[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A humanitarian emergency involves a complete breakdown of authority that often disrupts routine health care delivery, including immunization. Diarrheal diseases are a principal cause of morbidity and mortality among children during humanitarian emergencies. The objective of this study was to assess if vaccination against rotavirus, the most common cause of severe diarrhea among children, either as an addition to routine immunization program (RI) or supplemental immunization activity (SIA) would be cost-effective during a humanitarian emergency to decrease diarrhea morbidity and mortality, using Somalia as a case study.
An impact and cost-effectiveness analysis was performed comparing no vaccine; two-dose rotavirus SIA and two-dose of RI for the 424,592 births in the 2012 Somali cohort. The main summary measure was the incremental cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted. Univariate sensitivity analysis examined the extent to which the uncertainty in the variables affected estimates.
If introduced in Somalia, a full-series rotavirus RI and SIA would save 908 and 359 lives, respectively, and save US$63,793 and US$25,246 in direct medical costs, respectively. The cost of a RI strategy would be US$309,458. Because of the high operational costs, a SIA strategy would cost US$715,713. US$5.30 per DALY would be averted for RI and US$37.62 per DALY averted for SIA. Variables that most substantially influenced the cost-effectiveness for both RI and SIA were vaccine program costs, mortality rate, and vaccine effectiveness against death.
Based on our model, rotavirus vaccination appears to be a cost-effective intervention as either RI or SIA, as defined by the World Health Organization as one to three times the per capita Gross Domestic Product (Somalia $112 in 2011). RI would have greater health impact and is more cost effective than SIA, assuming feasibility of reaching the target population. However, given the lack of infrastructure, whether RI is realistic in this setting remains unanswered, and alternative approaches like SIA should be further examined.
Conflict and Health 12/2015; 9(1):5. DOI:10.1186/s13031-015-0032-y
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 2006 and 2008, two new rotavirus vaccines (RotaTeq [RV5] and Rotarix [RV1]) were introduced in the United States. US data on intussusception have been mostly related to RV5, with limited data on RV1.
We assessed intussusception events following RV1 reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a US national passive surveillance system, during February 2008-December 2014. We conducted a self-controlled risk interval analysis using Poisson regression to estimate the daily reporting ratio (DRR) of intussusception after the first 2 doses of RV1 comparing average daily reports 3-6 versus 0-2 days after vaccination. We calculated the excess risk of intussusception per 100,000 vaccinations based on DRRs and background rates of intussusception. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess effects of differential reporting completeness and inaccuracy of baseline rates.
VAERS received 108 confirmed insusceptible reports after RV1. A significant clustering was observed on days 3-8 after does1 (p=0.001) and days 2-7 after dose 2 (p=0.001). The DRR comparing the 3-6 day and the 0-2 day periods after RV1 dose 1 was 7.5 (95% CI=2.3, 24.6), translating to an excess risk of 1.6 (95% CI=0.3, 5.8) per 100,000 vaccinations. The DRR was elevated but not significant after dose 2 (2.4 [95% CI=0.8,7.5]). The excess risk ranged from 1.2 to 2.8 per 100,000 in sensitivity analysis.
We observed a significant increased risk of intussusception 3-6 days after dose 1 of RV1. The estimated small number of intussusception cases attributable to RV1 is outweighed by the benefits of rotavirus vaccination.
Published by Elsevier Ltd.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Respiratory and diarrheal diseases are leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years of age in developing countries. Data on the burden of these diseases in Haiti are scarce.
We conducted a retrospective review of hospital admission registries during January 1, 2011-December 31, 2013 for children under 5 years of age in six hospitals in Haiti. We recorded the number of all-cause, respiratory and diarrheal disease admissions and deaths by epidemiologic week and age.
A total of 31,565 hospital admissions and 1763 deaths were recorded among children aged <5 years during the study period. Respiratory diseases accounted for 9183 (29%) hospitalizations and 301 (17%) deaths. Children aged 6-23 months had the highest percentage of hospitalizations attributable to respiratory diseases (38%), while children aged 36-47 months had the highest proportion of deaths attributable to respiratory diseases (37%). Respiratory disease hospitalizations followed a bimodal seasonal pattern, with peaks during May-June and October-December. Diarrheal diseases accounted for 8063 (26%) hospitalizations and 224 (13%) deaths. Children aged 6-11 months had the highest percentage of diarrhea-associated hospitalizations (39%) and deaths (29%). Diarrheal disease admissions peaked in January-April prior to the rainy season.
Respiratory and diarrheal diseases contributed to more than half of hospitalizationsand almost a third of deaths in children under 5 years of age in Haiti. These data are essential to assess the impact of pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccinesand other interventions in Haiti.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human norovirus infection causes significant medical and financial costs in the USA and abroad. Some populations, including young children, the elderly, and the immunocompromised, are at heightened risk of infection with this virus and subsequent complications, while others, such as healthcare workers and food handlers are at increased risk of transmitting it, and some are at risk of both. Human noroviruses are heterogeneous with new strains emerging periodically. In addition to viral diversity, incompletely understood characteristics, such as virus-host cell binding and duration of immunity after infection add to the challenges of creating a norovirus vaccine. Although much progress has been made in recent years, many questions remain to be answered. In this review, we discuss the important areas and relevant literature in considering human norovirus vaccine development and potential targets for implementation.
