Tomas Cihlar

Gilead Sciences, Foster City, CA, United States

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Publications (87)302.53 Total impact

  • Rujuta A Bam, Stephen R Yant, Tomas Cihlar
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    ABSTRACT: Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is a novel prodrug of tenofovir that shows enhanced antiretroviral effect and reduced plasma tenofovir exposures at approximately one-tenth the clinically approved dose of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). Tenofovir released from TDF undergoes active renal secretion via organic anion transporters (OAT1, OAT3), leading to higher exposure of renal proximal tubules to tenofovir and a potential for renal adverse effects in a small subset of TDF-treated patients. Here we evaluate the interaction of TAF with OAT1 and OAT3 to assess the potential for its active accumulation in proximal tubules. OAT-mediated transport and cytotoxicity (CC50) of TAF and tenofovir were assessed in cells expressing OATs and compared with matched transporter-null cells. While the OAT1 and OAT3 expression increased the tenofovir cellular uptake by >70-fold and 8.2-fold, respectively, the expression of either OAT did not significantly change TAF intracellular accumulation under identical conditions. In addition, whereas tenofovir was significantly more cytotoxic in OAT1 and OAT3-expressing cells (>21 and >3.6 fold-change in CC50 values, respectively), TAF in vitro cytotoxicity showed little to no change upon over-expression of either renal transporter (0.5 to 3.5 fold-change in CC50). Unlike tenofovir, TAF does not interact with renal transporters OAT1 or OAT3, and exhibits no OAT-dependent cytotoxicity. TAF is thus unlikely to actively accumulate in renal proximal tubules in an OAT-dependent manner, supporting the potential for an improved renal safety profile.
    Antiviral therapy 04/2014; · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Persistent latent reservoir of replication-competent proviruses in memory CD4 T cells is a major obstacle to curing HIV infection. Pharmacological activation of HIV expression in latently infected cells is being explored as one of the strategies to deplete the latent HIV reservoir. In this study, we characterized the ability of romidepsin (RMD), a histone deacetylase inhibitor approved for the treatment of T-cell lymphomas, to activate the expression of latent HIV. In an in vitro T-cell model of HIV latency, RMD was the most potent inducer of HIV (EC50 = 4.5 nM) compared with vorinostat (VOR; EC50 = 3,950 nM) and other histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors in clinical development including panobinostat (PNB; EC50 = 10 nM). The HIV induction potencies of RMD, VOR, and PNB paralleled their inhibitory activities against multiple human HDAC isoenzymes. In both resting and memory CD4 T cells isolated from HIV-infected patients on suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), a 4-hour exposure to 40 nM RMD induced a mean 6-fold increase in intracellular HIV RNA levels, whereas a 24-hour treatment with 1 µM VOR resulted in 2- to 3-fold increases. RMD-induced intracellular HIV RNA expression persisted for 48 hours and correlated with sustained inhibition of cell-associated HDAC activity. By comparison, the induction of HIV RNA by VOR and PNB was transient and diminished after 24 hours. RMD also increased levels of extracellular HIV RNA and virions from both memory and resting CD4 T-cell cultures. The activation of HIV expression was observed at RMD concentrations below the drug plasma levels achieved by doses used in patients treated for T-cell lymphomas. In conclusion, RMD induces HIV expression ex vivo at concentrations that can be achieved clinically, indicating that the drug may reactivate latent HIV in patients on suppressive cART.
    PLoS Pathogens 04/2014; 10(4):e1004071. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of hospitalization due to respiratory illness among infants and young children of industrialized countries. There is a lack of understanding of the severe disease mechanisms as well as limited treatment options, none of which are fully satisfactory. This is partly due to lack of a relevant animal model of perinatal RSV infection that mimics moderate to severe disease in infants. We and others have shown mild disease in perinatal lambs with either a bovine or a human A2 strain of RSV. The Memphis 37 clinical strain of human RSV has been used to produce mild to moderate upper respiratory disease in healthy adult volunteers. We hypothesized that the Memphis 37 strain of RSV would infect perinatal lambs and produce clinical disease similar to that in human infants. Perinatal (3- to 5-day-old) lambs were inoculated intranasally with 2 mL/nostril of 1×10(5) focus-forming units (FFU)/mL (n=2) or 2.1×10(8) FFU/mL (n=3) of RSV Memphis 37. Clinical signs, gross and histological lesions, and immune and inflammatory responses were assessed. Memphis 37 caused moderate to severe gross and histologic lesions along with increased mRNA expression of macrophage inflammatory protein. Clinically, four of the five infected lambs had a mild to severe increase in expiratory effort. Intranasally administered RSV strain Memphis 37 infects neonatal lambs with gross, histologic, and immune responses similar to those observed in human infants.
