[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phlebotomus papatasi sand flies are among the primary vectors of Leishmania major parasites from Morocco to the Indian subcontinent and from southern Europe to central and eastern Africa. Antibody-based immunity to sand fly salivary gland proteins in human populations remains a complex contextual problem that is not yet fully understood. We profiled the immunoreactivities of plasma antibodies to sand fly salivary gland sonicates (SGSs) from 229 human blood donors residing in different regions of sand fly endemicity throughout Jordan and Egypt as well as 69 US military personnel, who were differentially exposed to P. papatasi bites and L. major infections in Iraq. Compared with plasma from control region donors, antibodies were significantly immunoreactive to five salivary proteins (12, 26, 30, 38, and 44 kDa) among Jordanian and Egyptian donors, with immunoglobulin G4 being the dominant anti-SGS isotype. US personnel were significantly immunoreactive to only two salivary proteins (38 and 14 kDa). Using k-means clustering, donors were segregated into four clusters distinguished by unique immunoreactivity profiles to varying combinations of the significantly immunogenic salivary proteins. SGS-induced cellular proliferation was diminished among donors residing in sand fly-endemic regions. These data provide a clearer picture of human immune responses to sand fly vector salivary constituents.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 03/2014; · 2.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tick-borne diseases pose significant risks to U.S. military personnel who conduct operations, both domestic and abroad. To determine the feasibility of protecting personnel from tick vectors during short-term field deployments, acaricides cypermethrin (Demon WP, Syngenta, Greensboro, NC) and lambda-cyhalothrin (Surrender Pestabs, CSI, Pasadena, TX) were applied to plots within two separate field sites on Camp Blanding Joint Training Center in Starke, FL, from May to June 2011. We analyzed their effectiveness in reducing tick counts for 6 wk after application. In total, 8,193 ticks were identified and counted, of which >99% were a mix of nymphs and adult-stage Amblyomma americanum (L.). Our results indicate that both cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin were effective in significantly reducing tick numbers and preventing entry into treated plots for 6 wk after application. Thus, these two acaracides can be used to effectively suppress tick populations and provide residual protection in small geographic areas of recreation or public health significance.
Journal of Medical Entomology 01/2014; 51(3). · 1.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to visually enhance the attractiveness of a standard black ovitrap routinely used in surveillance of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, and now being used as lethal ovitraps in Ae. aegypti dengue control programs. Black plastic drinking cups (ovitraps) were visually altered to offer field populations of gravid female Ae. albopictus 6 different oviposition site choices. Trials were conducted at 3 field locations in Gainesville, Orange Park, and Jacksonville, FL, during July-August 2009. A black glossy cup served as the control and was tested against 5 cup choices consisting of white, blue, orange, or black-and-white contrasting patterns (checkered or vertically striped). Means (SE) of eggs collected over 6 wk for each choice were: black 122.53 (9.63) > blue 116.74 (10.74) > checkered 101.84 (9.53) > orange 97.15 (7.95) > striped 84.62 (8.17) > white 81.84 (8.74). Black ovitraps outperformed competing colored and contrasting patterned ovicups with respect to choice from gravid Ae. albopictus seeking artificial oviposition sites.
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 09/2011; 27(3):245-51. · 0.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lighted Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps were baited with carbon dioxide (CO2) produced from three different sources to compare the efficacy of each in collecting phlebotomine sand flies in Bahrif village, Aswan Governorate, Egypt. Treatments consisted of compressed CO2 gas released at a rate of 250 ml/min, 1.5 kg of dry ice (replaced daily) sublimating from an insulated plastic container, CO2 gas produced from a prototype FASTGAS (FG) CO2 generator system (APTIV Inc., Portland, OR), and a CDC light trap without a CO2 source. Carbon dioxide was released above each treatment trap's catch opening. Traps were placed in a 4 x 4 Latin square designed study with three replications completed after four consecutive nights in August 2007. During the study, 1,842 phlebotomine sand flies were collected from two genera and five species. Traps collected 1,739 (94.4%) Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli), 19 (1.0%) Phlebotomus sergenti, 64 (3.5%) Sergentomyia schwetzi, 16 (0.9%) Sergentomyia palestinensis, and four (0.2%) Sergentomyia tiberiadis. Overall treatment results were dry ice (541) > FG (504) > compressed gas (454) > no CO2 (343). Total catches of P. papatasi were not significantly different between treatments, although CO2-baited traps collected 23-34% more sand flies than the unbaited (control) trap. Results indicate that the traps baited with a prototype CO2 generator were as attractive as traps supplied with CO2 sources traditionally used in sand fly surveillance efforts. Field-deployable CO2 generators are particularly advantageous in remote areas where dry ice or compressed gas is difficult to obtain.