Expert Review of Vaccines 07/2015; DOI:10.1586/14760584.2015.1073110 · 4.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 1999, the first rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus vaccine licensed in the United States was withdrawn within a year of its introduction after it was linked with intussusception at a rate of ∼1 excess case per 10,000 vaccinated infants. While clinical trials of 60,000-70,000 infants of each of the two current live oral rotavirus vaccines, RotaTeq (RV5) and Rotarix (RV1), did not find an association with intussusception, post-licensure studies have documented a risk in several high and middle income countries, at a rate of ∼1-6 excess cases per 100,000 vaccinated infants. However, considering this low risk against the large health benefits of vaccination that have been observed in many countries, including in countries with a documented vaccine-associated intussusception risk, policy makers and health organizations around the world continue to support the routine use of RV1 and RV5 in national infant immunization programs. Because the risk and benefit data from affluent settings may not be directly applicable to developing countries, further characterization of any associated intussusception risk following rotavirus vaccination as well as the health benefits of vaccination is desirable for low income settings.
Published by Elsevier Ltd.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Population-based surveillance during 2006-2013 showed norovirushospitalization rates among Bedouin (low-middle income settings) children<5 years old,were 13.9/10,000 person-years compared with7.1/10,000 among Jewish (high-income settings) childrenwho were < 5 years (rate ratio [RR]2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-2.3). Differenceswere most prominent among infants (59.7 versus 19.7/10,000, respectively;RR3.0, 95%CI 2.5-3.8). GII.3 and GII.4 strains dominated (67%) in both populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the transmission of norovirus infection in households in Quininde, Ecuador. Among household contacts of norovirus positive children with diarrhea, norovirus negative children with diarrhea, and asymptomatic controls, infection attack rates (iARs) were 33%, 8%, and 18%, respectively (N= 45, 36, 83). iARs were higher when index children had a higher viral load.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the last decade, substantial declines in overall childhood mortality from diarrhea have been documented among Chinese children, but the last detailed assessment of rotavirus-specific mortality in China was conducted in 2002. To provide policy makers with up-to-date information, we examined rotavirus-related mortality in children >5 years of age in China during 2003-2012.
We obtained mortality rates for children <5 years of age from the Chinese Health Statistic Yearbook; these figures were multiplied by the proportion of deaths in this age group attributable to diarrhea from the Chinese Maternal and Child Mortality Surveillance (MCMS) to obtain estimates of diarrhea deaths in children <5 years of age. To estimate rotavirus deaths, diarrhea death estimates were multiplied by the detection rate of rotavirus in children hospitalized with diarrhea from the Viral Diarrhea Surveillance System (VDSS) in China and from peer-reviewed literature.
From 2003 to 2012, a total of 127,539 deaths from diarrhea were reported among Chinese children <5 years of age, of which an estimated 53,559 (42%) had illness attributable to rotavirus. Comparing 2003 to 2012, the annual number of deaths from rotavirus diarrhea decreased by 74% (from 10,531 to 2,791, respectively) and the mortality rate fell 74% (from 0.66 to 0.17 deaths per 1,000 live births, respectively). Ninety-three percent of all rotavirus deaths occurred in rural areas, where mortality rates (0.33 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2012) were 11 times greater than in urban areas (0.03 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2012).
Rotavirus diarrhea mortality has substantially declined in the past decade in Chinese children. The vast majority of rotavirus deaths occurred in rural areas. There is potential value in using rotavirus vaccine interventions in rural areas to further reduce mortality from this disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rotavirus infection is the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis among infants and young children worldwide. Before the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in the United States in 2006, rotavirus infection caused significant morbidity among U.S. children, with an estimated 55,000-70,000 hospitalizations and 410,000 clinic visits annually. The disease showed a characteristic winter-spring seasonality and geographic pattern, with annual seasonal activity beginning in the West during December-January, extending across the country, and ending in the Northeast during April-May. To characterize changes in rotavirus disease trends and seasonality following introduction of rotavirus vaccines in the United States, CDC compared data from CDC's National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS), a passive laboratory reporting system, for prevaccine (2000-2006) and postvaccine (2007-2014) years. National declines in rotavirus detection were noted, ranging from 57.8%-89.9% in each of the 7 postvaccine years compared with all 7 prevaccine years combined. A biennial pattern of rotavirus activity emerged in the postvaccine era, with years of low activity and highly erratic seasonality alternating with years of moderately increased activity and seasonality similar to that seen in the prevaccine era. These results demonstrate the substantial and sustained effect of rotavirus vaccine in reducing the circulation and changing the epidemiology of rotavirus among U.S. children.
MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report 04/2015; 64(13):337-42.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Norovirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). Noroviruses bind to gut histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), but only 70-80% of individuals have a functional copy of the FUT2 (“secretor”) gene required for gut HBGA expression; these individuals are known as “secretors.” Susceptibility to some noroviruses depends on FUT2 secretor status, but the population impact of this association is not established. Methods. From 12/2011 to 11/2012, active AGE surveillance was performed at six geographically diverse US pediatric sites. Cases under five years were recruited from emergency departments and inpatient units; age-matched healthy controls were recruited at well-child visits. Salivary DNA was collected to determine secretor status and genetic ancestry. Stool was tested for norovirus by realtime RT-PCR. Norovirus genotype was then determined by sequencing. Results. Norovirus was detected in 302 (21%) of 1465 AGE cases and 52 (6%) of 826 healthy controls. Norovirus AGE cases were 2.8-fold more likely than norovirus-negative controls to be secretors (p<0.001) in a logistic regression model adjusted for ancestry, age, site, and health insurance. Secretors comprised all 155 cases and 21 asymptomatic infections with the most prevalent norovirus, GII.4. Control children of Meso-American ancestry were more likely than children of European or African ancestry to be secretors (96% versus 74%, p<0.001). Conclusions. FUT2 status is associated with norovirus infection and varies by ancestry. GII.4 norovirus exclusively infected secretors. These findings are important to norovirus vaccine trials and design of agents that may block norovirus-HBGA binding.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Libya introduced rotavirus vaccine in October 2013. We examined pre-vaccine incidence of rotavirus hospitalizations and associated economic burden among children¿<¿5 years in Libya to provide baseline data for future vaccine impact evaluations.Methods
Prospective, hospital-based active surveillance for rotavirus was conducted at three public hospitals in two cities during August 2012 - April 2013. Clinical, demographic and estimated cost data were collected from children <5 hospitalized for diarrhea; stool specimens were tested for rotavirus with a commercial enzyme immunoassay. Annual rotavirus hospitalization incidence rate estimates included a conservative estimate based on the number of cases recorded during the nine months and an extrapolation to estimate 12 months incidence rate. National rotavirus disease and economic burden were estimated by extrapolating incidence and cost data to the national population of children aged <5 years.ResultsA total of 410 children <5 years of age with diarrhea were enrolled, of whom 239 (58%) tested positive rotavirus, yielding an incidence range of 418-557 rotavirus hospitalizations per 100,000 children <5 years of age. Most (86%) rotavirus cases were below two years of age with a distinct seasonal peak in winter (December-March) months. The total cost of treatment for each rotavirus patient was estimated at US$ 679 (range: 200¿5,423). By extrapolation, we estimated 2,948 rotavirus hospitalizations occur each year in Libyan children <5 years of age, incurring total costs of US$ 2,001,662 (range: 1,931,726-2,094,005).Conclusions
Rotavirus incurs substantial morbidity and economic burden in Libya, highlighting the potential value of vaccination of Libyan children against rotavirus.
BMC Public Health 01/2015; 15(1):26. DOI:10.1186/s12889-015-1400-7 · 2.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Pneumonia and diarrhea are leading causes of death for children under five (U5). It is challenging to estimate the total number of deaths and cause-specific mortality fractions. Two major efforts, one led by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) and the other led by the World Health Organization (WHO)/Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) created estimates for the burden of disease due to these two syndromes, yet their estimates differed greatly for 2010.Methods
This paper discusses three main drivers of the differences: data sources, data processing, and covariates used for modelling. The paper discusses differences in the model assumptions for etiology-specific estimates and presents recommendations for improving future models.ResultsIHME¿s Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2010 study estimated 6.8 million U5 deaths compared to 7.6 million U5 deaths from CHERG. The proportional differences between the pneumonia and diarrhea burden estimates from the two groups are much larger; GBD 2010 estimated 0.847 million and CHERG estimated 1.396 million due to pneumonia. Compared to CHERG, GBD 2010 used broader inclusion criteria for verbal autopsy and vital registration data. GBD 2010 and CHERG used different data processing procedures and therefore attributed the causes of neonatal death differently. The major difference in pneumonia etiologies modeling approach was the inclusion of observational study data; GBD 2010 included observational studies. CHERG relied on vaccine efficacy studies.DiscussionGreater transparency in modeling methods and more timely access to data sources are needed. In October 2013, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) hosted an expert meeting to examine possible approaches for better estimation. The group recommended examining the impact of data by systematically excluding sources in their models. GBD 2.0 will use a counterfactual approach for estimating mortality from pathogens due to specific etiologies to overcome bias of the methods used in GBD 2010 going forward.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT In recent years, noroviruses have become recognized as an important cause of both sporadic and epidemic acute gastroenteritis (AGE), largely due to the improved availability of broadly reactive real-time RT-PCR (TaqMan-based RT-PCR) assays. While there is substantial diversity among noroviruses, one specific genotype, GII.4, is the most common etiology in sporadic and epidemic AGE. Outbreaks of norovirus AGE most commonly occur in healthcare facilities and restaurants and result in significant morbidity and mortality and substantial healthcare costs. Norovirus vaccine development is progressing, and Phase I and II human trials have shown proof-of-principle that norovirus vaccines can reduce illness and infection.