    BioResearch open access. 04/2014; 3(2):60-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Many xenobiotics including the pharmacoenhancer cobicistat increase serum creatinine by inhibiting its renal active tubular secretion without affecting the glomerular filtration rate. This study aimed to define the transporters involved in creatinine secretion, applying that knowledge to establish the mechanism for xenobiotic-induced effects. The basolateral uptake transporters organic anion transporter OAT2 and organic cation transporters OCT2 and OCT3 were found to transport creatinine. At physiologic creatinine concentrations, the specific activity of OAT2 transport was over twofold higher than OCT2 or OCT3, establishing OAT2 as a likely relevant creatinine transporter and further challenging the traditional view that creatinine is solely transported by a cationic pathway. The apical multidrug and toxin extrusion transporters MATE1 and MATE2-K demonstrated low-affinity and high-capacity transport. All drugs known to affect creatinine inhibited OCT2 and MATE1. Similar to cimetidine and ritonavir, cobicistat had the greatest effect on MATE1 with a 50% inhibition constant of 0.99 μM for creatinine transport. Trimethoprim potently inhibited MATE2-K, whereas dolutegravir preferentially inhibited OCT2. Cimetidine was unique, inhibiting all transporters that interact with creatinine. Thus, the clinical observation of elevated serum creatinine in patients taking cobicistat is likely a result of OCT2 transport, facilitating intracellular accumulation, and MATE1 inhibition.Kidney International advance online publication, 19 March 2014; doi:10.1038/ki.2014.66.
    Kidney International 03/2014; · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is a novel investigational prodrug of tenofovir (TFV) that permits enhanced delivery of TFV into peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and lymphatic tissues. A critical step in the intracellular metabolic activation of TAF is mediated by the lysosomal protease cathepsin A (CatA). Here we investigated CatA levels together with intracellular metabolism and antiretroviral activity of TAF in primary CD4(+) T lymphocytes (CD4s) and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) isolated from a demographically diverse group of blood donors. CD4s and MDMs were prepared from fresh PBMCs. CatA levels were quantified in cell extracts by monitoring TAF hydrolysis using HPLC. Intracellular TAF metabolites were quantified by HPLC combined with mass spectrometry. Antiviral activities in activated CD4s and MDMs were determined using a HIV-1 single-cycle reporter and p24 antigen production assays, respectively. The levels of CatA and intracellular TAF metabolites differed minimally in CD4s and MDMs among 13 tested donors. TAF was >600-fold and 80-fold more potent than parent TFV in CD4s and MDMs, respectively, and its relative range of antiviral activity across all tested donors was comparable to that of other HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors, with mean ± SD (range) EC50 values of 11.2 ± 3.2 (6.6 -19.9) nM and 8.8 ± 4.4 (2.5 - 15.7) nM in CD4s and MDMs, respectively. These results indicate consistent intracellular metabolism and antiretroviral potency of TAF in relevant target cells of HIV-1 infection across multiple donors of variable gender, age and ethnicity, supporting further clinical investigation of TAF.
    Antiviral therapy 03/2014; · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An extract of Humicola fuscoatra (UCSC strain no. 108111A) was shown to reactivate latent HIV-1 expression in an in vitro model of central memory CD4+ T cells. We report the bioassay-guided isolation and structure determination of several resorcyclic acid lactones, including four known compounds, radicicol (1, aka. monorden) and pochonins B (2), C (3), and N (4), and three new analogues, radicicols B-D (5-7). Compounds 1-3 and 5 showed moderate activities in the memory T cell model of HIV-1 latency. Radicicol (1) displayed lower potency in reactivating latent HIV-1 (EC50 = 9.1 μM) relative to the HDAC inhibitors apicidin (EC50 = 0.3 μM), romidepsin (EC50 = 0.003 μM), and SAHA (EC50 = 0.6 μM); however, it achieved equivalent maximum efficacy relative to the positive control compounds (98% of SAHA and romidepsin).