Journal of Medical Entomology 09/2011; 48(5):1057-61. · 1.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sand fly saliva can drive the outcome of Leishmania infection in animal models, and salivary components have been postulated as vaccine candidates against leishmaniasis. In the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi, natural sugar-sources modulate the activity of proteins involved in meal digestion, and possibly influence vectorial capacity. However, only a handful of studies have assessed the variability of salivary components in sand flies, focusing on the effects of environmental factors in natural habitats. In order to better understand such interactions, we compared the expression profiles of nine P. papatasi salivary gland genes of specimens inhabiting different ecological habitats in Egypt and Jordan and throughout the sand fly season in each habitat.
The majority of investigated genes were up-regulated in specimens from Swaymeh late in the season, when the availability of sugar sources is reduced due to water deprivation. On the other hand, these genes were not up-regulated in specimens collected from Aswan, an irrigated area less susceptible to drought effects.
Expression plasticity of genes involved with vectorial capacity in disease vectors may play an important epidemiological role in the establishment of diseases in natural habitats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ivermectin (IVM) is a chemically modified macrocyclic lactone of Streptomyces avermitilis that acts as a potent neurotoxin against many nematodes and arthropods. Little is known of IVM's effect against either blood-feeding Phlebotomus sand flies, or the infective promastigote stage of Leishmania transmitted by these flies. We injected hamsters subcutaneously with two standard IVM treatments (200 and 400 μg/kg body weight) and allowed cohorts of Leishmania major-infected Phlebotomus papatasi to blood-feed on these animals at various posttreatment time points (4 h, 1, 2, 6, and 10 days). Infected and uninfected sand flies that bit treated and untreated hamsters served as controls. Serum levels of IVM in low- and high-dose-treated hamsters were determined at the five time points. Sand fly mortality following blood feeding was recorded at 24-h intervals and, in relation to IVM treatment, was time and dose dependent. Mortality was most rapid and greatest among infected flies that fed nearest to time of dosing. Mean survival of infected sand flies after feeding on untreated hamsters was 11.5 days, whereas that of infected sand flies that fed 4 h, 1 day, or 2 days posttreatment on high-dose-treated hamsters (400 μg/kg) was 1.6, 2.1, and 2.7 days, respectively. Infected and uninfected sand flies that blood fed 6 days following low-dose IVM treatment (200 μg/kg) still experienced significantly greater mortality (p < 0.02) than controls. Promastigotes dissected out of surviving flies that fed on IVM-treated hamsters showed typical motility and survival. Moreover, 21.7% of IVM-treated hamsters developed lesions after being fed upon by infected sand flies. L. major promastigotes appeared to be tolerant to ng/mL blood levels of IVM that caused significant mortality for up to 10 days posttreatment in blood-feeding P. papatasi.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four types of commercial mosquito control traps, the Mosquito Magnet Pro (MMP), the Sentinel 360 (S360), the BG-Sentinel (BGS), and the Mega-Catch Ultra (MCU), were compared with a standard Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light trap for efficacy in collecting phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a small farming village in the Nile River Valley 10 km north of Aswan, Egypt. Each trap was baited with either carbon dioxide (CO2) from combustion of butane gas (MMP), dry ice (CDC and BGS traps), light (MCU and S360), or dry ice and light (CDC). Traps were rotated through five sites in a5 x 5 Latin square design, repeated four times during the height of the sand fly season (June, August, and September 2007) at a site where 94% of sand flies in past collections were Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli). A total of 6,440 sand flies was collected, of which 6,037 (93.7%) were P. papatasi. Of the CO2-baited traps, the BGS trap collected twice as many P. papatasi as the MMP and CDC light traps, and at least three times more P. papatasi than the light-only MCU and S360 traps (P < 0.05). Mean numbers (+/- SE) of P. papatasi captured per trap night were as follows: BGS 142.1 (+/- 45.8) > MMP 56.8 (+/- 9.0) > CDC 52.3 (+/- 6.1) > MCU 38.2 (+/- 6.4) > S360 12.6 (+/- 1.8). Results indicate that several types of commercial traps are suitable substitutes for the CDC light trap in sand fly surveillance programs.
