[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SummaryThe 1p36 region of the human genome has been identified as containing a QTL for BMD in multiple studies. We analysed the TNFRSF1B gene from this region, which encodes the TNF receptor 2, in two large population-based cohorts. Our results suggest that
variation in TNFRSF1B is associated with BMD.
IntroductionThe TNFRSF1B gene, encoding the TNF receptor 2, is a strong positional and functional candidate gene for impaired bone structure through
the role that TNF has in bone cells. The aims of this study were to evaluate the role of variations in the TNFRSF1B gene on bone structure and osteoporotic fracture risk in postmenopausal women.
MethodsSix SNPs in TNFRSF1B were analysed in a cohort of 1,190 postmenopausal Australian women, three of which were also genotyped in an independent
cohort of 811 UK postmenopausal women. Differences in phenotypic means for genotype groups were examined using one-way ANOVA
ResultsSignificant associations were seen for IVS1+5580A>G with BMD and QUS parameters in the Australian population (P = 0.008 − 0.034) and with hip BMD parameters in the UK population (P = 0.005 − 0.029). Significant associations were also observed between IVS1+6528G>A and hip BMD parameters in the UK cohort (P = 0.0002 − 0.003). We then combined the data from the two cohorts and observed significant associations between both IVS1+5580A>G and IVS1+6528G>A
and hip BMD parameters (P = 0.002 − 0.033).
ConclusionsGenetic variation in TNFRSF1B plays a role in the determination of bone structure in Caucasian postmenopausal women, possibly through effects on osteoblast
and osteoclast differentiation.
Osteoporosis International 04/2012; 19(7):961-968. · 4.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The biosynthesis of estrogens from androgens is catalyzed by aromatase P450 enzyme, coded by the CYP19A1 gene on chromosome 15q21.2. Genetic variation within the CYP19A1 gene sequence has been shown to alter the function of the enzyme. The aim of this study is to investigate whether a non-synonymous Arg264Cys (rs700519) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is associated with altered levels of circulating estradiol, areal bone mineral density or fracture.
This population- based study of 1,022 elderly Caucasian women (mean age 74.95 ± 2.60 years) was genotyped for the rs700519 SNP were analyzed to detect any association with endocrine and bone phenotypes.
The genotype frequencies were 997 wildtype (97.6%), 24 heterozygous (2.3%) and 1 homozygous (0.1%). When individuals were grouped by genotype, there was no association between the polymorphism and serum estradiol (wildtype 27.5 ± 16.0; variants 31.2 ± 18.4, P = 0.27). There was also no association seen on hip bone mineral density (wildtype 0.81 ± 0.12; 0.84 ± 0.14 for variants, P = 0.48) or femoral neck bone mineral density (0.69 ± 0.10 for wildtype; 0.70 ± 0.12 for variants, P = 0.54) before or after correction of the data with age, height, weight and calcium therapy. There were also no associations with quantitative ultrasound measures of bone structure (broadband ultrasound attenuation, speed of sound and average stiffness).
In a cohort of 1,022 elderly Western Australian women, the presence of Arg264Cys (rs700519) polymorphism was not found to be associated with serum estradiol, bone structure or phenotypes.
BMC Medical Genetics 12/2011; 12:165. · 2.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 17β-Estradiol is important in maintaining bone structure, and regulation of its synthesis plays an important role in the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis. We and others have demonstrated associations between variation in the CYP19A1 gene (encoding aromatase) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) phenotypes in women. In the present study 33 tag polymorphisms were genotyped across the CYP19A1 gene in a population of 1,185 Caucasian postmenopausal women to test the association between sequence variations, total DXA hip aBMD, and circulating 17β-estradiol levels. An in silico bioinformatics analysis was performed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with aBMD to identify putative functional effects, while linkage disequilibrium analysis of these SNPs was undertaken with previously published sequence variants. Five SNPs located in the central third of the gene were strongly associated with total-hip aBMD after adjustment for age (P = 0.006-0.013). A haplotype analysis of these five SNPs revealed an association between the haplotype C-G-G-G-C and increased aBMD (P = 0.008) and the haplotype A-A-A-A-A and a decreased aBMD (P = 0.021). The haplotype frequency was 9.0% for C-G-G-G-C and 15.4% for A-A-A-A-A, with the variation in mean total-hip aBMD explained by the haplotype analyses being 5% and 7%, respectively. None of these polymorphisms was significantly associated with circulating 17β-estradiol levels. In conclusion, common genetic variations within the CYP19A1 gene are significantly associated with aBMD in postmenopausal Caucasian women.
