Andrew L Salzman

University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, Texas, United States

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Publications (91)376.55 Total impact

  • Free Radical Biology and Medicine 11/2011; 51. DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2011.10.214 · 5.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome is associated with excessive production of nitric oxide (NO·) and superoxide (O2), forming peroxynitrite, which in turn, acts as a terminal mediator of cellular injury by producing cell necrosis and apoptosis. We examined the effect of the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst, WW-85, in a sheep model of acute lung injury and septic shock. Eighteen sheep were operatively prepared and randomly allocated to the sham, control, or WW-85 group (n = 6 each). After a tracheotomy, acute lung injury was produced in the control and WW-85 groups by insufflation of four sets of 12 breaths of cotton smoke. Then, a 30-mL suspension of live Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria (containing 2 - 5 × 10¹¹ colony-forming units) was instilled into the lungs according to an established protocol. The sham group received only the vehicle (30 mL saline). The sheep were studied in awake state for 24 h and ventilated with 100% oxygen. WW-85 was administered 1 h after injury as bolus infusion (0.1 mg/kg), followed by a continuous infusion of 0.02 mg·kg⁻¹·h⁻¹ until the end of the 24-h experimental period. Compared with injured but untreated controls, WW-85-treated animals had significantly improved gas exchange, reductions in airway obstruction, shunt formation, lung myeloperoxidase concentrations, lung malondialdehyde concentrations, lung 3-nitrotyrosine concentrations, and plasma nitrate-to-nitrite levels. Animals treated with WW-85 exhibited less microvascular leakage and improvements in pulmonary function. These results provide evidence that blockade of the nitric oxide-peroxynitrite pathway improves disturbances from septic shock, as demonstrated in a clinically relevant ovine experimental model.
    Shock (Augusta, Ga.) 02/2011; 35(2):148-55. DOI:10.1097/SHK.0b013e3181eb4556 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This prospective, randomized, controlled experimental study examined the effects of the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst WW-85 on global hemodynamics and regional microvascular blood flow (RMBF) in an established ovine model of septic shock following severe smoke inhalation injury. Twenty-one sheep were randomized into a sham group (no injury), a control group (smoke/sepsis), and a treatment group (smoke/sepsis/WW-85; n=7 each). WW-85 was administered 1h after injury as a bolus (0.1 mg/kg), followed by a continuous infusion of 0.02 mg/kg/h RMBF was analyzed using colored microspheres. All control animals developed a hypotensive, hyperdynamic circulation and increased plasma levels of nitrate/-nitrite (NOx). All hemodynamic variables and NOx levels were significantly improved in the treatment group. In visceral organs of controls, blood flow to trachea, ileum, and spleen significantly increased (p<0.05). Blood flow to kidneys and pancreas significantly decreased (p<0.05). Treatment with WW-85 stabilized blood flow to ileum, spleen, and kidneys on baseline levels and was significantly improved compared to controls (p<0.05). Cerebral blood flow deteriorated in controls, but was significantly improved in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata, and thalamus (p<0.05) by WW-85. These results provide evidence that WW-85 blocks NO production, thereby improving cardiovascular function and microcirculation.
