Benjamin Haibe-Kains

University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (127)775.54 Total impact

  • Swneke D Bailey, Carl Virtanen, Benjamin Haibe-Kains, Mathieu Lupien
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    ABSTRACT: Detection of allelic imbalances in ChIP-Seq reads is a powerful approach to identify functional non-coding single nucleotide variants (SNVs), either polymorphisms or mutations, which modulate the affinity of transcription factors for chromatin. We present ABC, a computational tool that identifies allele specific binding of transcription factors from aligned ChIP-Seq reads at heterozygous SNVs. ABC controls for potential false positives resulting from biases introduced by the use of short sequencing reads in ChIP-Seq and can efficiently process a large number of heterozygous SNVs. ABC successfully identifies previously characterized functional SNVs, such as the rs4784227 breast cancer risk associated SNP that modulates the affinity of FOXA1 for the chromatin. ABC is written in PERL and can be run on any platform with both PERL (≥5.18.1) and R (≥3.1.1) installed. The script requires the PERL Statistics::R module. The code is open-source under an Artistic-2.0 license and versioned on GitHub (https://github.com/mlupien/ABC/). Supplementary information can be found at Bioinformatics online CONTACT: mlupien@uhnres.utoronto.ca. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Bioinformatics 05/2015; DOI:10.1093/bioinformatics/btv321 · 4.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular subtyping is instrumental towards selection of model systems for fundamental research in tumour pathogenesis, and clinical patient assessment. Medulloblastoma (MB) is a highly heterogeneous, malignant brain tumour that is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths in children. Current MB classification schemes require large sample sizes, and standard reference samples, for subtype predictions. Such approaches are impractical in clinical settings with limited tumour biopsies, and unsuitable for model system predictions where standard reference samples are unavailable. Our developed Medullo-Model To Subtypes (MM2S) classifier stratifies single MB gene expression profiles without reference samples or replicates. Our pathway-centric approach facilitates subtype predictions of patient samples, and model systems including cell lines and mouse models. MM2S demonstrates >96% accuracy for patients of well-characterized normal cerebellum, WNT, or SHH subtypes, and the less-characterized Group4 (86%) and Group3 (78.2%). MM2S also enables classification of MB cell lines and mouse models into their human counterparts. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Genomics 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ygeno.2015.05.002 · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women globally, and despite treatment, distant metastasis and nodal recurrence will still develop in approximately 30% of patients. The ability to predict which patients are likely to experience distant relapse would allow clinicians to better tailor treatment. Previous studies have investigated the role of chromosomal instability (CIN) in cancer, which can promote tumour initiation and growth; a hallmark of human malignancies. In this study, we sought to examine the published CIN70 gene signature in a cohort of cervical cancer patients treated at the Princess Margaret (PM) Cancer Centre and an independent cohort of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cervical cancer patients, to determine if this CIN signature associated with patient outcome. Cervical cancer samples were collected from 79 patients, treated between 2000-2007 at the PM, prior to undergoing curative chemo-radiation. Total RNA was extracted from each patient sample and analyzed using the GeneChip Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 array (Affymetrix). High CIN70 scores were significantly related to increased chromosomal alterations in TCGA cervical cancer patients, including a higher percentage of genome altered and a higher number of copy number alterations. In addition, this same CIN70 signature was shown to be predictive of para-aortic nodal relapse in the PM Cancer Centre cohort. These findings demonstrate that chromosomal instability plays an important role in cervical cancer, and is significantly associated with patient outcome. For the first time, this CIN70 gene signature provided prognostic value for patients with cervical cancer.
    BMC Cancer 05/2015; 15(1):361. DOI:10.1186/s12885-015-1372-0 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A common and aggressive subtype of soft-tissue sarcoma, undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) was examined to determine the role of micro-RNAs (miRNAs) in modulating distant metastasis. Following histopathologic review, 110 fresh frozen clinically annotated UPS samples were divided into two independent cohorts for Training (42 patients), and Validation (68 patients) analyses. Global miRNA profiling on the Training Set and functional analysis in vitro suggested that miRNA-138 and its downstream RHO-ROCK cell adhesion pathway was a convergent target of miRNAs associated with the development of metastasis. A six-miRNA signature set prognostic of distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) was developed from Training Set miRNA expression values. Using the six-miRNA signature, patients were successfully categorized into high- and low-risk groups for DMFS in an independent Validation Set, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.25 (p = 0.048). After adjusting for other known prognostic variables such as age, gender, tumor grade, size, depth, and treatment with radiotherapy, the six-miRNA signature retained prognostic value with a HR of 3.46 (p < 0.001). A prognostic miRNA biomarker for clinical validation was thus identified along with a functional pathway that modulates UPS metastatic phenotype.