    Journal of Natural Products 02/2014; · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Insertions in the protease (PR) region of HIV represent an interesting mechanism of antiviral resistance against HIV PR inhibitors (PIs). We analyzed the capability of GS-8374, a phosphonate-containing experimental HIV PI, to inhibit replication of patient-derived recombinant HIV strains bearing insertions and numerous other mutations in the PR region; correlated enzyme inhibition with the catalytic activities of corresponding recombinant PRs in vitro; and provided biochemical and structural analysis of the PR-inhibitor complex.Insertions in the protease (PR) region of HIV represent an interesting mechanism of antiviral resistance against HIV PR inhibitors (PIs). Here, we demonstrated improved ability of a phosphonate-containing experimental HIV PI GS-8374 relative to other PIs to effectively inhibit patient-derived recombinant HIV strains bearing PR insertions and numerous other mutations. We correlated enzyme inhibition with the catalytic activities of corresponding recombinant PRs in vitro and provided biochemical and structural analysis of the PR-inhibitor complex.
    Journal of Virology 12/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human rhinovirus type C (HRV-C) is a newly discovered enterovirus species frequently associated with exacerbation of asthma and other acute respiratory conditions. Until recently, HRV-C could not be propagated in vitro, hampering in-depth characterization of the virus replication cycle and preventing efficient testing of antiviral agents. Herein we describe several sub-genomic RNA replicon systems and a cell culture infectious model for HRV-C that can be used for antiviral screening. The replicon constructs consist of genome sequences from HRVc15, HRVc11, HRVc24, and HRVc25 strains, with the P1 capsid region replaced by a Renilla luciferase coding sequence. Following the replicon RNA transfection into HeLa cells, the constructs produced time-dependent increases in luciferase signal that can be inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by known inhibitors of HRV replication including the 3C protease inhibitor rupintrivir, nucleoside analog inhibitor MK-0608, and PI4-IIIβ kinase inhibitor PIK93. Furthermore, with the exception of pleconaril and pirodavir, the other tested classes of HRV inhibitors blocked the replication of full length HRVc15 and HRVc11 viruses in human airway epithelial cells (HAEs) differentiated in air liquid interface, exhibiting antiviral activities similar to those observed with HRV-16. In summary, this study is the first comprehensive profiling of multiple classes of antivirals against HRV-C and the set of newly developed quantitative HRV-C antiviral assays represent indispensable tools for the identification and evaluation of novel pan-serotype HRV inhibitors.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 12/2013; · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Once-daily single-tablet antiretroviral regimen containing tenofovir (TFV) disoproxil fumurate, emtricitabine, elvitegravir and cobicistat (COBI) is an approved combination for the treatment of patients infected with HIV. COBI and TFV have been reported to interact with distinct transporters in renal proximal tubules; while TFV is renally eliminated by a combination of glomerular filtration and tubular secretion via anion transporters OAT1, OAT3 and MRP4, COBI inhibits renal cation transporters, particularly MATE1, resulting in a measurable decrease in the tubular secretion of creatinine. To investigate the potential for a renal drug-drug interaction between TFV and COBI in vitro, the uptake of TFV in the presence and absence of COBI was determined in fresh human renal cortex tissue and in cells expressing the relevant renal transporters. At concentrations exceeding clinical protein-unbound plasma levels, COBI did not significantly inhibit the transport of TFV by the anion transporters OAT1, OAT3 or MRP4 (IC50 values of >15, 6.6 and 8.5 μM, respectively). Conversely, TFV had little or no effect on the cation transporters OCT2 and MATE1 (IC50 > 100 μM). Consistent with studies using individual transporters, no increase in the accumulation of TFV in freshly isolated human renal cortex tissue or renal proximal tubule cells (RPTECs) was observed in the presence of COBI. Finally, COBI alone or in combination with FTC and EVG did not affect the sensitivity to TFV of cultured primary RPTECs or cells co-expressing OAT1 and MRP4. These results illustrate that COBI and TFV interact primarily with distinct renal transporters and indicate a low potential for pharmacokinetic renal drug-drug interaction.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 07/2013; · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aim: GS 9219 is a double prodrug of antiproliferative nucleotide analog 9-(2-Phosphonylmethoxyethyl)guanine (PMEG), with potent in vivo efficacy against various hematological malignancies. This study investigates the role of adenosine deaminase-like (ADAL) protein in the intracellular activation of GS-9219. A cell line resistant to 9-(2-Phosphonylmethoxyethyl)-N(6)-cyclopropyl-2,6-diaminopurine (cPrPMEDAP), an intermediate metabolite of GS-9219, was generated and characterized. The resistant cell line was cross-resistant to cPrPMEDAP and GS-9219, due to a defect in the deamination of cPrPMEDAP to PMEG. Mutations in the ADAL gene (H286R and S180N) were identified in the resistant cells that adversely-affected its enzymatic activity. Introduction of the wild-type ADAL gene re-sensitized resistant cells to both cPrPMEDAP and GS-9219. The ADAL protein plays an essential role in the intracellular activation of GS-9219 by catalyzing the deamination of cPrPMEDAP metabolite to PMEG. Mutations affecting the activity of ADAL confer resistance to both GS-9219 and its metabolite cPrPMEDAP.