Calcified Tissue International 09/2011; 89(6):464-71. · 2.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, homozygous deletion of the UGT2B17 gene has shown association with hip fracture. Using a high-throughput qRT-PCR assay, we genotyped UGT2B17 copy number variation (CNV) in 1,347 elderly Caucasian women and examined for effects on bone phenotypes. We found no evidence of association between UGT2B17 CNV and osteoporosis risk in this population.
Genetic studies of osteoporosis commonly examine SNPs in candidate genes or whole genome analyses, but insertions and deletions of DNA, collectively called CNV, also comprise a large amount of the genetic variability between individuals. Previously, homozygous deletion of the UGT2B17 gene in CNV 4q13.2, which encodes an enzyme that mediates the glucuronidation of steroid hormones, has shown association with the risk of hip fracture.
We used a quantitative real-time PCR assay for genotyping the UGT2B17 CNV in a well-characterized population study of 1,347 Caucasian women aged 75.2 ± 2.7 years (mean ± SD), to assess the effect of the CNV on bone mass density (BMD) at the total hip site and osteoporosis risk.
The UGT2B17 CNV distribution was consistent with the expected Hardy-Weinberg distribution and not different from frequencies previously reported in a Caucasian population. Data from ANCOVA of age- and weight-adjusted BMD for UGT2B17 CNV genotype showed no significant difference between genotype groups. Individuals with homozygous or heterozygous deletion of the UGT2B17 gene showed no increased risk of incident fragility fracture.
These data suggest that quantitative real-time PCR is a rapid and efficient technique for determination of candidate CNVs, including the UGT2B17 CNV; however, we found no evidence of an effect of UGT2B17 CNV on osteoporosis risk in elderly Caucasian women.
Osteoporosis International 09/2010; 22(6):1981-6. · 4.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis is a highly heritable trait that appears to be influenced by multiple genes. Genome-wide linkage studies have highlighted the chromosomal region 3p14-p21 as a quantitative trait locus for BMD. We have previously published evidence suggesting that the ARHGEF3 gene from this region is associated with BMD in women. The product of this gene activates the RHOA GTPase, the gene for which is also located within this region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of genetic polymorphism in RHOA on bone density in women. Sequence variation within the RHOA gene region was determined using 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a discovery cohort of 769 female sibs. Of the 9 SNPs, one was found to be monomorphic with the others representing 3 distinct linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks. Using FBAT software, significant associations were found between two of these LD blocks and BMD Z-score of the spine and hip (P=0.001-0.036). The LD block tagged by the SNP rs17595772 showed maximal association, with the more common G allele at rs17595772 associated with decreased BMD Z-score. Genotyping for rs17595772 in a replication cohort of 780 postmenopausal women confirmed an association with BMD Z-score (P=0.002-0.036). Again, the G allele was found to be associated with a reduced hip and spine BMD Z-score. These results support the implication of the RhoGTPase-RhoGEF pathway in osteoporosis, and suggest that one or more genes in this pathway may be responsible for the linkage observed between 3p14-p21 and BMD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous data from our group indicate that BMD is linked to chromosome 3p14-p21. Because the filamin B (FLNB gene resides in this region, is the cause of skeletal dysplasias, and was identified among the top genes in our bioinformatics analysis, we hypothesized a role for FLNB in the regulation of bone structure in the general population. Using a tag single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) approach, a family study of 767 female sibs in which the 3p14-p21 linkage with BMD was previously shown was examined. FLNB variants showing a BMD association were tested in two additional data sets, a study of 1085 UK female twins and a population study (CAIFOS) of 1315 Australian women. Genotype-expression studies were performed in 96 human osteoblast lines to examine the variants in vitro. rs7637505, rs9822918, rs2177153, and rs2001972 showed association with femoral neck (p = 0.0002-0.02) in the family-based study. The twin study provided further support for an association between rs7637505 and femoral neck and spine BMD (p = 0.02-0.03). The CAIFOS study further suggested an association between rs2177153 and rs9822918 and femoral neck BMD (p = 0.004-0.03). Prevalent fractures were increased in carriers of the A allele of rs2177153 (p = 0.009). In vitro studies showed association between rs11130605, itself in strong LD with rs7637505, and FLNB mRNA expression. These findings suggest common variants in FLNB have effects on bone structure in women. Although the location of variants having effects is not entirely consistent, variation at the 5' end of the gene may reflect effects on levels of FLNB transcription efficiency.
Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 06/2009; 24(12):1989-97. · 6.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the role of serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) and OPG gene polymorphisms in relation to cardiovascular (CV) and all-cause mortality in elderly women.
The OPG/RANK/RANKL plays a vital role in bone cell biology. It has also been detected in myocardial tissue and atherosclerotic plaques. In some population studies, OPG and OPG gene polymorphisms have been associated with CV disease risk. DESIGN, MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: In an 8.5-year cohort population study of 1333 postmenopausal women mean age 75.2 ± 2.7 years, serum OPG concentrations above the median were associated with an increased risk of all-cause [odds ratio (OR) 1.39 (1.04-1.85)], and in particular CV mortality [OR 1.83 (1.10-3.05)], before and after adjusting for age, BMI, treated hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, previous HRT use, calcium supplementation and smoking. Genotyping the OPG gene did not provide further information on the association between OPG and CV risk or mortality events.
Raised osteoprotegerin appears to be an independent risk factor for total and CV death and thus has potential as a useful biomarker of risk as well as a potential target for therapeutic intervention.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis is a common and debilitating bone disease characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD), a highly heritable and polygenic trait. Genome-wide linkage studies have identified 3p14-p21 as a quantitative trait locus for BMD. The ARHGEF3 gene is situated within this region and was identified as a strong positional candidate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of variation in ARHGEF3 on bone density in women. Sequence variation within ARHGEF3 was analyzed with 17 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a discovery cohort of 769 female sibs. Significant associations were found with family-based association tests between five SNPs and various measures of age-adjusted BMD (p = 0.0007-0.041) with rs7646054 showing maximal association. Analysis of the data with QPDTPHASE suggested that the more common G allele at rs7646054 is associated with decreased age-adjusted BMD. Significant associations were also demonstrated between 3-SNP haplotypes and age-adjusted spine and femoral-neck BMD (p = 0.002 and 0.003, respectively). rs7646054 was then genotyped in a replication cohort, and significant associations with hip and spine BMD were confirmed (p = 0.003-0.038), as well as an association with fracture rate (p = 0.02). Again, the G allele was associated with a decrease in age-adjusted BMD at each site studied. In conclusion, genetic variation in ARHGEF3 plays a role in the determination of bone density in Caucasian women. This data implicates the RhoGTPase-RhoGEF pathway in osteoporosis.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 07/2008; 82(6):1262-9. · 11.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis is diagnosed by the measurement of bone mineral density, which is a highly heritable and multifactorial trait. We aimed to identify genetic loci that are associated with bone mineral density.
In this genome-wide association study, we identified the most promising of 314 075 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2094 women in a UK study. We then tested these SNPs for replication in 6463 people from three other cohorts in western Europe. We also investigated allelic expression in lymphoblast cell lines. We tested the association between the replicated SNPs and osteoporotic fractures with data from two studies.
We identified genome-wide evidence for an association between bone mineral density and two SNPs (p<5x10(-8)). The SNPs were rs4355801, on chromosome 8, near to the TNFRSF11B (osteoprotegerin) gene, and rs3736228, on chromosome 11 in the LRP5 (lipoprotein-receptor-related protein) gene. A non-synonymous SNP in the LRP5 gene was associated with decreased bone mineral density (rs3736228, p=6.3x10(-12) for lumbar spine and p=1.9x10(-4) for femoral neck) and an increased risk of both osteoporotic fractures (odds ratio [OR] 1.3, 95% CI 1.09-1.52, p=0.002) and osteoporosis (OR 1.3, 1.08-1.63, p=0.008). Three SNPs near the TNFRSF11B gene were associated with decreased bone mineral density (top SNP, rs4355801: p=7.6x10(-10) for lumbar spine and p=3.3x10(-8) for femoral neck) and increased risk of osteoporosis (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.01-1.42, p=0.038). For carriers of the risk allele at rs4355801, expression of TNFRSF11B in lymphoblast cell lines was halved (p=3.0x10(-6)). 1883 (22%) of 8557 people were at least heterozygous for these risk alleles, and these alleles had a cumulative association with bone mineral density (trend p=2.3x10(-17)). The presence of both risk alleles increased the risk of osteoporotic fractures (OR 1.3, 1.08-1.63, p=0.006) and this effect was independent of bone mineral density.