Journal of Medical Entomology 11/2010; 47(6):1179-84. · 1.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared 6 adult mosquito traps for effectiveness in collecting Aedes albopictus from suburban backyards with the goal of finding a more suitable surveillance replacement for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light trap. Trap selection included 2 commercial propane traps (Mosquito Magnet Professional trap and Mosquito Magnet Liberty trap), 2 Aedes-specific traps (Fay-Prince Omnidirectional trap and Wilton trap), 1 experimental trap (Mosquito Magnet-X trap), and a standard surveillance CDC light trap that served as a control. Traps that did not generate carbon dioxide were provided with bottled CO2 at a flow rate of 500 ml/min. Those traps designed for use with chemical attractants (Mosquito Magnet traps) were baited with Lurex (L-lactic acid) and octenol (1-octen-3-ol) commercial baits, known attractants to Ae. albopictus. Three repetitions of a 6 x 6 Latin square test yielded a total of 37,237 mosquitoes, of which 5,280 (14.2%) were Ae. albopictus. Significantly more (P < 0.05) Ae. albopictus were collected from the experimental and commercial traps (4,244/5,280; 80.3%) than from the CDC light trap and Aedes-specific traps. The Mosquito Magnet Liberty collected the most Ae. albopictus (1,591), accounting for 30.1% of the total take, followed closely by the Mosquito Magnet-X (1,468) and the Mosquito Magnet Pro (1,185). The omnidirectional Fay-Prince trap performed better than the CDC or Wilton trap. Twenty-seven mosquito species were collected during these trials, 9 species in large enough numbers for meaningful analysis. Aedes albopictus was the second most common mosquito trapped. The results of these trials indicate that propane-powered commercial traps would serve as useful substitutes in lieu of CDC traps in Ae. albopictus surveillance efforts. Trap features advantageous for collecting Ae. albopictus and other mosquito species are discussed.
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 03/2009; 25(1):47-57. · 0.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In an attempt to find diurnal resting sites of adult phlebotomine sand flies, potential phlebotomine adult habitats were aspirated in the village of Bahrif in Aswan, Egypt. During this survey, sand flies were aspirated from low (30-45 cm high) irregular piles of mud bricks found under high date palm canopies between the village and the Nile River. There were 5 males and 7 females of Phlebotomus papatasi and 3 males of Sergentomyia schwetzi. Six of the 7 aspirated females were engorged with blood. A total of 78 sand flies was captured on 3 glue boards placed overnight on the ground next to the mud bricks. Attempts to aspirate sand flies from adjacent walls and plants were unsuccessful. The identification of diurnal resting sites in less structured habitats may ultimately lead to more effective adult sand fly control.
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 01/2009; 24(4):601-3. · 0.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A previously unknown Leishmania spp., inferred by DNA sequence analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1), was detected in tissue biopsies from patients living in the Eastern Ghanaian community of Taviefe. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the ITS1 amplicon supports the possibility of an uncharacterized Leishmania spp.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The previous phase of the present study revealed that when crude extracts of Culex pipiens midgut, ovaries, and salivary glands are injected into New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), rabbits immunized with midgut extract exert the greatest negative impact on adult Cx. pipiens survival and fecundity. This study was conducted to further our understanding of the immunogenic nature of the aforementioned antigenic preparations, thus providing data for the ultimate goal of developing a vaccine against the numerous Cx. pipiens-vectored diseases that affect human populations throughout the world. Extracts of Cx. pipiens midgut, ovaries, and salivary glands were fractionated using Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The high (> 80.0 to >106.0 kDa) and low (< 18.5 kDa) molecular weight (MW) fractions of midgut extract, high MW fractions (75.0 - <106.0 kDa) of salivary gland extract, and low MW fraction (27.5 kDa) of ovary extract were excised, and used to immunize rabbits. Following immunization, anti-sera from all immunized rabbits were assayed for antibody response using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), Enzyme Immunoblot transfer (EIB), and Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Techniques (IFAT). These assays resulted in both high and low MW fractions of midgut extract, with special reference to the midgut extract low MW fraction (18.0 kDa), eliciting the strongest humoral responses in immunized hosts. When Cx. pipiens were fed on rabbits immunized with the low MW fractions of midgut extract, the fecundity and survival rates were significantly less than those of mosquitoes fed on rabbits immunized with the high MW fractions of midgut extract and control rabbits (P < 0.001). It is concluded that, the low MW fraction of midgut extract is highly immunogenic, and the antibody response of immunized rabbits contributes to a significant disturbance in the life cycle of Cx. pipiens and their progeny. This impairment of feeding behavior and reproduction, in turn, could interfere with pathogen transmission.