    Anticancer research 05/2013; 33(5):1899-912. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HIV-1 integrase (IN) is the target for two classes of antiretrovirals: i) the integrase strand-transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) and ii) the non-catalytic site integrase inhibitors (NCINIs). NCINIs bind at the IN dimer interface and are thought to interfere primarily with viral DNA (vDNA) integration in the target cell by blocking IN-vDNA assembly as well as the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction. Herein we show that treatment of virus-producing cells, but not of mature virions or target cells, drives NCINI antiviral potency. NCINIs target an essential late-stage event in HIV replication that is insensitive to LEDGF levels in the producer cells. Virus particles produced in the presence of NCINIs displayed normal Gag-Pol processing and endogenous reverse transcriptase activity, but were defective at initiating vDNA synthesis following entry into the target cell. NCINI-resistant virus carrying a T174I mutation in the IN dimer interface was less sensitive to the compound-induced late-stage effects, including the reverse transcription block. Wild-type, but not T174I virus, produced in the presence of NCINIs exhibited striking defects in core morphology and an increased level of IN oligomers that was not observed upon treatment of mature cell-free particles. Collectively, these results reveal that NCINIs act through a novel mechanism that is unrelated to the previously observed inhibition of IN activity or IN-LEDGF interaction, and instead involves the disruption of an IN function during HIV-1 core maturation and assembly.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e74163. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis in infants and young children. A small percentage of these individuals develop severe and even fatal disease. To better understand the pathogenesis of severe disease and develop therapies unique to the less-developed infant immune system, a model of infant disease is needed. The neonatal lamb pulmonary development and physiology is similar to that of infants, and sheep are susceptible to ovine, bovine, or human strains of RSV. RSV grown in Vero (African green monkey) cells has a truncated attachment G glycoprotein as compared to that grown in HEp-2 cells. We hypothesized that the virus grown in HEp-2 cells would cause more severe clinical symptoms and cause more severe pathology. To confirm the hypothesis, lambs were inoculated simultaneously by two different delivery methods (intranasal and nebulized inoculation) with either Vero-grown or HEp-2-grown RSV Memphis 37 (M37) strain of virus to compare viral infection and disease symptoms. Lambs infected with HEp-2 cell-derived virus by either intranasal or nebulization inoculation had significantly higher levels of viral RNA in lungs as well as greater clinical disease including both gross and histopathologic lesions compared to lambs similarly inoculated with Vero-grown virus. Thus, our results provide convincing in vivo evidence for differences in viral infectivity that corroborate previous in vitro mechanistic studies demonstrating differences in the G glycoprotein expression by RSV grown in Vero cells.
    Viruses 01/2013; 5(11):2881-2897. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: GS-8374 is a potent HIV protease inhibitor (PI) with a unique diethyl-phosphonate moiety. Due to a balanced contribution of enthalpic and entropic components to its interaction with the protease (PR) active site, the compound retains activity against HIV mutants with high-level multi-PI resistance. Here we report the in vitro selection and characterization of HIV variants resistant to GS-8374. While highly resistant viruses with multiple mutations in PR were isolated in the presence of control PIs, an HIV variant displaying moderate (14-fold) resistance to GS-8374 was generated only after prolonged passaging for >300 days . The isolate showed low-level cross-resistance to darunavir, atazanavir, lopinavir, and saquinavir, but not other PIs, and contained a single R41K mutation in PR combined with multiple genotypic changes in the Gag matrix, capsid, nucleocapsid, and SP2 domains. Mutations also occured in the trans-frame peptide and p6* domain of the Gag-Pol polyprotein. Analysis of recombinant HIV variants indicated that mutations in Gag, but not the R41K in PR, conferred reduced susceptibility to GS-8374. The Gag mutations acted in concert, as they did not affect susceptibility when introduced individually. Analysis of viral particles revealed that the mutations rendered Gag more susceptible to PR-mediated cleavage in the presence of GS-8374. In summary, the emergence of resistance to GS-8374 involved a combination of substrate mutations without typical resistance mutations in PR. These substrate changes were distributed throughout Gag and acted in an additive manner. Thus, they are classified as primary resistance mutations indicating a unique mechanism and pathway of resistance development for GS-8374.
