increased, while 44 proteins decreased. Proteins identified as differentially abundant by LC-MS/MS were validated by Western blotting (DDB1, PCNA, MCM2, Hsp90, Hsp70, GRP78, PDIA6, HLA-DR). RT-PCR showed that SNX-7081 unexpectedly modulates a number of these proteins in MEC1 cells at the mRNA level (PCNA, MCM2, Nup155, Hsp70, GRP78, PDIA6, and HLA-DR). Pathway analysis determined that 3 of the differentially abundant proteins (cyclin D1, c-Myc and pRb) were functionally related. p53 levels did not change upon SNX-7081 treatment of p53 wild-type Raji cells or p53-mutated MEC1 and U266 cells, indicating that SNX-7081 has a p53-independent mechanism. The decreases in DDB1, MCM2, c-Myc, and PCNA, and increases of pRb and cyclin D1 were confirmed in MEC1, U266, Raji, and p53 null HL60 cells by Western blotting. These data suggest that SNX-7081 arrests cell cycle and inhibits DNA replication and repair, and provide evidence for the mechanism of the observed synergy between Hsp90 inhibitors and drugs that induce DNA strand breaks.
    Journal of Proteome Research 03/2013; · 5.06 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Protein kinases play key roles in oncogenic signaling and are a major focus in the development of targeted cancer therapies. Imatinib, a BCR-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is a successful front-line treatment for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). However, resistance to imatinib may be acquired by BCR-Abl mutations or hyperactivation of Src family kinases such as Lyn. We have used multiplexed kinase inhibitor beads (MIBs) and quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) to compare kinase expression and activity in an imatinib-resistant (MYL-R) and -sensitive (MYL) cell model of CML. Using MIB/MS, expression and activity changes of over 150 kinases were quantitatively measured from various protein kinase families. Statistical analysis of experimental replicates assigned significance to 35 of these kinases, referred to as the MYL-R kinome profile. MIB/MS and immunoblotting confirmed the over-expression and activation of Lyn in MYL-R cells and identified additional kinases with increased (MEK, ERK, IKKα, PKCβ, NEK9) or decreased (Abl, Kit, JNK, ATM, Yes) abundance or activity. Inhibiting Lyn with dasatinib or by shRNA-mediated knockdown reduced the phosphorylation of MEK and IKKα. Because MYL-R cells showed elevated NF-κB signaling relative to MYL cells, as demonstrated by increased IκBα and IL-6 mRNA expression, we tested the effects of an IKK inhibitor (BAY 65-1942). MIB/MS and immunoblotting revealed that BAY 65-1942 increased MEK/ERK signaling and that this increase was prevented by co-treatment with a MEK inhibitor (AZD6244). Furthermore, the combined inhibition of MEK and IKKα resulted in reduced IL-6 mRNA expression, synergistic loss of cell viability and increased apoptosis. Thus, MIB/MS analysis identified MEK and IKKα as important downstream targets of Lyn, suggesting that co-targeting these kinases may provide a unique strategy to inhibit Lyn-dependent imatinib-resistant CML. These results demonstrate the utility of MIB/MS as a tool to identify dysregulated kinases and to interrogate kinome dynamics as cells respond to targeted kinase inhibition.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(6):e66755. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a heterogeneous disease, some patients may survive for many years, while 20-30% of patients progress and may die within several years. Currently, there is not a single procedure that enables accurate prognosis and triaging of those patients who need immediate and aggressive treatment. All CLL cells are characterised by the expression of the B-cell antigens CD19, CD20, CD21, CD22 and CD23, with aberrant expression of the T-cell antigen CD5. Methods. We have developed a CD antibody microarray (DotScan) containing 182 immobilised CD antibodies that has been used to obtain extensive surface profiles of CLL cells obtained from 96 patients. Results. Of these 182 antigens, 27 were significantly differentially expressed between stable, stable-progressive and progressive CLL. Some of these antigens are not expressed on normal B-cells and may be targets for therapeutic antibodies against CLL. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of the surface profiles from 96 patients showed that those with progressive CLL could be distinguished based solely upon this 'disease signature'. The sensitivity (proportion of actual positives correctly identified) was 67.9%, the specificity (proportion of negatives correctly identified) was 77.5%, and the accuracy was 71.9%. Conclusions. Considerable effort by a number of research groups has resulted in identification of individual markers for progressive CLL, but their collective use is yet to provide a test that identifies CLL patients at risk. Data presented here provide a basis for development of a simple test using an antibody microarray. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page.
    Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 01/2013; 16(2):231-7. · 2.20 Impact Factor
  • Duthika Mallawaaratchy, Richard I. Christopherson, Kimberley L. Kaufman
    European Cancer Congress 2013, European Journal of Cancer; 01/2013
  • European Cancer Congress 2013, European Journal of Cancer; 01/2013
  • Source
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A CD antibody microarray has been previously developed allowing semi-quantitative identification of greater than 80 CD antigens on circulating leucocytes from peripheral blood samples. This assay, which uses a live cell-capture technique, enables an extensive leucocyte immunophenotype determination in a single analysis and to date this has been used successfully to characterise diseases including human leukaemias and HIV infection. To determine CD antigen expression profiles for patients with various liver diseases and to look for preserved disease-specific signatures. Three liver disease groups including hepatitis C (HCV) (n = 35), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (n = 21) and alcohol-related liver disease (n = 14) were compared with a normal group (n = 23). Hierarchal Clustering (HCL) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the data revealed distinct binding patterns for patients with and without cirrhosis. Patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension compared with those without cirrhosis had significantly reduced expression of several markers of T-cell function including CD45, CD8, CD28 and TCR α/β. Disease prediction algorithms based on the expression data were able to discriminate cirrhotics from non-cirrhotics with 71% overall success, which improved to 77% when only patients with HCV were considered. These results demonstrate disease-specific consensus patterns of expression of CD antigens for patients with chronic liver disease, suggesting that the CD antibody array is a promising tool in the analysis of human liver disease, and with further refinement may have future research and clinical utility.
    Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver 08/2012; 32(10):1527-34. · 3.87 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fludarabine and cladribine are purine analogues used to treat hematological malignancies. Alone or in combination with therapeutic antibodies, they are effective in treating patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, the mechanisms of action of these drugs are not well understood. Plasma membrane proteins perform a variety of essential functions that can be affected by malignancy and perturbed by chemotherapy. Analysis of surface proteins may contribute to an understanding of the mechanisms of action of purine analogues and identify biomarkers for targeted therapy. The surface of human cells is rich in N-linked glycoproteins, enabling use of a hydrazide-coupling technique to enrich for glycoproteins, with iTRAQ labeling for quantitative comparison. A number of plasma membrane proteins on human leukemia and lymphoma cells were affected by treatment with a purine analogue, including decreases in CD22 (an adhesion and signaling molecule) and increases in CD205 (a "damaged cell marker") and CD80 and CD50 (T-cell interaction molecules). Purine analogues may affect B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling and costimulatory molecules, leading to multiple signals for apoptosis and cell clearance. Fludarabine and cladribine induce differential effects, with some cell survival proteins (ECE-1 and CD100) more abundant after fludarabine treatment. Cell surface proteins induced by fludarabine and cladribine may be targets for therapeutic antibodies.
    Journal of Proteome Research 07/2012; 11(9):4436-48. · 5.06 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human Raji cells treated with fludarabine nucleoside (2-FaraA, 3 μM) undergo apoptosis with accumulation of p53 in the nuclei as multiple phosphorylated isoforms and C-terminal truncated derivatives. Changes induced by 2-FaraA in the levels of p53, p63 and p73 in the nuclear, cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions have been determined in four human B-lymphoid cell lines that are TP53-functional (Raji and IM9) and TP53-mutated (MEC1 and U266). The B-lymphoid cell lines were treated with 2-FaraA (3 μM, 24 h, 48 h) and viability determined. Protein extracts of subcellular fractions from 2-FaraA-treated cells were analysed by 1D and 2D electrophoresis; multiple phosphorylated isoforms and truncated derivatives were identified by Western blots for p53, p63 and p73. p53 and p63 were present in all three fractions, while p73 was only detected in nuclei. After treatment with 2-FaraA, nuclear p53, p63 and p73 accumulated as multiple phosphorylated isoforms and truncated derivatives. The association of p63 with mitochondria in human cells is novel. Comprehensive information on the subcellular distributions and responses of p53, p63 and p73 to 2-FaraA provides additional insight into mechanisms for induction of apoptosis in the treatment of B-lymphoproliferative disorders with fludarabine.