The Egyptian journal of immunology / Egyptian Association of Immunologists 01/2008; 15(1):171-80.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Centers For Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps were modified for use with light-emitting diodes (LED) and compared against a control trap (incandescent light) to determine the effectiveness of blue, green, and red lights against standard incandescent light routinely used for sand fly surveillance. Light traps were baited with dry ice and rotated through a 4 x 4 Latin square design during May, June, and July, 2006. Trapping over 12 trap nights yielded a total of 2,298 sand flies in the village of Bahrif, 6 km north of Aswan on the east bank of the Nile River in southern Egypt. Phlebotomus papatasi comprised 94.4% of trap collections with five other species collected in small numbers. Over half (55.13%) of all sand flies were collected from red light traps and significantly more sand flies (P < 0.05) were collected from red light traps than from blue, green, or incandescent light traps. Red light traps collected more than twice as many sand flies as control (incandescent) traps and > 4 x more than blue and green light traps. Results indicate that LED red light is a more effective substitute for standard incandescent light when surveying in areas where P. papatasi is the predominant sand fly species. Each LED uses approximately 15% of the energy that a standard CDC lamp consumes, extending battery life and effective operating time of traps. Our prototype LED-modified traps performed well in this hot, arid environment with no trap failures.
Journal of Vector Ecology 12/2007; 32(2):302-8. · 1.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The impact of the attractants l-octen-3-ol (octenol) and L-lactic acid (LurexTM) on collection of Aedes albopictus in suburban backyards was assessed in Mosquito Magnet Pro traps. These carbon dioxide-producing traps were additionally baited with commercial formulated lures with octenol, lactic acid, octenol + lactic acid, or no attractant (control) and evaluated in 4 residential sites. Three repetitions of the study resulted in the total collection of 1,321 Ae. albopictus. Significantly more Ae. albopictus were captured in traps baited with octenol + lactic acid than in traps baited only with octenol. Lactic acid-baited and control trap captures were not significantly different from octenol + lactic acid- or octenol-baited trap totals. Octenol- + lactic acid-baited traps collected 36.2% and 52.0% more Ae. albopictus than lactic acid-baited and control traps, respectively. Male Ae. albopictus accounted for 26.7% of the total capture. Other mosquito species collected in sufficient numbers for analysis included Cx. nigripalpus, Ochlerotatus infirmatus, Psorophoraferox, and Cx. erraticus. Larger numbers of these species were collected in traps that were unbaited or baited with only octenol than in traps baited with lactic acid or octenol + lactic acid.
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 04/2007; 23(1):11-7. · 0.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insecticide use continues to be the primary control strategy to reduce insect vector populations. Concerns about insecticide resistance in target organisms, environmental degradation, and possible deleterious impact on human health have led researchers to seek a variety of alternative control strategies. We tested a relatively new method for controlling mosquitoes using host immune response. New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were immunized with salivary gland (SGE), midgut (MGE), or ovary (OVE) extracts from female Culex pipiens L. Immunized rabbits were then exposed to unfed adult mosquitoes which were subsequently observed for changes in survival, fecundity, and hatch success. Parents that fed upon MGE- (P<0.001), SGE- (P<0.018) and OVE- (P<0.018) immunized rabbits experienced significantly higher mortality within 48 hours than parents fed on control rabbits. Midgut extract elicited the strongest effects upon survival (P<0.001), oviposition activity (P<0.001), and hatch success (P<0.001) in the parent generation. Survival (P<0.018), oviposition activity (P<0.001), and hatch success (P<0.001) were likewise strongly reduced in parents fed on SGE-immunized rabbits. Ovary extract-fed parents experienced less pronounced, but significant reductions, in survival (P<0.018) and hatch success (P<0.034). Surviving progeny were most strongly impacted by feeding upon MGE-immunized rabbits. Our study suggests that manipulating host immune response may be a suitable technique for reducing Cx. pipiens mosquito survival and fecundity, and subsequently the potential risk of disease transmission by this species.
