Enrico Calandri

Sapienza University of Rome, Roma, Latium, Italy

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Publications (5)11.53 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present paper was to review the literature over the last 30 years to assess the value of radionuclide imaging, particularly labeled leukocyte scan, as compared to other imaging modalities in the management of abdominal abscesses. A systematic review of the published studies in humans cited in PubMed written in English, French, German, Italian, and Spanish was made. Ultrasound (US) has lower sensitivity than leukocyte scan (LS), particularly in patients without localizing signs, while CT has higher sensitivity than US, but less than LS. On the other hand, CT had higher specificity than both LS and US. LS is the more sensitive method to localize abdominal abscesses and may guide dedicated US and CT investigations to improve their diagnostic potential. Further diagnostic evolution is expected from the routine use of hybrid SPECT/CT systems.
    Molecular imaging and biology: MIB: the official publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging 04/2010; 12(6):563-9. · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human beta-defensin-3 (HBD-3) is an antimicrobial peptide with bactericidal effects on many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and some yeast species and, if radiolabeled, might be used to distinguish bacterial infection from sterile inflammation. The goals of the present study were to develop methods for radiolabeling HBD-3 with (99m)Tc and to perform preliminary investigations on (99m)Tc-labeled HBD-3 as a means to evaluate induced infection in an animal model. To this purpose, Staphylococcus aureus-induced infection was used to evaluate the capability of (99m)Tc-HBD-3 to distinguish infection from aseptic inflammation in rats. Twenty to 40 microg of recombinant HBD-3 were labeled with (99m)Tc(+) hexa-coordinated with 3 molecules of CO and H(2)O and separated by a column from free (99m)Tc. (99m)Tc-HBD-3 was added to cultures of a bacterial suspension of S. aureus and Escherichia coli to evaluate in vitro antibacterial activity. A bacterial suspension of S. aureus and a carrageenan solution were used to induce infection and sterile inflammation, respectively, in opposite thighs of 9 adult rats. Three separate experiments were performed on groups of 3 rats each. The animals received different doses of (99m)Tc-HBD-3 injected through a cannula into the jugular vein. After sacrifice of the animals, tissue samples were obtained from sites of infection, inflammation, and control muscle (left foreleg) at 1, 3, and 5 h after (99m)Tc-HBD-3 administration. Tissue samples were weighed and then counted in a well-counter. Simultaneously, 1 mL of a standard solution of (99m)Tc-HBD-3 corresponding to each administered dose was counted. (99m)Tc-HBD-3 retained antibacterial activity. Radioactivity in tissue samples from the infected sites was significantly higher than that in samples of either induced inflammation or normal control muscle (ratio, approximately 3:1) at 3 and 5 h after injection, whereas similar radioactivity counts were observed for tissue samples from aseptic inflammation sites and normal control muscle. In this investigation, (99m)Tc-HBD-3 retained antibacterial activity and successfully distinguished infection from aseptic inflammation in adult rats.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 05/2009; 50(5):823-6. · 5.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The question of whether antibiotic treatment does or does not affect reliability of white blood cell scan (WBCS) to detect disease activity in clinical practice is still unanswered. Our aim was to study the relationship between scintigraphic findings of WBCS and antibiotic therapy in a group of patients affected with osteomyelitis (OM). We retrospectively reviewed 57 scans, performed in 18 patients affected by OM and who were on antibiotic treatment. The number of therapy weeks was calculated for each antibiotic. A comparison of results obtained during and after discontinuation of the antibiotic treatment was made. Overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of WBCS were calculated and compared with those obtained in patients undergoing therapy. Forty-seven scans were performed during treatment and 10 scans after discontinuation of treatment. The scintigraphic results obtained during and after discontinuation of treatment were as follows: TN 14 and 8, TP 31 and 2, FN 2 and 0, FP 0 and 0, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of WBCS, calculated in all patients, were 94.3%, 100% and 96.5% respectively. In patients receiving antibiotic therapy, the same parameters were 93.9%, 100% and 95.7% respectively. In patients treated with antibiotics that can decrease leukocyte function, there were 10 TN, 14 TP, 2 FN and 0 FP, while in patients treated with antibiotics that have not effect on leukocyte function there were 4 TN, 17 TP, 0 FN and 0 FP. The reliability of WBCS in the detection of disease activity during antibiotic treatment does not change significantly. It can be assumed that the influence of antibiotic therapy on labelled leukocyte behaviour is negligible.
    Biomedecine [?] Pharmacotherapy 07/2007; 61(5):272-6. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 99mTc-HMPAO-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy (WBCs) is useful in the diagnosis of vascular graft infection. However, false positives can occur in the early postoperative period. There are no data concerning the usefulness of WBCs in detecting endovascular prosthesis infection during this period. The aim of our study was to assess the reliability of WBCs in the diagnosis of early infection after endovascular prosthesis implantation. 23 patients treated with endovascular grafts were submitted to preoperative diagnostic screening and to 3 WBCs (1 week before, 1 week after, and 1 month after surgery). After the last WBCs, all patients underwent a 14-month follow-up (range 6-37 months, median 12 months). Three patients died, at 3, 4 and 5 months after surgery respectively. At the end of the follow-up, the presence of infection was demonstrated in one patient. Of the 70 WBCs performed, 4 gave positive results. No positive scintigraphies were obtained in the preoperative period. A positive scintigraphy was found one week after surgery in a patient who showed lymphorrhage at the site of surgical access. In the same patient, the scintigraphic result returned to normal at 1-month scintigraphy. At 12-month follow-up the patient did not present signs of infection. Three positive scintigraphies were obtained in the same patient. In this patient clinical symptoms of graft infection became evident about 19 months after surgery. WBCs was repeated and showed extension of the infection. The infection was confirmed at surgery. WBCs do not provide false-positives in the first month after endovascular prosthesis implantation.
    Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 04/2006; 12(3):MT5-9. · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human b-defensin-3 (HBD-3) is an antimicrobial peptide with bactericidal effects on many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and some yeast species and, if radiolabeled, might be used to distinguish bacterial infection from sterile inflammation. The goals of the present study were to develop methods for radiolabeling HBD-3 with 99mTc and to perform preliminary in- vestigations on 99mTc-labeled HBD-3 as a means to evaluate induced infection in an animal model. To this purpose, Staphylococcus aureus-induced infection was used to evaluate the capability of 99mTc-HBD-3 to distinguish infection from asep- tic inflammation in rats. Methods: Twenty to 40 mg of recombi- nant HBD-3 were labeled with 99mTc1 hexa-coordinated with 3 molecules of CO and H2O and separated by a column from free 99mTc. 99mTc-HBD-3 was added to cultures of a bacterial suspension of S. aureus and Escherichia coli to evaluate in vitro antibacterial activity. A bacterial suspension of S. aureus and a carrageenansolutionwereusedtoinduceinfectionandsterilein- flammation, respectively, in opposite thighs of 9 adult rats. Three separate experiments were performed on groups of 3 rats each. The animals received different doses of 99mTc-HBD-3 injected through a cannula into the jugular vein. After sacrifice of the an- imals, tissue samples were obtained from sites of infection, inflammation, and control muscle (left foreleg) at 1, 3, and 5 h after 99mTc-HBD-3 administration. Tissue samples were weighed and then counted in a well-counter. Simultaneously, 1 mL of a standard solution of 99mTc-HBD-3 corresponding to each administered dose was counted. Results: 99mTc-HBD-3 retained antibacterial activity. Radioactivity in tissue samples fromtheinfectedsiteswassignificantlyhigherthanthatinsamples of either induced inflammation or normal control muscle (ratio, ;3:1) at 3 and 5 h after injection, whereas similar radioactivity countswere observed fortissuesamplesfrom asepticinflamma- tion sites and normal control muscle. Conclusion: In this inves- tigation, 99mTc-HBD-3 retained antibacterial activity and successfully distinguished infection from aseptic inflammation in adult rats.