    Oncotarget 04/2015; · 6.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We recently identified two robust ovarian cancer subtypes, defined by the expression of genes involved in angiogenesis, with significant differences in clinical outcome. To identify potential regulatory mechanisms that distinguish the subtypes we applied PANDA, a method that uses an integrative approach to model information flow in gene regulatory networks. We find distinct differences between networks that are active in the angiogenic and non-angiogenic subtypes, largely defined by a set of key transcription factors that, although previously reported to play a role in angiogenesis, are not strongly differentially-expressed between the subtypes. Our network analysis indicates that these factors are involved in the activation (or repression) of different genes in the two subtypes, resulting in differential expression of their network targets. Mechanisms mediating differences between subtypes include a previously unrecognized pro-angiogenic role for increased genome-wide DNA methylation and complex patterns of combinatorial regulation. The models we develop require a shift in our interpretation of the driving factors in biological networks away from the genes themselves and toward their interactions. The observed regulatory changes between subtypes suggest therapeutic interventions that may help in the treatment of ovarian cancer.
    BMC Bioinformatics 04/2015; 16(1):115. DOI:10.1186/s12859-015-0551-y · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Quantitative validation of gene regulatory networks (GRN) inferred from observational expression data is a difficult task usually involving time intensive and costly laboratory experiments. We were able to show that gene knock-down experiments can be used to quantitatively assess the quality of large-scale GRNs via a purely data-driven approach (Olsen et al. 2014). Our new validation framework also enables the statistical comparison of multiple network inference techniques, which was a long-standing challenge in the field.
    04/2015; 33. DOI:10.1016/j.gdata.2015.03.011
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    ABSTRACT: Radiomics provides opportunities to quantify the tumor phenotype non-invasively by applying a large number of quantitative imaging features. This study evaluates computed-tomography (CT) radiomic features for their capability to predict distant metastasis (DM) for lung adenocarcinoma patients. We included two datasets: 98 patients for discovery and 84 for validation. The phenotype of the primary tumor was quantified on pre-treatment CT-scans using 635 radiomic features. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate radiomics performance using the concordance index (CI). Thirty-five radiomic features were found to be prognostic (CI>0.60, FDR<5%) for DM and twelve for survival. It is noteworthy that tumor volume was only moderately prognostic for DM (CI=0.55, p-value=2.77×10(-5)) in the discovery cohort. A radiomic-signature had strong power for predicting DM in the independent validation dataset (CI=0.61, p-value=1.79×10(-17)). Adding this radiomic-signature to a clinical model resulted in a significant improvement of predicting DM in the validation dataset (p-value=1.56×10(-11)). Although only basic metrics are routinely quantified, this study shows that radiomic features capturing detailed information of the tumor phenotype can be used as a prognostic biomarker for clinically-relevant factors such as DM. Moreover, the radiomic-signature provided additional information to clinical data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Radiotherapy and Oncology 03/2015; 114(3). DOI:10.1016/j.radonc.2015.02.015 · 4.86 Impact Factor
  • David W Cescon, Benjamin Haibe-Kains, Tak W Mak
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    ABSTRACT: Genomic sequencing studies of breast and other cancers have identified patterns of mutations that have been attributed to the endogenous mutator activity of APOBEC3B (A3B), a member of the AID/APOBEC family of cytidine deaminases. A3B gene expression is increased in many cancers, but its upstream drivers remain undefined. Furthermore, there exists a common germ-line deletion polymorphism (A3B(del)), which has been associated with a paradoxical increase in breast cancer risk. To examine causes and consequences of A3B expression and its constitutive absence in breast cancer, we analyzed two large clinically annotated genomic datasets [The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium (METABRIC)]. We confirmed that A3B expression is associated with aggressive clinicopathologic characteristics and adverse outcomes and show that A3B expression is highly correlated with proliferative features (mitosis and cell cycle-related gene expression) in breast and 15 of 16 other solid tumor types. However, breast cancers arising in homozygous A3B(del) individuals with A3B absent did not differ in these features, indicating that A3B expression is a reflection rather than a direct cause of increased proliferation. Using gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), we detected a pattern of immune activation in A3B(del) breast cancers, which seems to be related to hypermutation arising in A3B(del) carriers. Together, these results provide an explanation for A3B overexpression and its prognostic effect, giving context to additional study of this mutator as a cancer biomarker or putative drug target. In addition, although immune features of A3B(del) require additional study, these findings nominate the A3B(del) polymorphism as a potential predictor for cancer immunotherapy.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2015; 112(9). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1424869112 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Despite significant improvement in locoregional control in the contemporary era of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treatment, patients still suffer from a significant risk of distant metastasis (DM). Identifying those patients at risk of DM would aid in personalized treatment in the future. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play many important roles in human cancers; hence, we proceeded to address the primary hypothesis that there is a miRNA expression signature capable of predicting DM for NPC patients. Methods and results The expression of 734 miRNAs was measured in 125 (Training) and 121 (Validation) clinically annotated NPC diagnostic biopsy samples. A 4-miRNA expression signature associated with risk of developing DM was identified by fitting a penalized Cox Proportion Hazard regression model to the Training data set (HR 8.25; p < 0.001), and subsequently validated in an independent Validation set (HR 3.2; p = 0.01). Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that the targets of miRNAs associated with DM appear to be converging on cell-cycle pathways. Conclusions This 4-miRNA signature adds to the prognostic value of the current "gold standard" of TNM staging. In-depth interrogation of these 4-miRNAs will provide important biological insights that could facilitate the discovery and development of novel molecularly targeted therapies to improve outcome for future NPC patients.