    Burns: journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries 02/2011; 37(5):842-50. DOI:10.1016/j.burns.2010.12.020 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1Ligands of the various adenosine receptor subtypes modulate the production of pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Here we evaluated the effect of adenosine and various ligands of the adenosine receptor subtypes (A1, A2, A3) on the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) 1α production in immunostimulated RAW macrophages in vitro. Furthermore, we studied whether a selected A3 adenosine receptor agonist inhibits MIP-1α production and affects the course of inflammation in collagen-induced arthritis.2In the cultured macrophages, the A3 receptor agonist N6-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5′-N-methyluronamide (IB-MECA), and, less potently, the A2 receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl) phenethylamino-5′-N-ethyl-carboxamidoadenosine (CGS; 1–200 μM) dose-dependently suppressed the production of MIP-1α. The selective A1 receptor agonist 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA, 1–200 μM) was ineffective, and adenosine was a weak inhibitor. The inhibition of MIP-1α production by the A3 and A2 agonist was associated with suppression of its steady-state mRNA levels.3Based on the in vitro data, we concluded that activation of A3, and to a lesser extent A2 adenosine receptors suppresses MIP-1α expression. Since IB-MECA was the most potent inhibitor of MIP-1α expression, we next investigated whether it affects the production of other pro-inflammatory mediators. We observed that IB-MECA (1–300 μM) inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, the production of IL-12, IL-6, and, to a lesser extent, nitric oxide in the immunostimulated cultured macrophages.4Since MIP-α is a chemokine which enhances neutrophil recruitment into inflammatory sites, we investigated whether the A3 agonist IB-MECA affects the course of inflammation, MIP-α production and the degree of neutrophil recruitment in arthritis. In a model of collagen-induced arthritis in mice, IB-MECA (0.5 mg/kg/day) reduced the severity of joint inflammation. IB-MECA inhibited the formation of MIP-1α, IL-12 and nitrotyrosine (an indicator of reactive nitrogen species) in the paws, and suppressed neutrophil infiltration.5We conclude that adenosine receptor agonists, most notably the A3 agonist IB-MECA suppress the production of MIP-α, and exert anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, stimulation of adenosine receptor subtypes A3 and A2 may be a strategy worthy of further evaluation for the abrogation of acute or chronic inflammatory disorders.British Journal of Pharmacology (1998) 125, 379–387; doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0702040
    British Journal of Pharmacology 02/2009; 125(2):379 - 387. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjp.0702040 · 4.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endogenous purines, including inosine, have been shown to exert immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects in a variety of disease models. The dosage of inosine required for these effects has been shown to be between 200 and 600 mg kg(-1) because of the rapid metabolism of inosine in vivo. The aim of this study was to determine whether a metabolic resistant purine analog, INO-2002, exerts anti-inflammatory effects in an animal model of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Mice challenged with intratracheal LPS (50 microg) were treated with INO-2002 (30 or 100 mg kg(-1), i.p.) in divided doses at either 1 and 12 h or at 5 and 16 h. After 24 h, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was obtained to measure leukocyte infiltration by myeloperoxidase levels, lung edema by protein levels, and proinflammatory chemokine (macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha) and cytokine (TNF-alpha, IL-1, and IL-6) levels. INO-2002 (30 and 100 mg kg(-1)) reduced the LPS-mediated infiltration of leukocytes and edema as evidenced by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid reduction in levels of myeloperoxidase and protein. INO-2002 also downregulated expression of the proinflammatory mediators macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha, TNF-alpha, IL-1, and IL-6. Delaying the start of treatment by 5 h after LPS administration affected the potency of INO-2002 protective effects, with 100 but not 30 mg kg(-1) having anti-inflammatory effects. The inosine analog INO-2002 largely suppressed LPS-induced inflammation in vivo at doses lower than those needed for the naturally occurring purine inosine. These data support the proposal that purine analogs, resistant to metabolic breakdown, may represent a useful addition to the therapy of acute respiratory distress syndrome.
    Shock (Augusta, Ga.) 02/2009; 32(3):258-62. DOI:10.1097/SHK.0b013e31819c3414 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recombinant interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy for malignancy is associated with a pulmonary vascular leakage syndrome (VLS) similar to that seen in sepsis. We investigated the possibility that the IL-2-induced VLS may be associated with the release of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), and used a model of IL-2-induced VLS in sheep to test the effects of the ONOO(-) decomposition catalyst WW-85. Eighteen sheep were chronically instrumented and randomly divided into three groups (n=6 per group): sham: lactated Ringer's solution, control: IL-2, and treatment: IL-2 and WW-85. Treatment with WW-85 significantly improved lung transvascular fluid flux, decreased lipid peroxidation, limited iNOS as well as PAR intensity, prevented tachycardia, and attenuated the increase in core body temperature resulting from IL-2 treatment. These findings suggest that ONOO(-) plays a pivotal role in the pathology of IL-2-induced pulmonary VLS, and that WW-85 may become a useful treatment option.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/2008; 377(3):786-91. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.10.066 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reperfusion injury is a significant complication of the management of ST-elevation MI (STEMI). INO-1001 is a potent inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), a mediator of oxidant-induced myocyte dysfunction during reperfusion. We assessed the safety and pharmacokinetics of INO-1001 in a randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind, dose-escalating trial in 40 patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention within 24 h of onset. INO-1001 was well-tolerated. A trend toward more frequent transaminitis was observed with 800 mg. Plasma from INO1001-treated patients reduced in vitro PARP activity >90% at all doses. Serial C-reactive protein and IL-6 levels showed a trend toward blunting of inflammation with INO-1001. The apparent median terminal half-life (t(1/2)) of INO-1001 was 7.5 (25th, 75th: 5.9, 10.2) h. The results from this first trial of INO-1001 in STEMI support future investigation of INO-1001 as a novel treatment for reperfusion injury.
    Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis 07/2008; 27(4):359-64. DOI:10.1007/s11239-008-0230-1 · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endogenous purines including inosine have been shown to exert immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects in a variety of disease models. The dosage of inosine required for protection is very high because of the rapid metabolism of inosine in vivo. The aim of this study was to determine whether a metabolic-resistant purine analogue, INO-2002, exerts anti-inflammatory effects in two animal models of type I diabetes. Type I diabetes was induced chemically with streptozotocin or genetically using the non-obese diabetic (NOD) female mouse model. Mice were treated with INO-2002 or inosine as required at 30, 100, or 200 mg/kg per day, while blood glucose and diabetes incidence were monitored. The effect of INO-2002 on the pancreatic cytokine profile was also determined. INO-2002 reduced both the hyperglycaemia and incidence of diabetes in both streptozotocin-induced and spontaneous diabetes in NOD mice. INO-2002 proved to be more effective in protecting against diabetes than the naturally occurring purine, inosine, when administered at the same dose. INO-2002 treatment decreased pancreatic levels of interleukin (IL)-12 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha, while increasing levels of IL-4 and IL-10. INO-2002 also reduced pancreatic levels of the chemokine MIP-1 alpha. The inosine analogue, INO-2002, was protected more effectively than the naturally occurring purine, inosine, against development of diabetes in two separate animal models. INO-2002 exerts protective effects by changing the pancreatic cytokine expression from a destructive Th1 to a protective Th2 profile. The use of analogues of inosine such as INO-2002 should be considered as a potential preventative therapy in individuals susceptible to developing type I diabetes.
    Journal of Endocrinology 07/2008; 198(3):581-9. DOI:10.1677/JOE-07-0511 · 3.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In severe sepsis and septic shock, hemodynamic support is often complicated by a tachyphylaxis against exogenous catecholamines. Because activation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of hyperdynamic vasodilatory shock, we hypothesized that it may be beneficial to administer a specific K(ATP) channel inhibitor to prevent, or at least attenuate, hemodynamic dysfunction in sepsis. The present study was designed as a prospective and controlled laboratory experiment to elucidate the short-term effects of glipizide, a specific K(ATP) channel inhibitor, on cardiopulmonary hemodynamics and global oxygen transport in healthy sheep and sheep with endotoxemia. Ten adult ewes were anesthetized and operatively instrumented with a pulmonary artery, a femoral artery, and a foley catheter. After 24 h of recovery, healthy sheep received glipizide as a bolus infusion (4 mg/kg over 15 min). After 24 h of recovery, a continuous infusion of endotoxin (Salmonella typhosa, 10 was started in the same sheep and administered for the next 17 h. After 16 h of endotoxemia, glipizide was given as described above. Administration of glipizide was followed by a transient, but significant, increase in mean arterial pressure in both healthy controls (95 +/- 3 mmHg vs. 101 +/- 2 mmHg, P < 0.05) and sheep with endotoxemia (86 +/- 3 mmHg vs. 93 +/- 3 mmHg, P < 0.05). However, the increase in mean arterial pressure was longer lasting in ewes with endotoxemia. Cardiac index, oxygen delivery index, arterial lactate concentrations, and arterial pH were not significantly affected by glipizide. Therefore, administration of glipizide may represent a beneficial therapeutic option to treat arterial hypotension resulting from sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Additional studies are required to determine the effects of continuous infusion of glipizide in the presence of systemic inflammation.
    Shock 12/2006; 26(5):516-21. DOI:10.1097/01.shk.0000228795.33421.45 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Temozolomide is a DNA-methylating agent used in the treatment of malignant gliomas. In this study, we have examined if inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) could increase the cytotoxicity of temozolomide, particularly in cells deficient in DNA mismatch repair. Athymic mice, transplanted with mismatch repair-proficient [D-245 MG] or deficient [D-245 MG (PR)] xenografts, were treated with a combination of temozolomide and the PARP inhibitor, INO-1001. For the tumors deficient in mismatch repair, the most effective dose of INO-1001 was found to be 150 mg/kg, given i.p. thrice at 4-hour intervals with the first injection in combination with 262.5 mg/kg temozolomide (0.75 LD(10)). This dose of temozolomide by itself induced no partial regressions and a 4-day growth delay. In two separate experiments, the combination therapy increased the growth delay by 21.6 and 9.7 days with partial regressions observed in four of eight and three of nine mice, respectively. The addition of INO-1001 had a more modest, yet statistically significant, increase in tumor growth delay in the mismatch repair-proficient xenografts. In these experiments, mice were treated with a lower amount of temozolomide (88 mg/kg), which resulted in growth delays of 43.1 and 39.2 days. When the temozolomide treatment was in combination with 200 mg/kg INO-1001, there was an increase in growth delay to 48.9 and 45.7 days, respectively. These results suggest that inhibition of PARP may increase the efficacy of temozolomide in the treatment of malignant gliomas, particularly in tumors deficient in DNA mismatch repair.
    Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 10/2005; 4(9):1364-8. DOI:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-05-0128 · 5.68 Impact Factor
  • ChemInform 09/2005; 36(37). DOI:10.1002/chin.200537149
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    ABSTRACT: Novel indeno[1,2-c]isoquinolinone derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). These potent nonmutagenic PARP-1 inhibitors possess an additional five-membered ring between the B and C rings of 6(5H)-phenanthridinone. The most potent PARP-1 inhibitors were obtained from the substitution of the D ring at the C-9 position, in particular sulfonamide and N-acyl analogues (6 and 11). The 9-sulfonamide analogues 11a and 12a exhibited IC(50) values of 1 and 10 nM, respectively.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 09/2005; 48(16):5100-3. DOI:10.1021/jm0502891 · 5.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to investigate if antibodies raised against N'-terminal Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) flagellin could afford protection in two lethal mouse models of Pa infection. To that end, rabbit polyclonal antibodies were generated against the N'-terminal domains (amino acids 1-156) of recombinant Pa01 or Salmonella muenchen flagellins, termed anti-N'-fla-b and anti-N'-fla-Sm, respectively. In vitro, anti-N'-fla-b but not anti-N'-fla-Sm IgG specifically recognized recombinant and Pa endogenous flagellin type b proteins, total bacterial lysates of Pa type b, and inhibited Pa01 invasion into A549 cells. In vivo, administration of anti-N'-fla-b afforded a remarkable improvement in survival in lethal peritonitis (90% vs. 12% in control; p<0.001) and burn infection (83% vs. 8-17% in control groups; p<0.005) Pa models. These findings would suggest that the N'-terminal domain of Pa flagellin harbors critically important bioactive domains and that an antibody-targeted, neutralization approach directed at this region could provide a novel therapeutic strategy to combat Pa infection.
    International Journal of Molecular Medicine 08/2005; 16(1):165-71. DOI:10.3892/ijmm.16.1.165 · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: [reaction: see text] The synthesis of 6,11-dihydro-5H-indeno[1,2-c]isoquinolin-5-ones from the base-promoted condensation reaction of homophthalic anhydride and 2-(bromomethyl)-benzonitrile and a convenient method for the synthesis of indolo[3,2-c]isoquinolinones are described.
    Organic Letters 05/2005; 7(9):1753-6. DOI:10.1021/ol050331m · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the effects of a novel, intermittently administered, aerosolized nitric oxide donor, methyl-N-2-dimethylaminoethyl-3-aminoproprionid/nitric oxide (DMDE-NO), on pulmonary hemodynamic responses to sepsis. Prospective, randomized, controlled study in awake sheep. Investigational intensive care unit of a university medical center. Thirteen instrumented merino ewes weighing 36 +/- 0.9 kg underwent a hemodynamic study 1 wk postoperatively. On the day of the experiment, the sheep received a tracheotomy and mechanical ventilation was subsequently started. Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria were infused intravenously, beginning at time 0 hrs and continuing throughout the 48-hr experiment. The animals were randomly assigned to receive nebulized DMDE-NO 1 mg/kg, dissolved in 8 mL of saline (DMDE-NO group, n = 7), or nebulized saline alone (control group, n = 6) delivered by a nebulizer. The nebulizations started at 2, 6, 20, 24, and 43 hrs after the baseline, each time lasting for 1 hr. Inhaled aerosolized DMDE-NO reversibly reduced the sepsis-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure by 13-17% and pulmonary vascular resistance index by 21-31% compared with the values registered before the administration of the drug. Systemic hemodynamics underwent an early hypodynamic phase followed by a gradual increase in cardiac index and a decrease in both mean arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance index, but with no significant difference between groups. Gas exchange variables and plasma nitrite/nitrate did not differ significantly between groups either. In sheep, inhaled nebulized DMDE-NO reduces sepsis-induced changes in pulmonary hemodynamics with no change in systemic hemodynamics or gas exchange.
    Critical Care Medicine 04/2005; 33(3):616-22. DOI:10.1097/01.CCM.0000156282.22495.A1 · 6.31 Impact Factor
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    K G K Murthy · C Szabó · A L Salzman
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    ABSTRACT: The stimulation of epithelial cells by cytokines or lipopolysaccharide results in a marked increase in cellular mRNA and protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) disproportionate to the small upregulation in transcriptional activity. The molecular mechanisms by which cytokines increase iNOS expression are not well characterized. DLD-1 cells were treated with cytokines and we studied the expression patterns of various genes by using western blot analysis and RT-PCR assay method. Expression levels of iNOS protein were detected after 4 h of incubation with cytokines and reached a peak at 10 h. After cytokine treatment, iNOS mRNA molecules received longer poly(A) tails (200-500 adenosine residues) and total iNOS mRNA levels also increased significantly. Western blot analysis revealed that poly(A) polymerase (PAP) undergoes a significant dephosphorylation process. At the same time, cytokines have no significant effect on the expression pattern of other factors involved in polyadenylation. Cytokines appear to induce elongation of iNOS mRNA poly(A) tail length by activating PAP. These results indicate a novel link between mRNA 3' end formation and iNOS gene expression.
    Inflammation Research 12/2004; 53(11):604-8. DOI:10.1007/s00011-004-1301-1 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed as a prospective laboratory experiment to evaluate the effects of the ATP-sensitive potassium-channel inhibitor glibenclamide on hemodynamics and end-organ function in an ovine model of hemorrhagic shock. Twenty-four adult sheep were anesthetized and surgically prepared to measure hemodynamics of the systemic and pulmonary circulation. The anterior surface of the abdominal aorta was exposed at a location 6 cm superior to the iliac bifurcation. After a 60-min period of stabilization, this location was punctured with a 14-G needle. To induce a hemorrhagic hypotension (mean arterial pressure [MAP] less than 50 mmHg) via bleeding, the needle was left in place for 15 s to insure good blood flow. Thereafter, it was removed, and the abdomen closed. The animals were then randomized to receive either glibenclamide (4 mg/kg over 15 min) or an equal volume of the vehicle, started 1 h postinjury. Hemodynamic variables were measured every 30 min. Compared with the control group, MAP and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) were significantly higher in the intervention group throughout the entire 6-h study period. Ileal pH and urine output were higher in treated than in control animals (4 h, ileal pH 7.29 +/- 0.31 vs. 7.17 +/- 0.6; 6 h, urine output 36 +/- 9 vs. 7.5 +/- 2 mL; P value less than 0.05 each). Because glibenclamide improved both hemodynamics and organ function, it may be a beneficial component in the acute treatment of hemorrhagic shock.
    Shock 11/2004; 22(4):387-91. DOI:10.1097/01.shk.0000140661.78744.f6 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The activation of poly (adenosine diphosphate) ribose synthetase (PARS) is known to be important in the cellular response to oxidative stress. Previous studies have reported that PARS inhibition confers protection in models of endotoxic shock and ischemia-reperfusion. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of PARS inhibition in lung ischemia-reperfusion injury (LIRI). Left lungs of Long-Evans rats were rendered ischemic for 90 minutes and reperfused for up to 4 hours. Treated animals received 3 mg/kg of INO-1001 (a PARS inhibitor) intravenously 30 minutes before ischemia. Injury was quantitated in terms of tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) content, vascular permeability ((125)I radiolabeled bovine serum albumin extravasation) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) leukocyte content. BAL fluid was assessed for cytokine and chemokine content by enzyme-linked immunoassay. Further samples were processed for nuclear protein analysis by electromobility shift assay (EMSA) and cellular death by terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated d-UTP biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay and caspase-3 staining. Lung vascular permeability was reduced in treated animals by 73% compared with positive controls (p < 0.009). The protective effects of PARS inhibition correlated with a 46% reduction in tissue MPO content (p < 0.008) and marked reductions in BAL leukocyte accumulation. This positively correlated with the diminished expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and nuclear transcription factors, as well as decreased levels of cellular death. The deleterious effects of LIRI are in part mediated by the formation of free radicals and superoxides, which lead to DNA single-strand breaks. This leads to activation of PARS, which causes rapid cellular energy depletion and cell death. PARS inhibition is protective against this and represents a potentially useful therapeutic tool in the prevention of LIRI.