    Journal of Virology 10/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The HIV reverse-transcriptase inhibitor, tenofovir, was recently formulated into a vaginal gel for use as a microbicide. In human trials, a 1% tenofovir gel inhibited HIV sexual transmission by 39% and, surprisingly, herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) transmission by 51%. We demonstrate that the concentration achieved intravaginally with a 1% tenofovir topical gel has direct antiherpetic activity. Tenofovir inhibits the replication of HSV clinical isolates in human embryonic fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and organotypic epithelial 3D rafts, decreases HSV replication in human lymphoid and cervicovaginal tissues ex vivo, and delays HSV-induced lesions and death in topically treated HSV-infected mice. The active tenofovir metabolite inhibits HSV DNA-polymerase and HIV reverse-transcriptase. To exert dual antiviral effects, tenofovir requires topical administration to achieve a drug concentration higher than systemic levels achieved by oral treatment. These findings indicate that a single topical treatment, like tenofovir, can inhibit the transmission of HIV and its copathogens.
    Cell host & microbe 10/2011; 10(4):379-89. · 13.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of 7-aryl- and 7-hetaryl-7-deazaadenosines was prepared by the cross-coupling reactions of unprotected or protected 7-iodo-7-deazaadenosines with (het)arylboronic acids, stannanes, or zinc halides. Nucleosides bearing 5-membered heterocycles at the position 7 exerted potent in vitro antiproliferative effects against a broad panel of hematological and solid tumor cell lines. Cell cycle analysis indicated profound inhibition of RNA synthesis and induction of apoptosis in treated cells. Intracellular conversion to triphosphates has been detected with active compounds. The triphosphate metabolites showed only a weak inhibitory effect on human RNA polymerase II, suggesting potentially other mechanisms for the inhibition of RNA synthesis and quick onset of apoptosis. Initial in vivo evaluation demonstrated an effect of 7-(2-thienyl)-7-deazaadenine ribonucleoside on the survival rate in syngeneic P388D1 mouse leukemia model.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 06/2011; 54(15):5498-507. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel and efficient method for the one-pot synthesis of diamide (bis-amidate) prodrugs of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates, starting from free phosphonic acids or phosphonate diesters is reported. The approach from phosphonate diesters via their bis(trimethylsilyl) esters is highly convenient, eliminates isolation and tedious purification of the phosphonic acids, and affords the corresponding bis-amidates in excellent yields (83-98%) and purity. The methodology has been applied to the synthesis of the potent anticancer agent GS-9219, and symmetrical bis-amidates of other biologically active phosphonic acids. Anti-HIV, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activities of the compounds are discussed including the bis-amidate prodrugs 14 and 17 that exhibited anti-HIV activity at submicromolar concentrations with minimal cytotoxicity.