    PROTEOMICS - CLINICAL APPLICATIONS 05/2012; 6(5-6):279-90. · 1.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is a molecularly heterogeneous disease, and predicting response to chemotherapy remains a major clinical challenge. To minimize adverse side-effects or cumulative toxicity in patients unlikely to benefit from treatment, biomarkers indicating treatment efficacy are critically needed. iTRAQ labeling coupled with multidimensional LC-MS/MS of the enriched mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum fraction, key organelles regulating apoptosis, has led to the discovery of several differentially abundant proteins in breast cancer cells treated with the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin followed by the death receptor ligand, TRAIL, among 571 and 801 unique proteins identified in ZR-75-1 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines, respectively. The differentially abundant proteins represent diverse biological processes associated with cellular assembly and organization, molecular transport, oxidative stress, cell motility, cell death, and cancer. Despite many differences in molecular phenotype between the two breast cancer cell lines, a comparison of their subproteomes following drug treatment revealed three proteins displaying common regulation: PPIB, AHNAK, and SLC1A5. Changes in these proteins, detected by iTRAQ, were confirmed by immunofluorescence, visualized by confocal microscopy. These novel potential biomarkers may have clinical utility for assessing response to cancer treatment and may provide insight into new therapeutic targets for breast cancer.
    Journal of Proteome Research 05/2012; 11(7):3561-72. · 5.06 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Drug resistance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) associated with lesions in the ATM/TP53 pathway represents a major challenge in clinical management. Evidence suggests that heat shock protein-90 (Hsp90) inhibitors may represent a therapeutic option in combination with more conventional therapies. We explored the effects of combining the Hsp90 inhibitor, SNX-7081, with fludarabine in vitro against CLL cells and hematological cell lines. In seven cell lines and 23 patient samples synergy between SNX-7081 and fludarabine (2-FaraA) was apparent in the three TP53 mutated cell lines and at significantly lower concentrations in TP53 or ATM dysfunctional patient cells. In 11/13 2-FaraA-resistant patient samples, SNX-7081 reduced the 50% inhibitory concentration to within a clinically achievable range. Synergy between SNX-7081 and 2-FaraA was evident in both the cell lines and patient samples as a significant decrease in cell viability. Our data suggest that combining SNX-7081 and fludarabine may be effective in the treatment of fludarabine-refractory CLL.
    Leukemia & lymphoma 12/2011; 53(7):1367-75. · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The proposed anticancer drug LY294002, inhibits phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) that initiates a signalling pathway often activated in colorectal cancer (CRC). The effects of LY294002 (10 μM, 48 h) on the cytosolic, mitochondrial and nuclear proteomes of human HT-29 CRC cells have been determined using iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Analysis of cells treated with LY294002 identified 26 differentially abundant proteins that indicate several mechanisms of action. The majority of protein changes were directly or indirectly associated with Myc and TNF-α, previously implicated in CRC progression. LY294002 decreased the levels of 6 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (average 0.39-fold) required for protein translation, 5 glycolytic enzymes (average 0.37-fold) required for ATP synthesis, and 3 chaperones required for protein folding. There was a 3.2-fold increase in lysozyme C involved in protein-glycoside hydrolysis. LY294002 increased cytosolic p53 with a concomitant decrease in nuclear p53, suggesting transfer of p53 to the cytosol where apoptosis might be initiated via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Protein changes described here suggest that the anti-angiogenic effects of LY294002 may be related to p53; the mutational status of p53 in CRC may be an important determinant of the efficacy of PI3K inhibitors for treatment.
    Journal of proteomics 12/2011; 75(5):1590-9. · 5.07 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
417.95 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1989–2014
    • University of Sydney
      • School of Molecular Bioscience
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2007–2012
    • Kolling Institute of Medical Research
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2011
    • Royal North Shore Hospital
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2008
    • Lund University
      • Department of Immunotechnology
      Lund, Skane, Sweden
  • 2006
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Madison, MS, United States
    • University of Cambridge
      • Department of Haematology
      Cambridge, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1983–1985
    • University of Melbourne
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia