Jean Cappello

Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia

Are you Jean Cappello?

Claim your profile

Publications (8)31.85 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glutathione transferase Kappa (GSTK1-1) also termed disulfide bond-forming oxidoreductase A-like protein (DsbA-L) has been implicated in the post-translational multimerization of adiponectin and has been negatively correlated with obesity in mice and humans. We investigated adiponectin in Gstk1(-/-) mice and surprisingly found no difference in the levels of total serum adiponectin or the level of high molecular weight (HMW) multimers when compared with normal controls. Non-reducing SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting also showed a similar distribution of low, middle and HMW multimers in normal and Gstk1(-/-) mice. Variation in adiponectin has been correlated with glucose tolerance and with the levels of phosphorylated AMP-kinase but we found similar glucose tolerance and similar levels of phospho 5-AMP-activated protein kinase in normal and Gstk1(-/-) mice. Consequently, our findings suggest that GSTK1-1 is not absolutely required for adiponectin multimerization in vivo and alternate pathways may be activated in GSTK1-1 deficiency.
    International journal of obesity (2005) 01/2012; 36(10):1366-9. · 5.22 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) has potential for use in cancer therapy and the treatment of metabolic acidosis. However, DCA can create a deficiency of glutathione transferase Zeta (GSTZ1-1). Gstz1 knockout mice have elevated oxidative stress and low glutathione levels that increases their sensitivity to acetaminophen toxicity. As it is highly likely that patients that are treated with DCA will develop drug induced GSTZ1-1 deficiency we considered they could be at risk of elevated toxicity if they are exposed to other drugs that cause oxidative stress or consume glutathione (GSH). To test this hypothesis we treated mice with DCA and acetaminophen (APAP). Surprisingly, the mice pre-treated with DCA suffered less APAP-mediated hepatotoxicity than untreated mice. This protection is most likely due to an increased capacity for the liver to synthesize GSH, since DCA increased the expression and activity of glutamate-cysteine ligase GCL, the rate-limiting enzyme of GSH synthesis. Other pathways for acetaminophen disposal were unchanged or diminished by DCA. Pre-treatment with DCA may be of use in other settings where the maintenance of protective levels of GSH are required. However, DCA may lower the efficacy of drugs that rely on oxidative stress and the depletion of GSH to enhance their cytotoxicity or of drugs that are detoxified by GSH conjugation. Consequently, as the use of DCA in the clinic is likely to increase, it will be critical to evaluate the interactions of DCA with other drugs to ensure the combinations retain their efficacy and do not cause enhanced toxicity.
    Biochemical pharmacology 11/2011; 83(3):427-33. · 4.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glutathione transferase kappa (GSTK1-1) is a highly conserved, mitochondrial enzyme potentially involved in redox reactions. GSTK1-1-deficient mice were generated to further study the enzyme's biological role. Reduced and total glutathione levels in liver and kidney were unchanged by GSTK1-1 deficiency and NADPH quinone oxidoreductase 1 expression was not elevated indicating that there is no general underlying oxidative stress in Gstk1(-/-) mice. Electron microscopy of liver and kidney showed no changes in mitochondrial morphology with GSTK1-1 deficiency. The death of a number of Gstk1(-/-) males with urinary tract problems prompted close examination of the kidneys. Electron microscopy revealed glomerular basement membrane changes at 3 months, accompanied by detectable microalbuminuria in male mice (albumin:creatinine ratio of 2.66±0.83 vs 1.13±0.20 mg/mmol for Gstk1(-/-) and wild-type (WT), respectively, P=0.001). This was followed by significant foot process effacement (40-55% vs 10% for Gstk1(-/-) and WT, respectively) at 6 months of age in all Gstk1(-/-) mice examined. Kidney tubules were ultrastructurally normal. Compared with human disease, the Gstk1(-/-) kidneys show changes seen in glomerulopathies causing nephrotic syndrome. Gstk1(-/-) mice may offer insights into the early development of glomerular nephropathies.
    Laboratory Investigation 08/2011; 91(11):1572-83. · 3.96 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The level of glutathione transferase Kappa (GSTK1-1) has been correlated with obesity (Liu et.al. 2008 PNAS 105: 18302-7) and a polymorphism in the hGSTK1 promoter has been associated with insulin secretion and fat deposition (Gao et al 2009 Endocr J 56: 487-94). We searched for additional polymorphisms that may influence GSTK1-1 function or expression. Two SNPs were identified in the 5' non-coding region. A SNP at -1308 that occurs in Chinese subjects is predicted to eliminate a FXR/RXR transcription factor-binding site and causes a 55% increase in transcription rate in HepG2 cells and a 59% decrease in HEK293 cells. These data suggest that the impact of this polymorphism is complex and tissue specific. A SNP at -1032 alters a methylation site and represses transcription by 38%. These observations provide the first functional insight into genetic factors that regulate hGSTK1 expression and may directly influence insulin secretion and fat deposition.
    Genomics 02/2010; 95(5):299-305. · 3.01 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glutathione transferase Zeta (GSTZ1-1) is identical to maleylacetoacetate isomerase and catalyses a significant step in the catabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine. Exposure of GSTZ1-1 deficient mice to high dietary phenylalanine causes a rapid loss of circulating white blood cells (WBCs). The loss was significant (P<0.05) after 2 days and total WBCs were reduced by 60% after 6 days. The rapid loss of WBCs was attributed to the accumulation of the catabolic intermediates maleylacetoacetate or maleylacetone (MA) in the circulation. Serum from GSTZ1-1 deficient mice treated with phenylalanine was cytotoxic to splenocytes from normal BALB/c mice and direct incubation of normal splenocytes with MA caused a rapid loss of viability. Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) has been used therapeutically to treat lactic acidosis and is potentially of use in cancer chemotherapy. Since DCA can inactivate GSTZ1-1 there is a possibility that long-term treatment of patients with DCA could cause GSTZ1-1 deficiency and susceptibility to oxidative stress and phenylalanine/tyrosine-induced WBC loss. However, although we found that DCA at 200mg/(kg day) causes a severe loss of hepatic GSTZ1-1 activity in BALB/c mice, it did not induce WBC cytotoxicity when combined with high dietary phenylalanine.
    Biochemical pharmacology 04/2009; 77(8):1358-63. · 4.25 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Omega class glutathione transferase GSTO1-1 can catalyze the reduction of pentavalent methylated arsenic species and is responsible for the biotransfomation of potentially toxic alpha-haloketones. We investigated the cause of GSTO1-1 deficiency in the T-47D breast cancer cell line and found that the cell line is hemizygous for a polymorphic allele that encodes the deletion of Glu155. Northern and Western blots show that T-47D cells contain GSTO1 mRNA but no GSTO1-1 protein suggesting that the deletion of Glu155 causes GSTO1-1 deficiency in vivo. In further support of this contention we found that lymphoblastoid cell lines from subjects who are heterozygous for the deletion of Glu155 have only 60% of normal activity with the GSTO1-1 specific substrate 4-nitrophenacyl glutathione. Pulse-chase studies showed that the deletion of Glu155 causes increased turnover of GSTO1-1 in T47-D cells. These data establish the fact that the polymorphic deletion of Glu155 can cause GSTO1-1 deficiency in vivo. GSTO1-1 expression is elevated in some cell lines that are resistant to the cytotoxic cancer drugs adriamycin, etoposide and cisplatinum but its specific contribution to multi drug resistance has not been evaluated. In this study GSTO1-1 deficient T47-D cells were used to determine if GSTO1-1 contributes directly to arsenic and drug resistance. We established stable expression of normal GSTO1-1 in T-47D cells and found that this did not alter sensitivity to arsenic trioxide, cisplatinum daunorubicin or etoposide.
    The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 06/2008; 40(11):2553-9. · 4.15 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glutathione transferase omega 1-1 (GSTO1-1) catalyzes the biotransformation of arsenic and is implicated as a factor influencing the age-at-onset of Alzheimer's disease and the posttranslational activation of interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta). Investigation of the biological role of GSTO1-1 variants has been hampered by the lack of a specific assay for GSTO1-1 activity in tissue samples that contain other GSTs and other enzymes with similar catalytic specificities. Previous studies (P. G. Board and M. W. Anders, Chem. Res. Toxicol. 20 (2007) 149-154) have shown that GSTO1-1 catalyzes the reduction of S-(phenacyl)glutathiones to acetophenones. A new substrate, S-(4-nitrophenacyl)glutathione (4NPG), has been prepared and found to have a high turnover with GSTO1-1 but negligible activity with GSTO2-2 and other members of the glutathione transferase superfamily. A spectrophotometric assay with 4NPG as a substrate has been used to determine GSTO1-1 activity in several human breast cancer cell lines and in mouse liver and brain tissues.
    Analytical Biochemistry 04/2008; 374(1):25-30. · 2.58 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glutathione S-transferase (GST) zeta (GSTZ1-1) plays a significant role in the catabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine, and a deficiency of GSTZ1-1 results in the accumulation of maleylacetoacetate and its derivatives maleylacetone (MA) and succinylacetone. Induction of GST subunits was detected in the liver of Gstz1(-/-) mice by Western blotting with specific antisera and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of glutathione affinity column-purified proteins. The greatest induction was observed in members of the mu class. Induction of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 and the catalytic and modifier subunits of glutamate-cysteine ligase was also observed. Many of the enzymes that are induced in Gstz1(-/-) mice are regulated by antioxidant response elements that respond to oxidative stress via the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway. It is significant that diminished glutathione concentrations were also observed in the liver of Gstz1(-/-) mice, which supports the conclusion that under normal dietary conditions, the accumulation of electrophilic intermediates such as maleylacetoacetate and MA results in a high level of oxidative stress. Elevated GST activities in the livers of Gstz1(-/-) mice suggest that GSTZ1-1 deficiency may alter the metabolism of some drugs and xenobiotics. Gstz1(-/-) mice given acetaminophen demonstrated increased hepatotoxicity compared with wild-type mice. This toxicity may be attributed to the increased GST activity or the decreased hepatic concentrations of glutathione, or both. Patients with acquired deficiency of GSTZ1-1 caused by therapeutic exposure to dichloroacetic acid for the clinical treatment of lactic acidosis may be at increased risk of drug- and chemical-induced toxicity.
    Molecular Pharmacology 03/2006; 69(2):650-7. · 4.41 Impact Factor