The Egyptian journal of immunology / Egyptian Association of Immunologists 01/2007; 14(1):43-54.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two field trials were conducted to evaluate if filth fly trap efficacy was increased by augmentation with an insecticide application to the trap's exterior. Four Fly Terminator Pro traps (Farnam Companies, Inc, Phoenix, AZ) baited with Terminator Fly Attractant (in water) were suspended on polyvinyl chloride pipe framing at a municipal waste transfer site in Clay County, Florida. The outer surfaces of 2 traps were treated with Maxforce Fly Spot Bait (Bayer Environmental Science, Research Triangle Park, NC) (10% imidacloprid) to compare kill rates between treated and untreated traps. Kill consisted of total flies collected from inside traps and from mesh nets suspended beneath all traps, both treated and untreated. Each of 2 treated and untreated traps was rotated through 4 trap sites every 24 hrs. In order to evaluate operational utility and conservation of supplies during remote contingency operations, fly attractant remained in traps for the duration of the first trial but was changed daily during the second trial (following manufacturer's recommendations). In addition, ½ strength Terminator Fly Attractant was used during the first trial and traps were set at full strength during the second trial. Flies collected within the traps and in mesh netting were counted and identified. Three species, Musca domestica (L.), Chrysomya megacephala (F.), and Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), comprised the majority of samples in both trials. The net samples recovered more flies when the outer surface was treated with imidacloprid, however, treated traps collected fewer flies inside the trap than did untreated traps for both trials. No significant statistical advantage was found in treating Fly Terminator Pro trap exteriors with Maxforce Fly Spot Bait. However, reducing manufacturer's recommended strength of Terminator Fly Attractant showed similar results to traps set at full strength. Treating the outer surfaces may improve kill of fly species that do not enter the trap. Terminator Fly Attractant was also found to be more effective if traps were not changed daily and left to hold dead flies for longer periods.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Catches of mosquitoes and sand flies in CO2 traps baited with three different lures and an unbaited control were compared. The lures examined were carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide plus 1-octen-3-ol, and carbon dioxide plus human hair in ethanol. Studies using a 4 x 4 Latin square design, with 3 sets of 4 consecutive trap nights, were conducted between August 6 and September 10, 2007. The study site was the Bahrif Village, Aswan, Egypt. This location had high percentage of Phlebotomus papatasi in sand fly populations, and the low incidence of human cases of leishmaniasis. There were 2,152 sand flies caught over the 12 total nights (48 trap-nights) of this study. Mean numbers of sand flies captured in traps baited with any lure were significantly greater than sand those caught in the unbaited control trap. The mean numbers of sand flies trapped using each lure did not differ significantly.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the toxicity and duration of 3 residual insecticides against the Old World sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi, an important vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis, on 2 types of tent material used by the US military in Afghanistan and the Middle East. Vinyl and cotton duck tent surfaces were treated at maximum labeled rates of lambda-cyhalothrin (Demand CS, Zeneca Inc, Wilmington, DE), bifenthrin (Talstar P Professional, FMC Corporation, Philadelphia, PA) and permethrin (Insect Repellent, Clothing Application, 40%), then subsequently stored in indoor, shaded spaces at room temperature (60%-70% relative humidity (RH), 22°C-25°C), and under sunlight and ambient air temperatures outdoors (20%-30% RH, 29°C-44°C). Insecticide susceptible colony flies (F110) obtained from the insectary of US Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3, Cairo, Egypt, were exposed to treated tent surfaces for 30-minute periods twice monthly for up to 5 months, then once monthly thereafter, using the World Health Organization cone assay. Lambda-cyhalothrin treated cotton duck tent material stored indoors killed P. papatasi for 8 months, while the complementary sun-exposed cotton duck material killed adult flies for 1 month before the efficacy dropped to less than 80%. Sand fly mortality on permethrin- and bifenthrin-treated cotton duck decreased below 80% after 2 weeks exposure to sunlight. Shade-stored permethrin and bifenthrin cotton duck material killed more than 80% of test flies through 5 months before mortality rates decreased substantially. Vinyl tent material provided limited control (less than 50% mortality) for less than 1 month with all treatment and storage regimes. Lambda-cyhalothrin-treated cotton duck tent material provided the longest control and produced the highest overall mortalities (100% for 8 months (shaded), more than 90% for 1 month (sunlight-exposed)) of both cotton duck and vinyl tents.