A Ducastaing

University of Bordeaux, Burdeos, Aquitaine, France

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Publications (62)149.04 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: TMAO-ase is an enzyme of great economic significance in the fish industry since, even below the freezing point, it can produce large amounts of formaldehyde. During frozen storage the resulting formaldehyde-protein interactions induce deleterious effects on the functional properties of frozen fish minces. Knowledge of the structural and enzyme properties is incomplete at present and produces certain ambiguities. A new procedure for extracting TMAO-ase from saithe kidney (Pollachius virens (L.)), using a non-denaturing detergent, has been developed. Subsequent anion exchange chromatography separated three independent enzyme fractions, differing mainly in their isoelectric points (5.0, 4.5 and 4.1). The three fractions revealed identical pH optima for activity (pH = 5.10), affinity constants (12 mM) and activation energies (4 kcal mol−1). However, differences were observed concerning some of their physicochemical properties such as T1/2 denaturation and spectrophotometric characteristics (unusual absorption at λ = 258 nm, related to the presence of DNA fragments). From a structural point of view, as evidenced by the elution profiles, TMAO-ase activity seems to be constituted of high MW protein groups (20 × 106 and 2 × 105) closely associated with mixed micelles of phospholipids.
    Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 09/2006; 59(2):261 - 267. · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previously we isolated a micro-calpain/PKCalpha complex from skeletal muscle which suggested tight interactions between the Ca2+-dependent protease and the kinase in this tissue. Our previous studies also underlined the involvement of ubiquitous calpains in muscular fusion and differentiation. In order to precise the relationships between PKCalpha and ubiquitous calpains in muscle cells, the expression of these two enzymes was first examined during myogenesis of embryonic myoblasts in culture. Our results show that calpains and PKCalpha are both present in myotubes and essentially localized in the cytosolic compartment. Moreover, calpains were mainly present after 40 h of cell differentiation concomitantly with a depletion of PKCalpha content in the particulate fraction and the appearance of PKMalpha fragment. These results suggest a possible calpain dependent down-regulation process of PKCalpha in our model at the time of intense fusion. In our experimental conditions phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) induced a rapid depletion of PKCalpha in the cytosolic fraction and its translocation toward the particulate fraction. Long term exposure of myotubes in the presence of PMA induced down-regulation of PKCalpha, this process being partially blocked by calpain inhibitors (CS peptide and inhibitor II) and antisense oligonucleotides for the two major ubiquitous calpain isoforms (m- and micro-calpains). Taken together, our findings argue for an involvement of calpains in the differentiation of embryonic myoblasts by limited proteolytic cleavage of PKCalpha.
    Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 03/2002; 231(1-2):97-106. · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previously we isolated a µ-calpain/PKCa complex from skeletal muscle which suggested tight interactions between the Ca2+-dependent protease and the kinase in this tissue. Our previous studies also underlined the involvement of ubiquitous calpains in muscular fusion and differentiation. In order to precise the relationships between PKCa and ubiquitous calpains in muscle cells, the expression of these two enzymes was first examined during myogenesis of embryonic myoblasts in culture.
    Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 01/2002; 231(1):97-106. · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MARCKS (Myristoylated Alanine Rich C Kinase Substrate) is a protein known to cross-link actin filament and consequently, is very important in the stabilization of the cytoskeletal structure. In addition, it has been recently demonstrated that the phosphorylation rate of this protein changes during myogenesis and that this protein is implicated in fusion events. For a better understanding of the biological function of MARCKS during myogenesis, we have undertaken to identify and purify this protein from rabbit skeletal muscle. Three chromatographic steps including an affinity calmodulin-agarose column were performed. The existence of a complex between the two proteins was confirmed by non-denaturing gel electrophoresis and immunoprecipitation. Two complexes were isolated which present an apparent molecular weight of about 600 kDa. Such interactions suggest that MARCKS is either a very good PKCalpha substrate and/or a regulator of PKC activity. These results are supported by previous studies showing preferential interactions and co-localization of PKC isozyme and MARCKS at focal adhesion sites. This is the first time that MARCKS has been purified from skeletal muscle and our data are consistent with a major role of this actin- and calmodulin-binding protein in cytoskeletal rearrangement or other functions mediated by PKalpha. Our results provide evidence for a tight and specific association of MARCKS and PKCalpha (a major conventional PKC isozyme in skeletal muscle) as indicated by the co-purification of the two proteins.
    The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 08/2001; 33(7):711-21. · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MARCKS (Myristoylated Alanine Rich C Kinase Substrate) is a protein known to cross-link actin filament and consequently, is very important in the stabilization of the cytoskeletal structure. In addition, it has been recently demonstrated that the phosphorylation rate of this protein changes during myogenesis and that this protein is implicated in fusion events. For a better understanding of the biological function of MARCKS during myogenesis, we have undertaken to identify and purify this protein from rabbit skeletal muscle. Three chromatographic steps including an affinity calmodulin–agarose column were performed. The existence of a complex between the two proteins was confirmed by non-denaturing gel electrophoresis and immunoprecipitation. Two complexes were isolated which present an apparent molecular weight of about 600 kDa. Such interactions suggest that MARCKS is either a very good PKCα substrate and/or a regulator of PKC activity. These results are supported by previous studies showing preferential interactions and co-localization of PKC isozyme and MARCKS at focal adhesion sites. This is the first time that MARCKS has been purified from skeletal muscle and our data are consistent with a major role of this actin- and calmodulin-binding protein in cytoskeletal rearrangement or other functions mediated by PKα. Our results provide evidence for a tight and specific association of MARCKS and PKCα (a major conventional PKC isozyme in skeletal muscle) as indicated by the co-purification of the two proteins.
    International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology - INT J BIOCHEM CELL BIOL. 01/2001; 33(7):711-721.
  • Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 02/2000; 144:173-80. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The dissociation of mu- and m-calpains was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy under high hydrostatic pressure (up to 650 MPa). Increasing pressure induced a red shift of the tryptophan fluorescence of the calcium-free enzyme. The concentration dependence of the spectral transition was consistent with a pressure-induced dissociation of the subunits. Rising temperature increased the stability of calpain heterodimers and confirmed the predominance of hydrophobic interactions between monomers. At saturating calcium, the spectral transition was not observed for native or iodoacetamide-inactivated calpains, indicating that they were already dissociated by calcium. The reaction volume was about -150 ml mol-1 for both isoforms, and the dissociation constants at atmospheric pressure are approximately 10-12 M and 10-15 M for mu- and m-calpains, respectively. This result indicates a tighter interaction in the isoform that requires higher calcium concentration for activity.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 04/1999; 1430(2):254-61. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many studies have demonstrated that m-calpain was implicated in cell membrane reorganization-related phenomena during fusion via a regulation by calpastatin, the specific Ca2+-dependent proteolytic inhibitor. However, the real biological role of this protease is unclear because many targeted proteins are still unknown. Using different digestion experiments we have demonstrated that desmin, vimentin, talin, and fibronectin represent very good substrates for this proteinase capable of cleaving them in fragments which are immediately degraded by other enzymatic systems. Concerning intermediate filaments, we showed that during the phenomenon of fusion, the amount of desmin was significantly reduced while the concentration of vimentin presented a steady level. On the other hand, we have conducted biological assays on cultured myoblasts supplemented by exogenous factors such as calpain inhibitors or antisense oligonucleotides capable of stimulating or inhibiting m-calpain activity. The effect of such factors on fusion and concomitantly on the targeted substrates was analyzed and quantified. When m-calpain activity and myoblast fusion were prevented by addition of calpain inhibitors entering the cells, the amounts of desmin, talin, and fibronectin were increased, whereas the amount of vimentin was unchanged. Using antisense strategy, similar results were obtained. In addition, when the phenomenon of fusion was enhanced by preventing calpastatin synthesis, the amounts of desmin, talin, and fibronectin were significantly reduced. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that m-calpain is involved in myoblast fusion by cleaving certain proteins identified here. This cleavage could modify membrane and cytoskeleton organization for the myoblasts to fuse.
    Experimental Cell Research 03/1999; 246(2):433-42. · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In previous studies, we isolated and identified a mu-calpain-PKCalpha complex from rabbit skeletal muscle. At the same time we pointed out that an association between mu-calpain and PKCalpha could occur at the level of the plasma membrane of muscle cells, and that PKCalpha could thus be considered as a potential mu-calpain substrate. In the present study, using the mu-calpain-PKCalpha complex as a model, we report that mu-calpain is activated in the combined presence of physiological calcium concentrations (less than 1 microM) and phosphatidylserine. Furthermore our data also show that: (1) there exists a correlation between the appearance of autolyzed mu-calpain forms and PKCalpha hydrolysis which leads to the formation of PKMalpha; (2) in certain experimental conditions, autolyzed mu-calpain forms are able to hydrolyze PKMalpha independently of the presence of diacylglycerol.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 03/1999; 1430(1):141-8. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    P Bessiere, F Bancel, P Cottin, A Ducastaing
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of pressure on mu and m-calpain stability and specific activity have been examined. Activity and stability of these neutral calcium-dependent heterodimeric proteinases were studied using an in-house built bioreactor allowing on-line spectrophotometric monitoring with retention of pressure. Both isozymes were founded to be rather baro-sensitive with t1/2 at 1500 bar of 6 min and 11 min for mu and m-calpain respectively. Activity measurements under pressure showed a biphasic behavior for both proteinases with a slight activation for pressure up to 500 bar and 750 bar for m and mu-calpain respectively. Activation volume changes indicated that the proteolytic reaction was alternatively favored and disfavored by pressure due to catalytic step activation associated with enzyme-substrate binding step being continuously inhibited by pressure. Furthermore, autoproteolysis of calpain, a calcium dependent phenomenon was inhibited by application of pressure indicating that pressure inhibition of proteolytic activity could also be due to Ca2(+)-binding decrease under pressure. Implication of these results with catalytic mechanism of these heterodimeric proteinases is also discussed.
    Biochemistry and molecular biology international 02/1999; 47(1):25-36.
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    ABSTRACT: The dissociation of μ- and m-calpains was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy under high hydrostatic pressure (up to 650 MPa). Increasing pressure induced a red shift of the tryptophan fluorescence of the calcium-free enzyme. The concentration dependence of the spectral transition was consistent with a pressure-induced dissociation of the subunits. Rising temperature increased the stability of calpain heterodimers and confirmed the predominance of hydrophobic interactions between monomers. At saturating calcium, the spectral transition was not observed for native or iodoacetamide-inactivated calpains, indicating that they were already dissociated by calcium. The reaction volume was about −150 ml mol−1 for both isoforms, and the dissociation constants at atmospheric pressure are approximately 10−12 M and 10−15 M for μ- and m-calpains, respectively. This result indicates a tighter interaction in the isoform that requires higher calcium concentration for activity.
    Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta-protein Structure and Molecular Enzymology - BBA-PROTEIN STRUCT MOL ENZYM. 01/1999; 1430(2):254-261.
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    ABSTRACT: In previous studies, we isolated and identified a μ-calpain-PKCα complex from rabbit skeletal muscle. At the same time we pointed out that an association between μ-calpain and PKCα could occur at the level of the plasma membrane of muscle cells, and that PKCα could thus be considered as a potential μ-calpain substrate. In the present study, using the μ-calpain-PKCα complex as a model, we report that μ-calpain is activated in the combined presence of physiological calcium concentrations (less than 1 μM) and phosphatidylserine. Furthermore our data also show that: (1) there exists a correlation between the appearance of autolyzed μ-calpain forms and PKCα hydrolysis which leads to the formation of PKMα; (2) in certain experimental conditions, autolyzed μ-calpain forms are able to hydrolyze PKMα independently of the presence of diacylglycerol.
    Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta-protein Structure and Molecular Enzymology - BBA-PROTEIN STRUCT MOL ENZYM. 01/1999; 1430(1):141-148.
  • Mammalian Genome 06/1998; 9(5):388-9. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have demonstrated a role for m-calpain in myoblast fusion. Moreover, the presence, in differentiated cells, of a highly specific endogenous inhibitor of calpain, calpastatin, has led to the hypothesis that a regulation of or a protection against m-calpain activity by calpastatin could also occur during the earlier stages of muscle cell differentiation. In order to verify this hypothesis, we have investigated, in myoblast culture, the appearance of calpastatin-mRNA and its corresponding protein. Our results provide evidence that calpastatin is already present at the earlier stages of myoblast differentiation and that a significant decrease of the levels of calpastatin mRNA and its protein precedes myoblast fusion. In addition, the induction of an artificial decrease in calpastatin level, via an appropriate antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide methodology, leads to earlier and faster myoblast fusion. Together with previous studies, these results indicate that m-calpain and calpastatin are functionally involved in myoblast fusion. Our findings also demonstrate that an acute "hyperactivity" of m-calpain resulting from the decrease of calpastatin synthesis is necessary during the early stages of this step of differentiation.
    European Journal of Cell Biology 04/1998; 75(3):247-53. · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We recently reported that when myoblasts fuse, m-calpain could be exteriorized. Indeed, at present a number of works support this hypothesis because this enzyme was localized intercellularly and more particularly associated to extracellular matrix components. Knowing that the cell surface of the fusing myoblast is supposed to undergo many changes, we addressed the question whether m-calpain could be involved in the phenomenon of fusion via fibronectin cleavage or degradation. Using different digestion experiments, we demonstrated that soluble purified fibronectin and highly insoluble fibronectin fibrils represent very good substrates for this proteinase; moreover, at the burst of fusion, fibronectin proteolytic fragments could be identified. On the other hand, we have conducted biological assays on cultured myoblasts using a defined medium supplemented by exogenous factors capable of stimulating or inhibiting m-calpain activity. The effects of such factors on rat myoblast fusion and concomitantly on the targeted glycoprotein were analyzed and quantified. When m-calpain activity and the phenomenon of fusion were reduced (defined medium without insulin), the amount of the 220-kDa fibronectin band was increased by 43%. When m-calpain activity and myoblast fusion were prevented by addition of antibodies to m-calpain or calpain inhibitor II, the fibronectin concentration was higher since it was increased by approximately 67 and approximately 71%, respectively. In addition, when observed at the ultrastructural level, m-calpain seems to be localized at the potential fusion site of myoblasts and more particularly associated to the extracellular matrix when muscle cells were initially treated by anti-m-calpain IgG. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that exteriorized m-calpain could be, in part, involved in myoblast fusion via fibronectin alteration or degradation.
    Experimental Cell Research 10/1997; 235(2):385-94. · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The expression and the putative function(s) of a specific muscle calcium-dependent protease were investigated during myogenesis using rat myoblast primary cultures as a model. We have shown that the levels of p94 mRNAs increase as a function of myoblast differentiation, with the greatest amount of these RNAs being present during the later stages (8th day after plating). After an antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide treatment with p94, ultrastructural studies show dramatic perturbations in differentiated myotubes and during myofibrillogenesis, mainly involving myofibrillar stability and Z-line integrity. These results may be related to recent findings about the role of p94 gene mutations in limbgirdle muscular dystrophy type 2A.
    Cell growth & differentiation: the molecular biology journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 12/1996; 7(11):1461-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Nine days of hindlimb suspension resulted in atrophy (55%) and loss of protein (53%) in rat soleus muscle due to a marked elevation in protein breakdown (66%, P < 0.005). To define which proteolytic system(s) contributed to this increase, soleus muscles from unweighted rats were incubated in the presence of proteolytic inhibitors. An increase in lysosomal and Ca 2+-activated proteolysis (254%, P < 0.05) occurred in the atrophying incubated muscles. In agreement with the measurements in vitro, cathepsin B, cathepsins B + L and m-calpain enzyme activities increased by 111%, 92% and 180% (P < 0.005) respectively in the atrophying muscles. Enhanced mRNA levels for these proteinases (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001) paralleled the increased enzyme activities, suggesting a transcriptional regulation of these enzymes. However, the lysosomal and Ca 2+-dependent proteolytic pathways accounted for a minor part of total proteolysis in both control (9%) and unweighted rats (18%). Furthermore the inhibition of these pathways failed to suppress increased protein breakdown in unweighted muscle. Thus a non-lysosomal Ca 2+-independent proteolytic process essentially accounted for the increased proteolysis and subsequent muscle wasting. Increased mRNA levels for ubiquitin, the 14 kDa ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 (involved in the ubiquitylation of protein substrates) and the C2 and C9 subunits of the 20 S proteasome (i.e. the proteolytic core of the 26 S proteasome that degrades ubiquitin conjugates) were observed in the atrophying muscles (P < 0.02 to P < 0.001). Analysis of C9 mRNA in polyribosomes showed equal distribution into both translationally active and inactive mRNA pools, in either unweighted or control rats. These results suggest that increased ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis is most probably responsible for muscle wasting in the unweighted soleus muscle.
    Biochemical Journal 05/1996; 316 ( Pt 1):65-72. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have led to the hypothesis of a possible role for m-calpain (EC 3.4.22.17) in myoblast fusion in culture in vitro. To support this hypothesis, an antisense strategy has been used with cultured primary rat myoblasts. Using an appropriate antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide to m-calpain mRNA, an inhibition of myoblast fusion has been observed, the maximum being obtained when the cell culture was treated with 30 microM of oligomer. Synthesis of m-calpain was decreased by 48% while high concentrations of antisense oligonucleotide do not significantly affect myoblast proliferation. The specificity of m-calpain intervention during fusion has also been confirmed using antisense oligonucleotides to mu-calpain and p94 mRNAs, respectively.
    Journal of Cell Science 06/1995; 108 ( Pt 5):2077-82. · 5.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has already been reported that, in vitro, intermediate filaments such as desmin and vimentin are very susceptible to proteolysis by calpains (Ca(2+)-activated cysteine proteinases). On the other hand, desmin and m-calpain are both present at the onset of myoblast fusion and throughout this phenomenon. Based on these observations, the aim of this study was to demonstrate, with cultured rat myoblasts, that the amount of desmin decreased significantly as multinucleated myotubes were formed. Using immunoblot analysis, it has been shown that the desmin concentration decreased 41% as myoblasts fuse. Moreover, under conditions which stimulate myoblast fusion, desmin concentration was reduced by 21% compared to the control culture. Under our experimental conditions, which lead to a reduced desmin level, the amount of m-calpain was increased about three-fold. These results suggested that m-calpain could be involved in myoblast fusion via desmin cleavage. This hypothesis was confirmed by the results obtained after calpeptin treatment. In the presence of this cell-penetrating inhibitor of calpains, desmin seems not to be degraded. Taking into account the observations obtained after different hydrolysis assays and as compared to those observed on cultured cells, it seems conceivable that m-calpain would be able to initiate desmin cleavage leading to the formation of proteolytic fragments which should be immediately degraded.
    Biology of the Cell 02/1995; 85(2-3):177-83. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A μ-calpain-PKC complex was isolated from rabbit skeletal muscle by ultracentrifugation and by anion-exchange chromatography. The PKC associated to μ-calpain was stimulated by calcium, phosphatidylserine and diacylglycerol, and corresponds to a conventional PKC (cPKC). This complex presents an apparent molecular mass close to 190 kDa and is composed of one μ-calpain molecule and of one cPKC molecule. Using monoclonal antibodies specific for the different cPKC isoforms, the isoenzyme associated to μ-calpain was identified as cPKCα. Immunofluorescence staining reveals a co-localization of μ-calpain and cPKCα on the muscle fibre plasma membranes.
    FEBS Letters 01/1995; 359(1):60-64. · 3.58 Impact Factor