    European journal of medicinal chemistry 05/2011; 46(9):3748-54. · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: GS-9191, a bis-amidate prodrug of the nucleotide analog 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)-N6-cyclopropyl-2,6-diaminopurine (cPrPMEDAP), was designed as a topical agent for the treatment of papillomavirus-associated proliferative disorders, such as genital warts. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of conversion of GS-9191 to cPrPMEDAP. We observed that GS-9191 is hydrolyzed in the presence of the lysosomal carboxypeptidase cathepsin A (CatA) in vitro and is less efficiently metabolized in CatA-deficient fibroblasts than in control cells. In addition, knockdown of CatA by small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced the intracellular accumulation of GS-9191 metabolites. However, intracellular CatA levels did not correlate with the susceptibility of tested cell lines to GS-9191, indicating that the CatA step is unlikely to be rate limiting for the activation of GS-9191. Further analysis showed that upon the hydrolysis of the carboxylester bond in one of the GS-9191 amidate moieties, the unmasked carboxyl group displaces L-phenylalanine 2-methylpropyl ester from the other amidate moiety. The cPrPMEDAP-L-phenylalanine conjugate (cPrPMEDAP-Phe) formed is not metabolized by Hint1 (histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1) phosphoramidase but undergoes spontaneous degradation to cPrPMEDAP in acidic pH that can be significantly enhanced by the addition of SiHa cell extract. Pretreatment of SiHa cells with bafilomycin A or chloroquine resulted in an 8-fold increase in the intracellular concentration of cPrPMEDAP-Phe metabolite and the accumulation of GS-9191 metabolites in the lysosomal/endosomal fraction. Together, these observations indicate that the conversion of GS-9191 to cPrPMEDAP occurs in lysosomes via CatA-mediated ester cleavage, followed by the release of cPrPMEDAP, most likely through the combination of enzyme-driven and spontaneous pH-driven hydrolysis of a cPrPMEDAP-Phe intermediate.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 03/2011; 55(5):2166-73. · 4.57 Impact Factor
  • Med. Chem. Commun. 01/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: Adverse effects induced by HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) are a significant factor in limiting their clinical success. PIs directly contribute to peripheral insulin resistance and alterations in lipid metabolism. GS-8374 is a novel PI with potent antiretroviral activity and a favorable resistance profile. Here we report on the potential of GS-8374 to adversely affect glucose and lipid homeostasis. Acute effects of GS-8374 and control PIs on glucose uptake and lipid accumulation were assessed in vitro in mouse OP9 and primary human adipocytes, respectively. GS-8374 and atazanavir showed no effect on insulin-stimulated deoxyglucose uptake, whereas ritonavir and lopinavir caused significant reductions. Similarly, in vitro lipid accumulation was not significantly affected in adipocytes treated with either GS-8374 or atazanavir. In euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp experiments performed in rats during acute infusion of therapeutic levels of PIs, sustained serum GS-8374 levels of 8 μM had no effect on peripheral glucose disposal (similar to the findings for atazanavir). Comparable serum levels of lopinavir and ritonavir produced acute 19% and 53% reductions in in vivo glucose disposal, respectively. In conclusion, similar to atazanavir, but unlike ritonavir and lopinavir, GS-8374 neither affects insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes in culture nor acutely alters peripheral glucose disposal in a rodent model system. These results dissociate the antiretroviral activity of GS-8374 from adverse effects on insulin sensitivity observed with some of the first-generation PIs and provide further support for the use of these experimental systems in the preclinical evaluation of novel PIs.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 01/2011; 55(4):1377-82. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: GS-8374 is a novel bis-tetrahydrofuran HIV-1 protease (PR) inhibitor (PI) with a unique diethylphosphonate moiety. It was selected from a series of analogs containing various di(alkyl)phosphonate substitutions connected via a linker to the para position of a P-1 phenyl ring. GS-8374 inhibits HIV-1 PR with high potency (K(i) = 8.1 pM) and with no known effect on host proteases. Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of GS-8374 binding to PR demonstrated an extremely slow off rate for the inhibitor and favorable contributions of both the enthalpic and entropic components to the total free binding energy. GS-8374 showed potent antiretroviral activity in T-cell lines, primary CD4(+) T cells (50% effective concentration [EC(50)] = 3.4 to 11.5 nM), and macrophages (EC(50) = 25.5 nM) and exhibited low cytotoxicity in multiple human cell types. The antiviral potency of GS-8374 was only moderately affected by human serum protein binding, and its combination with multiple approved antiretrovirals showed synergistic effects. When it was tested in a PhenoSense assay against a panel of 24 patient-derived viruses with high-level PI resistance, GS-8374 showed lower mean EC(50)s and lower fold resistance than any of the clinically approved PIs. Similar to other PIs, in vitro hepatic microsomal metabolism of GS-8374 was efficiently blocked by ritonavir, suggesting a potential for effective pharmacokinetic boosting in vivo. In summary, results from this broad in vitro pharmacological profiling indicate that GS-8374 is a promising candidate to be further assessed as a new antiretroviral agent with potential for clinical efficacy in both treatment-naïve and -experienced patients.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 01/2011; 55(4):1366-76. · 4.57 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
302.53 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997–2013
    • Gilead Sciences
      • Department of Biology
      Foster City, CA, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      • College of Pharmacy
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States
  • 1995–2010
    • Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
      • Ústav organické chemie a biochemie
      Praha, Hlavni mesto Praha, Czech Republic
  • 2009
    • Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol
      Badalona, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2008
    • KU Leuven
      • Rega Institute for Medical Research
      Leuven, VLG, Belgium