    Oncotarget 01/2015; · 6.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chromatin interactions connect distal regulatory elements to target gene promoters guiding stimulus- and lineage-specific transcription. Few factors securing chromatin interactions have so far been identified. Here, by integrating chromatin interaction maps with the large collection of transcription factor-binding profiles provided by the ENCODE project, we demonstrate that the zinc-finger protein ZNF143 preferentially occupies anchors of chromatin interactions connecting promoters with distal regulatory elements. It binds directly to promoters and associates with lineage-specific chromatin interactions and gene expression. Silencing ZNF143 or modulating its DNA-binding affinity using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as a surrogate of site-directed mutagenesis reveals the sequence dependency of chromatin interactions at gene promoters. We also find that chromatin interactions alone do not regulate gene expression. Together, our results identify ZNF143 as a novel chromatin-looping factor that contributes to the architectural foundation of the genome by providing sequence specificity at promoters connected with distal regulatory elements.
    Nature Communications 01/2015; 2:6186. DOI:10.1038/ncomms7186 · 10.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is an urgent need for better therapeutics in head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) to improve survival and decrease treatment morbidity. Recent advances in high-throughput drug screening techniques and next-generation sequencing have identified new therapeutic targets in other cancer types, but an HNSCC-specific study has not yet been carried out. We have exploited data from two large-scale cell line projects to clearly describe the mutational and copy number status of HNSCC cell lines and identify candidate drugs with elevated efficacy in HNSCC. The genetic landscape of 42 HNSCC cell lines including mutational and copy number data from studies by Garnett et al., and Barretina et al., were analyzed. Data from Garnett et al. was interrogated for relationships between HNSCC cells versus the entire cell line pool using one- and two-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs). As only seven HNSCC cell lines were tested with drugs by Barretina et al., a similar analysis was not carried out. Recurrent mutations in human papillomavirus (HPV)-negative patient tumors were confirmed in HNSCC cell lines, however additional, recurrent, cell line-specific mutations were identified. Four drugs, Bosutinib, Docetaxel, BIBW2992, and Gefitinib, were found via multiple-test corrected ANOVA to have lower IC50 values, suggesting higher drug sensitivity, in HNSCC lines versus non-HNSCC lines. Furthermore, the PI3K inhibitor AZD6482 demonstrated significantly higher activity (as measured by the IC50) in HNSCC cell lines harbouring PIK3CA mutations versus those that did not. HNSCC-specific reanalysis of large-scale drug screening studies has identified candidate drugs that may be of therapeutic benefit and provided insights into strategies to target PIK3CA mutant tumors. PIK3CA mutations may represent a predictive biomarker for response to PI3K inhibitors. A large-scale study focused on HNSCC cell lines and including HPV-positive lines is necessary and has the potential to accelerate the development of improved therapeutics for patients suffering with head and neck cancer. This strategy can potentially be used as a template for drug discovery in any cancer type.
    11/2014; 15(1):66. DOI:10.1186/2050-6511-15-66
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    ABSTRACT: Microarrays have revolutionized breast cancer (BC) research by enabling studies of gene expression on a transcriptome-wide scale. Recently, RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) has emerged as an alternative for precise readouts of the transcriptome. To date, no study has compared the ability of the two technologies to quantify clinically relevant individual genes and microarray-derived gene expression signatures (GES) in a set of BC samples encompassing the known molecular BC's subtypes. To accomplish this, the RNA from 57 BCs representing the four main molecular subtypes (triple negative, HER2 positive, luminal A, luminal B), was profiled with Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 chips and sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. The correlations of three clinically relevant BC genes, six molecular subtype classifiers, and a selection of 21 GES were evaluated. 16,097 genes common to the two platforms were retained for downstream analysis. Gene-wise comparison of microarray and RNA-Seq data revealed that 52% had a Spearman's correlation coefficient greater than 0.7 with highly correlated genes displaying significantly higher expression levels. We found excellent correlation between microarray and RNA-Seq for the estrogen receptor (ER; rs =0.973; 95%CI: 0.971-0.975), progesterone receptor (PgR; rs =0.95; 0.947-0.954), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2; rs =0.918; 0.912-0.923), while a few discordances between ER and PgR quantified by immunohistochemistry and RNA-Seq/microarray were observed. All the subtype classifiers evaluated agreed well (Cohen's kappa coefficients >0.8) and all the proliferation-based GES showed excellent Spearman correlations between microarray and RNA-Seq (all rs >0.965). Immune-, stroma- and pathway-based GES showed a lower correlation relative to prognostic signatures (all rs >0.6). To our knowledge, this is the first study to report a systematic comparison of RNA-Seq to microarray for the evaluation of single genes and GES clinically relevant to BC. According to our results, the vast majority of single gene biomarkers and well-established GES can be reliably evaluated using the RNA-Seq technology.
    BMC Genomics 11/2014; 15(1):1008. DOI:10.1186/1471-2164-15-1008 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    Frank Emmert-Streib, Matthias Dehmer, Benjamin Haibe-Kains
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we shed light on approaches that are currently used to infer networks from gene expression data with respect to their biological meaning. As we will show, the biological interpretation of these networks depends on the chosen theoretical perspective. For this reason, we distinguish a statistical perspective from a mathematical modeling perspective and elaborate their differences and implications. Our results indicate the imperative need for a genomic network ontology in order to avoid increasing confusion about the biological interpretation of inferred networks, which can be even enhanced by approaches that integrate multiple data sets, respectively, data types.
    Frontiers in Genetics 08/2014; 5:299. DOI:10.3389/fgene.2014.00299
  • Frank Emmert-Streib, Matthias Dehmer, Benjamin Haibe-Kains
    Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology 08/2014; 2. DOI:10.3389/fcell.2014.00038
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    ABSTRACT: Human cancers exhibit strong phenotypic differences that can be visualized noninvasively by medical imaging. Radiomics refers to the comprehensive quantification of tumour phenotypes by applying a large number of quantitative image features. Here we present a radiomic analysis of 440 features quantifying tumour image intensity, shape and texture, which are extracted from computed tomography data of 1,019 patients with lung or head-and-neck cancer. We find that a large number of radiomic features have prognostic power in independent data sets of lung and head-and-neck cancer patients, many of which were not identified as significant before. Radiogenomics analysis reveals that a prognostic radiomic signature, capturing intratumour heterogeneity, is associated with underlying gene-expression patterns. These data suggest that radiomics identifies a general prognostic phenotype existing in both lung and head-and-neck cancer. This may have a clinical impact as imaging is routinely used in clinical practice, providing an unprecedented opportunity to improve decision-support in cancer treatment at low cost.
    Nature Communications 08/2014; 5:4006. DOI:10.1038/ncomms5006 · 10.74 Impact Factor
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    Benjamin Haibe-Kains, Frank Emmert-Streib
    Frontiers in Genetics 07/2014; 5:221. DOI:10.3389/fgene.2014.00221
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    ABSTRACT: Due to advances in the acquisition and analysis of medical imaging, it is currently possible to quantify the tumor phenotype. The emerging field of Radiomics addresses this issue by converting medical images into minable data by extracting a large number of quantitative imaging features. One of the main challenges of Radiomics is tumor segmentation. Where manual delineation is time consuming and prone to inter-observer variability, it has been shown that semi-automated approaches are fast and reduce inter-observer variability. In this study, a semiautomatic region growing volumetric segmentation algorithm, implemented in the free and publicly available 3D-Slicer platform, was investigated in terms of its robustness for quantitative imaging feature extraction. Fifty-six 3D-radiomic features, quantifying phenotypic differences based on tumor intensity, shape and texture, were extracted from the computed tomography images of twenty lung cancer patients. These radiomic features were derived from the 3D-tumor volumes defined by three independent observers twice using 3D-Slicer, and compared to manual slice-by-slice delineations of five independent physicians in terms of intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and feature range. Radiomic features extracted from 3D-Slicer segmentations had significantly higher reproducibility (ICC = 0.85±0.15, p = 0.0009) compared to the features extracted from the manual segmentations (ICC = 0.77±0.17). Furthermore, we found that features extracted from 3D-Slicer segmentations were more robust, as the range was significantly smaller across observers (p = 3.819e-07), and overlapping with the feature ranges extracted from manual contouring (boundary lower: p = 0.007, higher: p = 5.863e-06). Our results show that 3D-Slicer segmented tumor volumes provide a better alternative to the manual delineation for feature quantification, as they yield more reproducible imaging descriptors. Therefore, 3D-Slicer can be employed for quantitative image feature extraction and image data mining research in large patient cohorts.
    PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e102107. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0102107 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Large-scale pharmacogenomic high-throughput screening (HTS) studies hold great potential for generating robust genomic predictors of drug response. Two recent large-scale HTS studies have reported results of such screens, revealing several known and novel drug sensitivities and biomarkers. Subsequent evaluation, however, found only moderate interlaboratory concordance in the drug response phenotypes, possibly due to differences in the experimental protocols used in the two studies. This highlights the need for community-wide implementation of standardized assays for measuring drug response phenotypes so that the full potential of HTS is realized. We suggest that the path forward is to establish best practices and standardization of the critical steps in these assays through a collective effort to ensure that the data produced from large-scale screens would not only be of high intrastudy consistency, so that they could be replicated and compared successfully across multiple laboratories. Cancer Res; 74(15); 1-8. ©2014 AACR.
    Cancer Research 07/2014; 74(15). DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-14-0725 · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: When inferring networks from high-throughput genomic data, one of the main challenges is the subsequent validation of these networks. In the best case scenario, the true network is partially known from previous research results published in structured databases or research articles. Traditionally, inferred networks are validated against these known interactions. Whenever the recovery rate is gauged to be high enough, subsequent high scoring but unknown inferred interactions are deemed good candidates for further experimental validation. Therefore such validation framework strongly depends on the quantity and quality of published interactions and presents serious pitfalls: (1) availability of these known interactions for the studied problem might be sparse; (2) quantitatively comparing different inference algorithms is not trivial; and (3) the use of these known interactions for validation prevents their integration in the inference procedure. The latter is particularly relevant as it has recently been showed that integration of priors during network inference significantly improves the quality of inferred networks. To overcome these problems when validating inferred networks, we recently proposed a data-driven validation framework based on single gene knock-down experiments. Using this framework, we were able to demonstrate the benefits of integrating prior knowledge and expression data. In this paper we used this framework to assess the quality of different sources of prior knowledge on their own and in combination with different genomic data sets in colorectal cancer. We observed that most prior sources lead to significant F-scores. Furthermore, their integration with genomic data leads to a significant increase in F-scores, especially for priors extracted from full text PubMed articles, known co-expression modules and genetic interactions. Lastly, we observed that the results are consistent for three different data sets: experimental knock-down data and two human tumor data sets.
    Frontiers in Genetics 06/2014; 5:177. DOI:10.3389/fgene.2014.00177
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer is a complex disease that has proven to be difficult to understand on the single-gene level. For this reason a functional elucidation needs to take interactions among genes on a systems-level into account. In this study, we infer a colon cancer network from a large-scale gene expression data set by using the method BC3Net. We provide a structural and a functional analysis of this network and also connect its molecular interaction structure with the chromosomal locations of the genes enabling the definition of cis- and trans-interactions. Furthermore, we investigate the interaction of genes that can be found in close neighborhoods on the chromosomes to gain insight into regulatory mechanisms. To our knowledge this is the first study analyzing the genome-scale colon cancer network.
    BMC Bioinformatics 05/2014; 15(Suppl 6):S6. DOI:10.1186/1471-2105-15-S6-S6 · 2.67 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
775.54 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014–2015
    • University of Toronto
      • Department of Medical Biophysics
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • University Health Network
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • Université de Montréal
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2013
    • Institut de recherches cliniques de Montréal
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2010–2013
    • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
      • • Center for Cancer Computational Biology
      • • Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Surgery
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2008–2013
    • Institut Jules Bordet
      • Department of Nuclear Medicine
      Bruxelles, Brussels Capital Region, Belgium
    • University Hospital Brussels
      Bruxelles, Brussels Capital, Belgium
    • Microarrays
      Huntsville, Alabama, United States
  • 2005–2013
    • Université Libre de Bruxelles
      • • Laboratory of Cancer Epigenetics
      • • Faculty of Sciences
      • • Laboratory of Experimental Hematology
      Bruxelles, Brussels Capital Region, Belgium
  • 2012
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2004–2008
    • Vrije Universiteit Brussel
      • Department of Computer Science
      Bruxelles, Brussels Capital, Belgium
  • 2007
    • University of Milan
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy