Malek G Massad

University of Washington Seattle, Seattle, WA, United States

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Publications (118)345.56 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Studies reporting on penetrating thoracic trauma in the pediatric population have been limited by small numbers and implied differences with the adult population. Our objectives were to report on a large cohort of pediatric patients presenting with penetrating thoracic trauma and to determine age-related impacts on management and outcome through comparison with an adult cohort. A Level I trauma center registry was queried between 2006 and 2012. All patients presenting with penetrating thoracic trauma were identified. Patient demographics, injury mechanism, injury severity, admission physiology, and outcome were recorded. Patients were compared, and outcomes were analyzed based on age at presentation, with patients 17 years or younger defining our pediatric cohort. A total of 1,423 patients with penetrating thoracic trauma were admitted during the study period. Two hundred twenty patients (15.5%) were pediatric, with 205 being adolescents (13-17 years) and 15 being children (≤12 years). In terms of management for the pediatric population, tube thoracostomy alone was needed in 32.7% (72 of 220), whereas operative thoracic exploration was performed in 20.0% (44 of 220). Overall mortality was 13.6% (30 of 220). There was no significant difference between the pediatric and adult population with regard to injury mechanism or severity, need for therapeutic intervention, operative approach, use of emergency department thoracotomy, or outcome. Stepwise logistic regression failed to identify age as a predictor for the need for either therapeutic intervention or mortality between the two age groups as a whole. However, subgroup analysis revealed that being 12 years or younger (odds ratio, 3.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-11.4) was an independent predictor of mortality. Management of traumatic penetrating thoracic injuries in terms of the need for therapeutic intervention and operative approach was similar between the adult and pediatric populations. Mortality from penetrating thoracic trauma can be predicted based on injury severity, the use of emergency department thoracotomy, and admission physiology for adolescents and adults. Children may be at increased risk for poor outcome independent of injury severity. Epidemiologic study, level III.
    The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 02/2014; 76(2):273-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Large series reporting outcomes for penetrating thoracic trauma have identified injury pattern and injury severity scoring as predictors of poor outcome. However, the impact of surgical expertise on patient outcomes has not been previously investigated. We sought to determine how often board-certified cardiothoracic surgeons are utilized for operative thoracic trauma and whether this has an effect on patient outcomes. A level I trauma center registry was queried between 2003 and 2011. Records of patients undergoing surgery as a result of penetrating thoracic trauma were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographics, injuries, injury severity, utilization of a cardiothoracic surgical operative consult and outcomes were recorded. Patients operated on by cardiothoracic surgeons were compared with patients operated on by trauma surgeons using stepwise multivariate analyses to determine the factors associated with utilization of cardiothoracic surgeons for operative thoracic trauma and survival. Cardiothoracic surgeons were used in 73.0% of cases (162 of 222) over the study period. The use of cardiothoracic surgeons increased incrementally both overall (38.5% to 73.9%), and for emergent/urgent cases (31.8% to 73.3%). When comparing patients undergoing operation on an emergent/urgent basis by cardiothoracic versus trauma surgeons, there was no significant difference with regard to demographics, mechanism of injury, injury severity scoring, or surgical morbidity. Stepwise logistic regression showed the presence of a cardiothoracic surgeon to be independently associated with survival (odds ratio 4.70; p = 0.019). Use of cardiothoracic surgeons for operative thoracic trauma increased over the study period. Outcomes for severely injured patients with elevated chest injury scores or decreased revised trauma scores may be improved with appropriate operative consultation with a board-certified cardiothoracic surgeon.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 06/2013; · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • Anup Kumar, Malek G Massad
    The American surgeon 04/2013; 79(4):434-6. · 0.92 Impact Factor
  • Anthi Katsouli, Malek G Massad
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    ABSTRACT: Diagnosis and management of blood culture-negative endocarditis constitute a formidable clinical challenge and a systemic approach is necessary for a successful outcome. Blood cultures are negative in endocarditis due mainly to preceding antibiotic administration or to fastidious slow-growing organisms. Less so, non-infective endocarditis is a paraneoplastic manifestation or may occur in association with autoimmune diseases. When the clinical diagnosis is contemplated and cultures and serologies are negative, histologic and molecular examination of the removed valve tissue may confirm the diagnosis. Treatment with antibiotics is often warranted and valve replacement remains appropriate for patients with heart failure or irreversible structural damage.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 03/2013; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an uncommon non-Hodgkin lymphoma associated with human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) that grows mainly in serous body cavities. The most common presentation of PEL is that of a young immunocompromised male with shortness of breath, as the pleural cavity is most commonly affected. Diagnosis is primarily based on fluid cytology in which PEL cells display variable morphology and a null lymphocyte immunophenotype; however, evidence of HHV-8 infection within the neoplastic cell is essential. Patients have commonly been treated with systemic multidrug chemotherapy and antiretroviral therapy if they were HIV positive or were immunocompromised for other reasons. In the immunocompetent patient, there have been no agreed-upon pathways for management of this condition. Progression of disease is common and median survival is approximately 6 months. Novel intrapleural treatments with antiviral agents such as intracavity cidofovir have shown to be effective in controlling local disease, and ongoing clinical trials may provide some promise in the treatment for this condition.
    The Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon 02/2013; · 0.93 Impact Factor
  • Malek G Massad, Khaled Abdelhady
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    ABSTRACT: No abstract available.
    Cardiology 10/2012; 123(3):133-134. · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chest computed tomography (CCT) is a method of screening for intrathoracic injuries in hemodynamically stable patients with penetrating thoracic trauma. The objective of this study was to examine the changes in utilization of CCT over time and evaluate its contribution to guiding therapeutic intervention. A level 1 trauma center registry was queried between 2006 and 2011. Patients undergoing CCT in the emergency department after penetrating thoracic trauma as well as patients undergoing thoracic operations for penetrating thoracic trauma were identified. Patient demographics, operative indications, use of CCT, injuries, and hospital admissions were analyzed. In all, 617 patients had CCTs performed, of whom 61.1% (371 of 617) had a normal screening plain chest radiograph (CXR). In 14.0% (51 of 371) of these cases, the CCT revealed findings not detected on screening CXR. The majority of these injuries were occult pneumothoraces or hemothoraces (84.3%; 43 of 51), of which 27 (62.8%) underwent tube thoracostomy. In only 0.5% (2 of 371), did the results of CCT alone lead to an operative indication: exploration for hemopericardium. The use of CCT in our patients significantly increased overall (28.8% to 71.4%) as well as after a normal screening CXR (23.3% to 74.6%) over the study period. The use of CCT for penetrating thoracic trauma increased 3.5-fold during the study period with a concurrent increase in findings of uncertain clinical significance. Patients with a normal screening CXR should be triaged with 3-hour delayed CXR, serial physical examinations, and focused assessment with sonography for trauma; and CCT should only be used selectively as a diagnostic modality.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 05/2012; 93(6):1830-5. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metastatic papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) to the heart has never been reported. We report the case of a 73-year-old patient with papillary RCC metastatic to the left and right ventricles, found during a triple vessel coronary artery bypass graft surgery.
    Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada 04/2012; 6(2):E54-6. · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Practice guidelines for the appropriate use of emergency department thoracotomy (EDT) according to current national resuscitative guidelines have been developed by the American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma (ACS-COT) and published. At an urban level I trauma center we analyzed how closely these guidelines were followed and their ability to predict mortality. Between January 2003 and July 2010, 120 patients with penetrating thoracic trauma underwent EDT at Mount Sinai Hospital (MSH). Patients were separated based on adherence (group 1, n=70) and nonadherence (group 2, n=50) to current resuscitative guidelines, and group survival rates were determined. These 2 groups were analyzed based on outcome to determine the effect of a strict policy of adherence on survival. Of EDTs performed during the study period, 41.7% (50/120) were considered outside current guidelines. Patients in group 2 were less likely to have traditional predictors of survival. There were 6 survivors in group 1 (8.7%), all of whom were neurologically intact; there were no neurologically intact survivors in group 2 (p=0.04). The presence of a thoracic surgeon in the operating room (OR) was associated with increased survival (p=0.039). A policy of strict adherence to EDT guidelines based on current national guidelines would have accounted for all potential survivors while avoiding the harmful exposure of health care personnel to blood-borne pathogens and the futile use of resources for trauma victims unable to benefit from them. Cardiothoracic surgeons should be familiar with current EDT guidelines because they are often asked to contribute their operative skills for those patients who survive to reach the OR.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 06/2011; 92(2):455-61. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a rare vascular neoplasm of endothelial origin with clinical behavior intermediate between hemangioma and angiosarcoma. The natural history of EHE is highly variable. This study uses an Internet registry to identify clinical patterns with prognostic significance in EHE. Cases from the International Hemangioendothioma, Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma, and Related Vascular Disorders (HEARD) Support Group were evaluated based on demographics, organ involvement, disease progression, presence or absence of pleural effusion, and treatment. Survival among various cohorts was compared using log-rank analysis of Kaplan-Meier plots. Two hundred sixty-four patients were identified from April 2004 to November 2009. Fifty-eight cases were excluded because of inadequate information or wrong diagnosis. EHE was more common in female patients (61%). Male gender and age ≥ 55 years were associated with decreased survival. The most commonly affected organs were liver, lung, and bone. No specific organ or combination of organ involvement differentially affected survival, and survival was no different between patients with multiple vs single organ involvement. However, pattern B, defined as lesions without distinct borders (eg, pulmonary infiltrates, pleural effusion, ascites), hemoptysis, or involvement of more than two bones adversely affected survival in all cohorts. A novel staging system with prognostic value for EHE is proposed. Pleural effusion or other signs of uncontained tumor growth, hemoptysis, and osseous involvement of more than two bones implied worse survival than did localized and discrete tumors, regardless of number of organs involved. A lay registry can provide useful insights into the clinical behavior of a rare cancer.
    Chest 05/2011; 140(5):1312-8. · 7.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Management of patients with concomitant carotid and coronary artery disease has been controversial. Divergent strategies have been employed, including simultaneous carotid endarterectomy and coronary bypass (SCC) versus various staged procedures. Although no strict comparison group is available, this study defines current outcomes of SCC, compared qualitatively to two reference categories. Utilizing the STS database from 2003 to 2007, patients who had SCC were compared with patients with cerebrovascular disease who had coronary bypass (CABG) with prior carotid endarterectomy (CEA), and those with carotid Doppler stenosis >75% and no carotid intervention. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for differences in baseline characteristics and operative mortality (OM), and a composite of neurological complications (NC) was assessed. Of 745,769 patients who underwent isolated CABG with/without CEA, 108,212 (14%) had cerebrovascular disease. Of this group, 5,732 (5%) underwent SCC. The SCC group had more males and lower preoperative risk factors. After statistical adjustment for all baseline differences, SCC had clinically and statistically higher OM and NC compared with any of the reference groups, with 20-40% higher event risk. Although no quantitative control group exists for comparison, SCC as recently performed in North America has a high risk compared with any of the reference groups. Suboptimal results associated with the SCC strategy suggest a need for quality improvement and research on the optimal management of patients with simultaneous carotid and coronary disease.
    World Journal of Surgery 10/2010; 34(10):2292-8. · 2.35 Impact Factor
  • E G Chedrawy, M G Massad
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    ABSTRACT: Acute coronary syndromes range in severity from unstable angina to evolving myocardial infarction with persistent ST-segment elevation, with or without cardiogenic shock. Despite major improvements in medical and percutaneous therapy, acute coronary syndromes still represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The aggressive approaches to myocardial revascularization and mechanical circulatory support reviewed in this article seem to reduce the mortality associated with acute coronary syndromes. The optimal timing of surgery should not only reduce short-term mortality but also improve long-term outcomes.
    The Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon 06/2010; 58(4):197-9. · 0.93 Impact Factor
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    World Journal of Surgery 04/2010; 34(4):682-3. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a devastating condition that without proper management can deteriorate progressively. Elevated pulmonary artery pressure without an identifiable etiology is called IPAH. PH resulting from a specific disease is referred to as secondary PH; left-sided cardiac disease can lead to an increase in pulmonary artery pressure resulting in increased vascular resistance and subsequent structural remodeling. If left-sided failure progresses to right-sided failure with high pulmonary artery pressure, the outcome is ominous. It has been clearly proven that early diagnosis and effective medical therapy can markedly decrease morbidity and mortality. In this review, we discuss the current treatment modalities and their limitations for PH secondary to heart failure. Conventional therapy in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension as well as recent advances in the medical management of PH in general, are also described. Last, the surgical management of these patients and other promising interventional modalities are reviewed.
    Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy 02/2010; 8(2):241-50.
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    Ahmed Chaudhry, Malek G Massad
    World Journal of Surgery 01/2010; 34(1):1-2. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lipid emulsion infusion reverses local anesthetic-induced cardiac toxicity, but the effect of adding epinephrine has not been studied. We compared escalating doses of epinephrine on recovery with lipid infusion in a rat model of bupivacaine overdose. Rats anesthetized with isoflurane received an IV bolus of 20 mg/kg bupivacaine, producing asystole (zero time) in all animals. Ventilation (100% oxygen) and chest compressions were started immediately, and at 3 min the rats received one of six IV treatments (n = 5 for all groups): 5 ml/kg saline followed by infusion for 2 min at 1.0 ml x kg x min, and a second 5 ml/kg bolus at 5 min; or the same bolus and infusion treatment using 30% lipid emulsion plus a single injection of epinephrine at one of five doses: 0 (lipid control), 1, 2.5, 10, or 25 mcg/kg. An electrocardiogram and arterial pressure were monitored continuously, and arterial blood gas was measured at 7.5 and 15 min. Epinephrine improved initial return of spontaneous circulation (rate-pressure product > 30% baseline) but only 3 of 5 rats at 10 mcg/kg and 1 of 5 rats at 25 mcg/kg sustained return of spontaneous circulation by 15 min. Lipid alone resulted in slower but more sustained recovery. Epinephrine doses above a threshold near 10 mcg/kg increased lactate, worsened acidosis, and resulted in poor recovery at 15 min, as compared with lipid controls. There was tight correlation of epinephrine dose to serum lactate at 15 min. Epinephrine over a threshold dose near 10 mcg/kg impairs lipid resuscitation from bupivacaine overdose, possibly by inducing hyperlactatemia.
    Anesthesiology 09/2009; 111(3):498-505. · 6.17 Impact Factor
  • A Tarakji, S Prasad, E Chedrawy, M G Massad
    The Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon 07/2009; 57(4):202-3. · 0.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Unroofing of anomalous coronary artery originating from the opposite sinus of Valsalva has become the procedure of choice for this congenital lesion, with surgery performed in children as young as two years old. An increasing number of this anomaly is diagnosed in infancy with no clear indication whether surgical repair should be done in this age group. This paper reviews our experience with this anomaly, and focuses on its surgical management in infants. Between April 2002 and February 2007, eight patients underwent surgical repair of anomalous coronary artery arising from the opposite sinus of Valsalva and coursing between the aorta and pulmonary artery. Patients' age varied from two months to 28 years with a mean of 11.7 +/- 11.1 years. Surgical repair involved unroofing the intramural segment of the anomalous coronary artery using cardiopulmonary bypass. Two patients were younger than one year (Group A), and six patients were older than one year (group B). The mean intensive care unit stay was 2.5 +/- 0.7 days for Group A and 2.8 +/- 1.9 for Group B. The mean hospital stay was 4 +/- 1.4 days for Group A and 4.3 +/- 2.4 days for Group B. There was no mortality and no complications. The mean follow-up period is 14 +/- 15.7 months with a range of one to 39 months. At the time of the last follow-up, all patients were asymptomatic in New York Heart Association class I and follow-up echocardiography on six of eight patients showed wide open coronary ostium. Unroofing the anomalous coronary artery arising from the opposite sinus of valsalva can be done in infants with minimal morbidity and mortality. Longer follow-up is needed to assess long-term results.
    Journal of Cardiac Surgery 06/2009; 24(4):466-9. · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The introduction of new technologies has shifted some resident index procedures to nonsurgical specialists. We examined the operative case volume of thoracic surgery residents during the last 6 years to objectively identify changes and trends. Program and resident data from 2002 to 2007 were entered into a database and analyzed. Program match information was obtained from the National Resident Matching Program. Resident operative experience and board examination results were obtained from the American Board of Thoracic Surgery. A total of 795 residents qualified for the written American Board of Thoracic Surgery examination; 627 residents graduated from 2-year programs, and 168 residents graduated from 3-year programs. The total number of resident cases was higher in 3-year programs compared with 2-year programs in all 10 index categories studied (P < .01). The total volume of cases has not significantly increased in 2-year programs. The volume of coronary artery bypass graft surgeries decreased in every resident program model studied. The volume of general thoracic cases increased in all program models. Two-year, 2-resident programs had the lowest volume in 5 of the 10 categories, reaching significance in 3 categories. The written board pass rate was lower among 2-year programs than among 3-year programs (86% vs 95%, respectively, P = .003). Training programs have so far weathered the storm by maintaining index volume with a new case mix, but significant trends in revascularization procedures are concerning. This study indicates a significant advantage in case volume and board pass rates among 3-year programs. Thoracic residency programs should be reorganized so that the number of residents does not exceed the capacity of the program to provide a meaningful experience.
    The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 06/2009; 137(6):1317-25, discussion 1326. · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lipid emulsion infusion is an emerging antidotal therapy for toxin-induced cardiac arrest. To compare the efficacy of resuscitation from bupivacaine-induced asystole using lipid emulsion infusion vs. vasopressin, alone and with epinephrine. Prospective, randomized, animal study. University research laboratory. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats. Instrumented rats were given an intravenous bolus of 20 mg/kg bupivacaine to induce asystole (zero time). Rats (n = 6 for all groups) were ventilated with 100% oxygen, given chest compressions, and randomized to receive 30% lipid emulsion (L, 5 mL/kg bolus then 1.0 mL/kg/min infusion) and vasopressin 0.4 U/kg bolus alone (V) or combined with epinephrine, 30 microg/kg (V + E); boluses (L, V, or V + E) were repeated at 2.5 and 5 minutes for a rate-pressure product (RPP) less than 20% baseline. The arterial blood pressure and electrocardiogram were measured continuously for 10 minutes when blood was drawn for arterial blood gas analysis, lactate content, and central venous oxygen saturation (ScvpO2). Hemodynamic parameters of the L group at 10 minutes (30,615 +/- 4782 mm Hg/min; 151 +/- 19.1 mm Hg; 197 +/- 8.6 min; RPP, systolic blood pressure and heart rate, respectively) exceeded those of the V group (5395 +/- 1310 mm Hg/min; 85.8 +/- 12 mm Hg; 61 +/- 10.8 min) and the V + E group (11,183 +/- 1857 mm Hg/min; 75.5 +/- 12.9 min, RPP and heart rate, respectively; systolic blood pressure was not different). Metrics indicated better tissue perfusion in the L group (7.24 +/- 0.02; 83% +/- 3.5%; 2.2 +/- 0.36 mmol/L; pH, ScvpO2, lactate, respectively) than V (7.13 +/- 0.02; 29.9% +/- 4.4%; 7.5 +/- 0.6 mmol/L) and V + E groups (7.07 +/- 0.03; 26.2% +/- 8.9%; 7.7 +/- 1 mmol/L). Wet-to-dry lung ratios in V (8.3 +/- 0.6) and V + E (8.7 +/- 0.2) were greater than that in the L group (6.2 +/- 05) (mean +/- sem; p < 0.05 for all shown results). Lipid emulsion in this rat model provides superior hemodynamic and metabolic recovery from bupivacaine-induced cardiac arrest than do vasopressors. Systolic pressure was not a useful metric in the vasopressor groups. Vasopressin was associated with adverse outcomes.
    Critical care medicine 04/2009; 37(3):993-9. · 6.15 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
345.56 Total Impact Points


  • 2013
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 1997–2013
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      • • Department of Anesthesiology (Chicago)
      • • Section of Cardiology
      • • Department of Surgery (Chicago)
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • Division of Vascular Surgery
      Pittsburgh, PA, United States
  • 2007
    • Wright State University
      • Department of Surgery
      Dayton, OH, United States
  • 2005
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2002
    • National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
      • Division of Thoracic Surgery
      Athens, Attiki, Greece
  • 1999
    • Cleveland Clinic
      • Transplant Center
      Cleveland, OH, United States