Two gene variants of key biological proteins increase the risk of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture. The combined effect of these risk alleles on fractures is similar to that of most well-replicated environmental risk factors, and they are present in more than one in five white people, suggesting a potential role in screening.
The Lancet 05/2008; 371(9623):1505-12. · 39.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate polymorphisms in postinsulin receptor signaling. To investigate PIK3R1, SLC2A4, SLC2A4RG, and MEF2A to determine whether these genes are associated with susceptibility to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or key phenotypic features of insulin resistance in subjects with PCOS.
Participants with PCOS were recruited from a clinical practice database, and controls from the general community.
One hundred seventy-three patients with PCOS conforming to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) diagnostic criteria, all of Caucasian descent; 107 normally ovulating women of white descent from the general community.
Drawing of blood for DNA extraction.
Frequency of PIK3R1, SLC2A4, SLC2A4RG, and MEF2A polymorphisms in case and control subjects.
No significant difference between the frequency of the polymorphisms in case and control women was identified. No single nucleotide polymorphism studied in any of these four genes was associated with the PCOS phenotype.
Polymorphisms in the PIK3R1, SLC2A4, SLC2A4RG, and MEF2A genes are not associated with key PCOS phenotypes.
Fertility and sterility 03/2008; 90(6):2298-303. · 3.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The murine arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase gene (Alox15) has recently been identified as a negative regulator of peak bone mineral density (BMD). The human ALOX15 gene shares significant sequence homology with the murine Alox15 gene; however, the human arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase gene (ALOX12) is functionally more similar to the mouse gene. Multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human ALOX15 and ALOX12 genes have previously been reported to be significantly associated with BMD in humans. On the basis of these data, we carried out our own investigation of the human ALOX15 and ALOX12 genes and their relationship with hip and spine BMD parameters. The study population consisted of 779 postmenopausal women with a mean (+/- standard deviation) age of 62.5 +/- 5.9 years at BMD measurement and was recruited from a single large general practice in Chingford, northeast London. Three SNPs from ALOX15 and five from ALOX12 were analyzed. None of the SNPs that we analyzed in ALOX15 were significantly associated with any of the BMD parameters or fracture data. However, we found that three SNPs from ALOX12, all previously associated with spine BMD in women, were significantly associated with spine and various hip BMD parameters in our cohort (P = 0.029-0.049). In conclusion, we found no association between polymorphism in ALOX15 and BMD phenotypes but were able to replicate previous findings that genetic variation in ALOX12 seems to play a role in determining bone structure in Caucasian women.
Calcified Tissue International 08/2007; 81(1):10-7. · 2.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Follistatin has been reported as a candidate gene for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) from linkage and association studies. Acting to regulate the development of ovarian follicles and as an antagonist to aromatase activity, alterations in follistatin function or expression may result in key features of PCOS such as reduced serum FSH, impaired ovarian follicle development and augmented ovarian androgen production. We investigated polymorphisms in the FST gene to determine if genetic variation is associated with susceptibility to PCOS or key phenotypic features of PCOS patients in a case-control association study. One hundred and seventy-three PCOS patients of Caucasian descent (mean age 30.0 +/- 4.8 years), conforming to the NIH diagnostic criteria, were recruited from a clinical practice database and 107 normal ovulating women (mean age 38.8 +/- 13.4 years) were recruited from the general community as control subjects. Morphometric data, biochemistry and genomic DNA were collected from study subjects and genotyping was performed on seven Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FST gene region. Allele frequencies of the SNPs were rs1423560 G/C (0.99/0.01), rs3797297 C/A (0.80/0.20), rs11745088 C/G (0.98/0.02), rs3203788 A/T (0.98/0.02) and rs1062809 G/C (1.00/-), rs1127760 A/T (0.98/0.02) and rs1127761 A/T (0.98/0.02), and these were not significantly different between the PCOS and control groups (P < 0.05). Statistical analysis revealed significant associations between the SNP rs3797297 and sex hormone-binding globulin (P = 0.04) and free androgen index (FAI) (P < 0.01). We conclude that FST is not a susceptibility locus for PCOS; however, the SNP rs3797297 from FST gene was associated with androgenic markers for PCOS and may be of importance in the hyperandrogenaemia of the disease.
Molecular Human Reproduction 04/2007; 13(4):237-41. · 4.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone mass is the single most important risk factor for osteoporotic fractures in the elderly and is mainly influenced by genetic factors accounting for 40-75% of the inter-individual variation. Critical for the bone remodeling process is the balance between the newly discovered members of the tumor necrosis factor ligand and receptor superfamilies, osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand, which mediate the effects of many upstream regulators of bone metabolism. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of sequence variations in the OPG gene on bone mass, bone-related biochemistry including serum OPG and fracture frequency in elderly Australian women. A total of 1101 women were genotyped for 3 different single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within the OPG gene (G1181C, T950C and A163G). The effects of these SNPs and serum OPG on calcaneal quantitative ultrasound measurements, osteodensitometry of the hip and bone-related biochemistry were examined. We found no significant relationship between sequence variations in the OPG gene or serum OPG and bone mass, bone-related biochemistry or fracture frequency. Our findings confirm some recent publications investigating the same SNPs but diverge from others, indicating that generalization of the relationships found in this type of study must be done with caution and signify the importance of determining associations between polymorphisms and osteoporosis in different ethnic groups.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate polymorphisms in androgen metabolism regulators that are implicated in the etiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in vitro; to investigate HSD17B6 and GATA6 to determine whether these genes are associated with susceptibility to PCOS or key phenotypic features of patients with PCOS.
Case-control association study.
Participants with PCOS were recruited from a clinical-practice database, and controls, from the general community.
One hundred seventy-three patients with PCOS and who were of Caucasian descent and conformed to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) diagnostic criteria; 107 normally ovulating women of Caucasian descent from the general community.
Drawing of blood for DNA extraction.
Frequency of HSD17B6 and GATA6 polymorphisms in cases and controls. Association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms from HSD17B6 in subjects with PCOS with key phenotypes of PCOS: androgen status, insulin resistance, and body mass index.
Allele distribution for the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs898611 in HSD17B6 was significantly different between PCOS and control subjects (P=.03). Presence of the polymorphic allele was associated with reduced fasting glucose-insulin ratio (P=.02) and increased homeostasis model assessment (P<.01) and body mass index (P<.001) as well as with reduced T (P=.03) in the PCOS group. No association was seen between GATA6 and any of the variables studied.
These data suggest that polymorphisms in the HSD17B6 gene are associated with PCOS and key clinical phenotypes of the disorder.
Fertility and sterility 11/2006; 86(5):1438-46. · 3.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis is known to have a strong genetic basis. It has been proposed that polymorphisms within the KL (klotho) gene have a significant effect on aging, in particular, the osteoblast defect of aging. The association between polymorphisms within this gene and biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption, bone structure, and fracture rates was studied in 1,190 postmenopausal women with a mean age of 75 years. Genotyping of these polymorphic sites was carried out using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization--Time of Flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrometry. The G allele of SNP c.1775G>A was associated with a lower osteocalcin level than the A allele (P = 0.004) in a codominant model. SNPs C-387T and IVS1+8262c>t both showed nonsignificant associations with osteocalcin (P values of 0.063 and 0.068, respectively), but a haplotype analysis of 2 of 5 haplotypes of the three SNPs with a frequency greater than 4% revealed a significant association with osteocalcin (P = 0.036). None of the individual polymorphisms or haplotypes analyzed showed any associations with a marker of bone resorption the deoxypyridinoline creatinine ratio, bone structure, or fracture data. Therefore, the G polymorphism within the c.1775G>A SNP site and a haplotype including this are associated with a reduced osteoblast product osteocalcin. These data suggest that variation in the KL gene product affects osteoblast activity independent of osteoclast activity but that this defect does not result in an effect on bone structure in this population, perhaps because of "rescue" by other genetic or environmental factors in this population.
Calcified Tissue International 10/2005; 77(3):145-51. · 2.50 Impact Factor