    The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 11/2004; 23(11):1290-6. DOI:10.1016/j.healun.2003.08.036 · 6.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) is the major long-term complication affecting lung transplant recipients, and is characterized pathologically by chronic inflammatory and fibroproliferative airway disease. Based on studies revealing anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties of poly (ADP)-ribose synthetase (PARS) inhibitors, we hypothesized that their administration would be protective in a heterotopic model of experimental OB. We transplanted rat tracheas from Brown-Norway donors into Lewis recipients, and treated 2 groups with a novel PARS inhibitor, INO-1001. One group received 14 days of treatment, whereas a second received delayed treatment beginning on Day 7 post-transplant. Tracheas were analyzed by light microscopy and computerized morphometry. Effects on cytokine transcription, nuclear transcription factor activation and cellular death were assessed by in situ hybridization for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), electromobility shift assays for nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays, respectively. PARS inhibition significantly decreased luminal obstruction (p < 0.001) and enhanced preservation of epithelial lining (p < 0.001) at 14 days post-transplant. Day 7 controls confirmed the development of an obstructive lesion in the lumen, averaging 28% occlusion. Delayed treatment (beginning on Day 7) arrested (p < 0.001) progression of the established lesion. Allograft airways treated with INO-1001 demonstrated attenuated NF-kappaB nuclear translocation, reduced transcription of TNF-alpha mRNA, and decreased cellular death on TUNEL and caspase 3 staining. PARS inhibition is anti-inflammatory, protects against experimental OB, and is associated with enhanced preservation of respiratory epithelium and decreased cellular death. Delayed treatment with INO-1001 arrests progression of the lesion developed by Day 7. These studies suggest that activation of PARS plays a critical role in the development of airway obliterative disease.
    The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 08/2004; 23(8):993-1002. DOI:10.1016/j.healun.2003.08.009 · 6.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated that intravenous poly (ADP) ribose synthetase (PARS) inhibition protects against experimental lung ischemia reperfusion injury (LIRI) in an in situ, hilar occlusion model. This study determined its efficacy when administered intratracheally (IT). Left lungs of rats were rendered ischemic for 90 minutes, and reperfused for up to 4 hours. Treated animals received INO-1001, a PARS inhibitor, intratracheally 30 minutes before ischemia, while controls were given IT vehicle at equivalent volumes. All groups contained at least 4 animals. Lung injury was quantitated utilizing vascular permeability to radiolabeled albumin, tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) content, alveolar leukocyte cell counts, and arterial pO(2) at 4 hours of reperfusion. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) assessed the nuclear translocation of NFkappaB and AP-1 in injured left lungs, while ELISAs quantitated secreted cytokine induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC) and MCP-1 protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Intratracheal PARS inhibition was 73% (p < 0.0001) and 87% (p < 0.0001) protective against increases in vascular permeability and alveolar leukocyte accumulation, respectively, and improved arterial pO(2) (p < 0.0004) at 4 hours of reperfusion. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in treated lungs was reduced by 70% (p < 0.02). The nuclear translocation of NFkappaB and AP-1 was attenuated at 15 minutes of reperfusion, and the secretion of CINC and MCP-1 (p < 0.05) protein into the alveolus was diminished at 4 hours of reperfusion. Intratracheal INO-1001 protects against experimental LIRI. The reduction in secreted chemokine protein at 4 hours of reperfusion appears to be mediated at the pretranscriptional level through attenuated NFkappaB and AP-1 activation. This route may optimize future donor organ management and improve lung recipient outcomes.
    The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 06/2004; 77(6):1938-43. DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2003.10.120 · 3.85 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
376.55 Total Impact Points


  • 2003–2011
    • University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston
      • Department of Anesthesiology
      Galveston, Texas, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Brighton
      • School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences
      Brighton, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1995–2009
    • Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
      • Division of Critical Care Medicine
      Cincinnati, OH, United States
  • 2005
    • Universitetet i Tromsø
      Tromsø, Troms, Norway
  • 2003–2004
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery
      • • Department of Surgery
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2002
    • Rutgers New Jersey Medical School
      • Department of Surgery
      Newark, New Jersey, United States
    • University Hospital of Lausanne
      Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland
  • 2000
    • Shriners Hospitals for Children
      Tampa, Florida, United States
  • 1997–2000
    • University of Cincinnati
      • Department of Surgery
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States