Ondra Sracek

Palacký University of Olomouc, Olmütz, Olomoucký, Czech Republic

Are you Ondra Sracek?

Claim your profile

Publications (65)109.3 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Exploitation of groundwater from shallow, high prolific Holocene sedimentary aquifers has been a main element for achieving safe drinking water and food security in Bangladesh. However, the presence of elevated levels of geogenic arsenic (As) in these aquifers has undermined this success. Except for targeting safe aquifers through installations of tubewells to greater depth, no mitigation option has been successfully implemented on a larger scale. The objective of this study has been to characterise the hydrostratigraphy, groundwater flow patterns, the hydraulic properties to assess the vulnerability of low-arsenic aquifers at Matlab, in south-eastern Bangladesh, one of the worst arsenic-affected areas of the country. Groundwater modelling, conventional pumping test using multilevel piezometers, hydraulic head monitoring in piezometer nests, 14C dating of groundwater and assessment of groundwater abstraction were used. A model comprising of three aquifers covering the top 250 m of the model domain showed the best fit for the calibration evaluation criteria. Irrigation wells in the Matlab area are mostly installed in clusters and account for most of the groundwater abstraction. Even though the hydraulic heads are affected locally by seasonal pumping, the aquifer system is fully recharged from the monsoonal replenishment. Groundwater simulations demonstrated the presence of deep regional flow systems with recharge areas in the eastern, hilly part of Bangladesh and shallow small local flow systems driven by local topography. Based on modelling results and 14C groundwater data, it can be concluded that the natural local flow systems reach a depth of 30 m b.g.l. in the study area. A downward vertical gradient of roughly 0.01 down to 200 m b.g.l. was observed and reproduced by calibrated models. The vertical gradient is mainly the result of the aquifer system and properties rather than abstraction rate, which is too limited at depth to make an imprint. Although irrigation wells substantially change local flow pattern, targeting low-As aquifers seems to be a suitable mitigation option for providing people with safe drinking water. However, installing additional irrigation- or high capacity production wells at the same depth is strongly discouraged as these could substantially change the groundwater flow pattern. The results from the present study and other similar studies can further contribute to develop a rational management and mitigation policy for the future use of the groundwater resources for drinking water supplies.
    Journal of Hydrology 06/2014; In press(Corrected Proof). · 2.96 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mine tailings at Kombat, in semiarid northeastern Namibia, were investigated by the combination of solid-phase analyses, mineralogical methods, leaching tests, and speciation modeling. Dissolution of the most abundant primary sulfides, chalcopyrite and galena, released copper and lead which were adsorbed onto ferric oxyhydroxides or precipitated in the form of malachite, Cu2CO3(OH)2, and cerussite, PbCO3, respectively. Arsenic released from arsenopyrite was incorporated into ferric oxyhydroxides. Based on sequential extraction and (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, a large amount of ferric iron is present as low solubility hematite and goethite formed rapidly (<10 years) under warm semiarid climatic conditions, and arsenic in these phases is relatively tightly bound. It seems that Cu and especially Pb in carbonate minerals represent a more serious environmental risk. Immobilization of As in hematite has implications for other mining sites in regions with similar climatic conditions because this process results in long-term immobilization of As.
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 04/2014; · 1.68 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The concentrations of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in washed leaves and washed and peeled tubers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt mining district have been analyzed. An enrichment index (EI) was used to distinguish between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. This index is based on the average ratio of the actual and median concentration of the given contaminants (As, Co, Cu, mercury (Hg), Pb and Zn) in topsoil. The concentrations of copper in cassava leaves growing on contaminated soils reach as much as 612 mg kg-1 Cu (total dry weight [dw]). Concentrations of copper in leaves of cassava growing on uncontaminated soils are much lower (up to 252 mg kg-1 Cu dw). The concentrations of Co (up to 78 mg kg-1 dw), As (up to 8 mg kg-1 dw) and Zn (up to 231 mg kg-1 dw) in leaves of cassava growing on contaminated soils are higher compared with uncontaminated areas, while the concentrations of lead do not differ significantly. The concentrations of analysed chemical elements in the tubers of cassava are much lower than in its leaves with the exception of As. Even in strongly contaminated areas, the concentrations of copper in the leaves and tubers of cassava do not exceed the daily maximum tolerance limit of 0.5 mg.kg-1/human body weight (HBW) established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.025 mg kg-1 /HBW for lead and the highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.015mg kg-1/ HBW for arsenic are exceeded predominantly in the vicinity of smelters. Therefore, the preliminary assessment of dietary exposure to metals through the consumption of uncooked cassava leaves and tubers has been identified as a moderate hazard to human health. Nevertheless, as the surfaces of leaves are strongly contaminated by metalliferous dust in the polluted areas, there is still a potential hazard of ingesting dangerous levels of copper, lead and arsenic if dishes are prepared with poorly washed foliage.
    Journal of African Earth Sciences 03/2014; · 1.23 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A survey of groundwater from six geothermal springs in Namibia showed high concentrations of dissolved fluoride, with values up to 18.9 mg/l. All values are higher than both the WHO limit and the Namibian guideline. High concentrations of fluoride are linked to Na-HCO3 or Na-SO4-HCO3 groundwater types, with increasing sulphate and chloride concentrations towards the south of Namibia. Values of δ2H and δ18O are more negative for the north of the country, and with increasing altitude of springs and distance from precipitation sources towards the southeast from the Indian Ocean. A shift of about 1‰ from the LMWL for Windhoek was observed for δ18O samples, which was probably caused by the exchange with reservoir rocks. Values of δ34S(SO4) reflect mixing of two principal sulphate sources, i.e., dissolution of gypsum originating from playas and interaction with sulphidic mineralization in tectonic bedrock zones. Values of δ13C(DIC) seem to be affected by a variable vegetation cover and mainly by the input of endogenous CO2. Estimated reservoir temperatures vary from 60 °C to 126 °C, with a maximum value at the Ganigobes site. The geothermal springs of Namibia in this study do not meet drinking water standards and thus their water can be used only for other purposes e.g. for thermal spas. Treatment would be necessary to decrease dissolved fluorine concentrations for drinking water purposes.
    Journal of Geochemical Exploration 01/2014; · 1.95 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vanadium-rich mine tailings at Berg Aukas, site with a world-known vanadium mineralization in northeastern Namibia, were investigated using a combination of solid phase and mineralogical analyses, leaching tests and speciation modeling. Principal objective of the study was to determine, if vanadium can be released into the environment. In spite of >30 y of weathering and oxidation of tailings material to a maximum sampling depth of 2.4 m, a large portion of V still remains in the primary mineral descloizite, (Pb,Zn)2(OH)VO4. A part of V was mobilized and adsorbed/co-precipitated with ferric oxyhydroxides. Based on sequential extraction and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, a large amount of ferric iron is present in insoluble hematite and goethite, where V is effectively bound. Other potential contaminants are Zn, present mostly in the primary mineral willemite, Zn2SiO4, descloizite and also in secondary smithsonite, ZnCO3; and Pb, which was transferred from completely dissolved galena to cerussite, PbCO3 and is also partly present in primary descloizite. Conditions in the mine tailings are alkaline (pH generally >8.2) and oxidizing during dry period, but mobility of V is low due to low solubility of descloizite and secondary crystalline ferric phases such as hematite. In contrast, Zn and especially Pb in secondary carbonates, probably represent more serious environmental and health risks.
    Journal of African Earth Sciences 01/2014; · 1.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Summary We present here major ion, trace element, stable and radioisotope data based on forty-six groundwater samples collected from various locations along few selected profiles across the Chianan Plain, southwestern Taiwan including the area affected by well known Blackfoot disease manifested by peripheral vascular gangrene. The objective of the study was to understand the role of local hydrogeology in terms of spatial variation of arsenic concentration in groundwater wells of the entire Chianan Plain and the foothill belt of the Central Mountain Range. An attempt has also been made to assess the contribution of nearby geothermal sources to the arsenic budget in groundwater of the Chianan Plain. Our study shows a gradual increase in all major and trace ion concentrations including total arsenic from foothill belt (arsenic: median = 4 μg/L, range = 0–667.6 μg/L, sample number n = 16) to coastal zones (arsenic: median = 42.74 μg/L, range = 0.14–348.6 μg/L, n = 15) of the plain. Inverse geochemical modeling shows that Ca may be exchanged on clays, and that the degree of the exchange increases from the foothill to the coastal zones. Inverse geochemical modeling further suggests that the oxidation of organic matter (CH2O) required in various east-west profiles across the plain to balance the total bicarbonate concentration and CO2 input from organic matters significantly increases from the foothill to the coastal zones with transfer coefficients ranging from 1.55 × 10−2 to 1.69 × 10−5 mol/L. High concentrations of tritium (mean = 1.33 ± 0.11 TU; n = 4) in foothill groundwater and low concentration of tritium in groundwater of central zone suggest gradually increasing water–rock interaction from the foothill to the coastal part. Few elevated arsenic (median = 171.8 μg/L, maximum = 667.60 μg/L, minimum = 24 μg/L; n = 6) hotspots are identified in the foothill belt. Available lithologs and aquifer test data suggest that the presence of impermeable clay around those pockets possibly inhibits vertical and lateral flushing of the aquifer and aids strong water–rock interactions subsequently leading to release of arsenic into groundwater. Using oxygen isotope and chloride mass balance method, we estimated that geothermal sources can recharge a maximum of 4% of groundwater in proximal aquifers and contribute <2% of average As concentration in the groundwater of Chianan Plain. Our preliminary observations thus show some arsenic enrichment in foothill aquifers, providing a necessity of detailed study of the aquifer systems in these understudied regions. Moreover, our research indicates that the contribution of arsenic from geothermal sources is insignificant, which stands in contrast to earlier studies suggesting that mud volcanoes and thermal springs in the Western Foothill Belt of the Central Mountain Range were potential sources of groundwater arsenic in the Chianan Plain aquifers.
    Journal of Hydrology 01/2014; 518, Part C:393 - 409. · 2.96 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The abandoned Dubrava Mine, situated in the northern part of the Nizke Tatry Mts in the middle of Slovakia, was the most significant producer of antimony (Sb) in the former Czechoslovakia. Mine drainage from adits (containing up to 9,300 µg/L of Sb), mine waste dumps, and the leachate from mine tailings contribute Sb and arsenic (As) into nearby Paludzanka Creek and groundwater. Some drinking water resources have been closed due to excessive Sb concentrations; the concentration of Sb in one household well (126 µg/L) far exceeds the Sb drinking water limit of 5 µg/L. Although Sb is attenuated by dilution and adsorption on ferric iron in stream sediment in the Paludzanka Creek, Sb concentrations increase downstream of the mine tailings and then remain almost constant, leading to concentrations of 128 µg/L at the northern boundary of the study area. The dissolved As concentrations in the mine drainage are much lower than Sb, ranging from 4 to 62 µg/L. Flow and transport modeling confirmed the observed contamination pattern and the major role of the mine adits. Results of this study indicate serious Sb contamination, which could be mitigated by treatment of the adit discharges.
    Mine Water and the Environment 09/2013; 32(3):207-221. · 1.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chemical weathering is one of the major geochemical processes that control the mobilization of heavy metals. The present study provides the first report on heavy metal fractionation in sediments (8-156 m) of Lake Titicaca (3,820 m a.s.l.), which is shared by the Republic of Peru and the Plurinational State of Bolivia. Both contents of total Cu, Fe, Ni, Co, Mn, Cd, Pb, and Zn and also the fractionation of these heavy metals associated with four different fractions have been determined following the BCR scheme. The principal component analysis suggests that Co, Ni, and Cd can be attributed to natural sources related to the mineralized geological formations. Moreover, the sources of Cu, Fe, and Mn are effluents and wastes generated from mining activities, while Pb and Zn also suggest that their common source is associated to mining activities. According to the Risk Assessment Code, there is a moderate to high risk related to Zn, Pb, Cd, Mn, Co, and Ni mobilization and/or remobilization from the bottom sediment to the water column. Furthermore, the Geoaccumulation Index and the Enrichment Factor reveal that Zn, Pb, and Cd are enriched in the sediments. The results suggest that the effluents from various traditional mining waste sites in both countries are the main source of heavy metal contamination in the sediments of Lake Titicaca.
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 08/2013; · 1.68 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Environmental settings in the southern area of Lake Poopó in the Bolivian highlands, the Altiplano, have generated elevated amounts of arsenic (As) in the water. The area is characterised by a semiarid climate, slow hydrological flow and geologic formations of predominantly volcanic origin. The present study aimed at mapping the extent of the water contamination in the area and to investigate the geogenic sources and processes involved in the release of As to the groundwater. Ground- and surface-water samples were collected from 24 different sites, including drinking water wells and rivers, in the southern Poopó basin in two different field campaigns during the dry and rainy seasons. The results revealed variable levels of As in shallow drinking water wells and average concentration exceeding the WHO guidelines value. Arsenic concentrations range from below 5.2μg/L (the detection level) to 207μg/L and averages 72μg/L. Additionally, high boron (B) concentrations (average 1902μg/L), and high salinity are further serious concerns for deteriorating the groundwater quality and rendering it unsuitable for drinking. Groundwater is predominantly of the Na-Cl-HCO3 type or the Ca-Na-HCO3 type with neutral or slightly alkaline pH and oxidising character. While farmers are seriously concerned about the water scarcity, and on a few occasions about salinity, there are no concerns about As and B present at levels exceeding the WHO guidelines, and causing negative long term effects on human health. Sediment samples from two soil profiles and a river bed along with fourteen rock samples were also collected and analysed. Sequential extractions of the sediments together with the calculation of the mineral saturation indices indicate that iron oxides and hydroxides are the important secondary minerals phases which are important adsorbents for As. High pH values, and the competition of As with HCO3 and dissolved silica for the adsorption sites probably seems to be an important process for the mobilisation of As in the shallow groundwaters of the region. Continuous monitoring and expansion of monitoring systems are necessary prerequisites for better understanding of the pattern of As mobilisation in the Southern Poopó Basin.
    Journal of hazardous materials 07/2013; · 4.14 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The weathering of sulphide minerals within spoil heaps causes the release of sulphate and environmentally hazardous metal ions. Newly-formed species can subsequently precipitate as highly soluble, secondary sulphate minerals, which, in turn, might be flushed by dilute recharge water or eventually transformed into more stable minerals. These processes determine which components are retained in the spoil as immobile solid phases and which (and when) others are released into the wider aquatic environment. To elucidate this sequence of mineral formation and transformation, we studied mineral-fluid equilibria in a major abandoned coal mine spoil heap at the former Shillbottle Colliery, Northumberland, UK. The investigations focussed on stability of iron minerals produced during the acid mine drainage process. The multicomponent Phreeplot-calculated pE/pH diagrams reveal that many post-mining secondary minerals may co-exist, in contrast to what is indicated by the more commonly used charts. Being able to visualize the mutual stability of these minerals under specific chemical and physical conditions might aid understanding of formation and transformation mechanisms.
    Mine Water and the Environment 05/2013; · 1.20 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Kinetic batch leaching of the flotation wastes from Berg Aukas and Kombat mining districts (northern Namibia) in 500 μM solutions of citric, oxalic and acetic acids was performed to simulate the release of trace metals and As in the rhizosphere-like environment. The obtained data demonstrate that citric acid may significantly contribute to mineral waste alteration accompanied by contaminant mobilization; the maximum dissolution rates corresponded to 7% (Cu), 3% (As), 2% (Cd), 0.8% (Pb) and 0.3% (Zn) of their total amounts. In contrast, the role of oxalic and acetic acids in the complex process of contaminant leaching was usually negligible and/or comparable with water. The precipitation of newly formed Fe (hydr)oxides followed by the adsorption of Pb, Cd and eventually Zn from the model solutions seems to be the key mechanism which led to the metals' stabilization, as predicted by speciation modeling. Considering the neutral and slightly alkaline (and lowly organic) character of soils around the investigated flotation waste dams, Cu and As, present as neutral or anionic species, are suggested to be contaminants with the highest potential for rhizospheric mobilization and subsequent vertical mobility in local soils and/or transfer to plants.
    Journal of Geochemical Exploration 01/2013; · 1.95 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Several million people around the world are currently exposed to excessive amounts of arsenic (As) and fluoride (F) in their drinking water. Although the individual toxic effects of As and F have been analyzed, there are few studies addressing their co-occurrences and water treatment options. Several studies conducted in arid and semi-arid regions of Latin America show that the co-occurrences of As and F in drinking water are linked to the volcaniclastic particles in the loess or alluvium, alkaline pH, and limited recharge. The As and F contamination results from water-rock interactions and may be accelerated by geothermal and mining activities, as well as by aquifer over-exploitation. These types of contamination are particularly pronounced in arid and semi-arid regions, where high As concentrations often show a direct relationship with high F concentrations. Enrichment of F is generally related to fluorite dissolution and it is also associated with high Cl, Br, and V concentrations. The methods of As and F removal, such as chemical precipitation followed by filtration and reverse osmosis, are currently being used at different scales and scenarios in Latin America. Although such technologies are available in Latin America, it is still urgent to develop technologies and methods capable of monitoring and removing both of these contaminants simultaneously from drinking water, with a particular focus towards small-scale rural operations.
    Journal of hazardous materials 08/2012; · 4.14 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The present study deals with geochemical characterization of mud fluids and sediments collected from Kunshuiping (KSP), Liyushan (LYS), Wushanting (WST), Sinyangnyuhu (SYNH), Hsiaokunshui (HKS) and Yenshuikeng (YSK) mud volcanoes in southwestern Taiwan. Chemical constituents (cations, anions, trace elements, organic carbon, humic acid, and stable isotopes) in both fluids and mud were analyzed to investigate the geochemical processes and spatial variability among the mud volcanoes under consideration. Analytical results suggested that the anoxic mud volcanic fluids are highly saline, implying connate water as the probable source. The isotopic signature indicated that δ(18)O-rich fluids may be associated with silicate and carbonate mineral released through water-rock interaction, along with dehydration of clay minerals. Considerable amounts of arsenic in mud irrespective of fluid composition suggested possible release through biogeochemical processes in the subsurface environment. Sequential extraction of As from the mud indicated that As was mostly present in organic and sulphidic phases, and adsorbed on amorphous Mn oxyhydroxides. Volcanic mud and fluids are rich in organic matter (in terms of organic carbon), and the presence of humic acid in mud has implications for the binding of arsenic. Functional groups of humic acid also showed variable sources of organic matter among the mud volcanoes being examined. Because arsenate concentration in the mud fluids was found to be independent from geochemical factors, it was considered that organic matter may induce arsenic mobilization through an adsorption/desorption mechanism with humic substances under reducing conditions. Organic matter therefore plays a significant role in the mobility of arsenic in mud volcanoes.
    Journal of hazardous materials 07/2012; · 4.14 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An investigation of the thermal waters in the Ústí nad Labem area in the northeastern part of the Eger Rift has been carried out, with the principal objective of determining their origin. Waters from geothermal reservoirs in the aquifers of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin (BCB) from depths of 240 to 616 m are exploited here. For comparison, thermal waters of the adjacent Teplice Spa area were also incorporated into the study. Results based on water chemistry and isotopes indicate mixing of groundwater from aquifers of the BCB with groundwater derived from underlying crystalline rocks of the Erzgebirge Mts. Unlike thermal waters in Děčín, which are of Ca–HCO3 type, there are two types of thermal waters in Ústí nad Labem, Na–HCO3–Cl–SO4 type with high TDS values and Na–Ca–HCO3–SO4 type with low TDS values. Carbon isotope data, speciation calculations, and inverse geochemical modeling suggest a significant input of endogenous CO2 at Ústí nad Labem in the case of high TDS groundwaters. Besides CO2 input, both silicate dissolution and cation exchange coupled with dissolution of carbonates may explain the origin of high TDS thermal waters equally well. This is a consequence of similar δ13C and 14C values in endogenous CO2 and carbonates (both sources have 14C of 0 pmc, endogenous CO2 δ13C around −3‰, carbonates in the range from −5‰ to +3‰ V-PDB). The source of Cl− seems to be relict brine formed in Tertiary lakes, which infiltrated into the deep rift zone and is being flushed out. The difference between high and low TDS groundwaters in Ústí nad Labem is caused by location of the high mineralization groundwater wells in CO2 emanation centers linked to channel-like conduits. This results in high dissolution rates of minerals and in different δ13C(DIC) and 14C(DIC) fingerprints. A combined δ34S and δ18O study of dissolved SO4 indicates multiple SO4 sources, involving SO4 from relict brines and oxidation of H2S. The study clearly demonstrates potential problems encountered at sites with multiple sources of C, where several evolutionary groundwater scenarios are possible.
    Applied Geochemistry 03/2012; 27(3):689–702. · 1.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Numerous volcanoes, hot springs, fumaroles, and geothermal wells occur in the Pacific region of Latin America. These systems are characterized by high As concentrations and other typical geothermal elements such as Li and B. This paper presents a review of the available data on As concentrations in geothermal systems and their surficial discharges and As data on volcanic gases of Latin America. Data for geothermal systems in Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Chile are presented. Two sources of As can be recognized in the investigated sites: Arsenic partitioned into volcanic gases and emitted in plumes and fumaroles, and arsenic in rocks of volcanic edifices that are leached by groundwaters enriched in volcanic gases. Water containing the most elevated concentrations of As are mature Na-Cl fluids with relatively low sulfate content and As concentrations reaching up to 73.6 mg L⁻¹ (Los Humeros geothermal field in Mexico), but more commonly ranging from a few mg L⁻¹ to tens of mg L⁻¹. Fluids derived from Na-Cl enriched waters formed through evaporation and condensation at shallower depths have As levels of only a few μg L⁻¹. Mixing of Na-Cl waters with shallower meteoric waters results in low to intermediate As concentrations (up to a few mg L⁻¹). After the waters are discharged at the ground surface, As(III) oxidizes to As(V) and attenuation of As concentration can occur due to sorption and co-precipitation processes with iron minerals and organic matter present in sediments. Understanding the mechanisms of As enrichment in geothermal waters and their fate upon mixing with shallower groundwater and surface waters is important for the protection of water resources in Latin America.
    Science of The Total Environment 01/2012; 429:57-75. · 3.16 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Arsenic and antimony contamination is found at the Pezinok mining site in the southwest of the Slovak Republic. Investigation of this site included sampling and analysis of water, mineralogical analyses, sequential extraction, in addition to flow and geochemical modeling. The highest dissolved arsenic concentrations correspond to mine tailings (up to 90,000 lg/L) and the arsenic is present predominately as As(V). The primary source of the arsenic is the dissolution of arsenopyrite. Concentration of anti-mony reaches 7,500 lg/L and its primary source is the dissolution of stibnite. Pore water in mine tailings is well-buffered by the dissolution of carbonates (pH values between 6.6 and 7.0) and arsenopyrite grains are sur-rounded by reaction rims composed of ferric iron minerals. Based on sequential extraction results, most solid phase arsenic is in the reducible fraction (i.e. ferric oxyhydrox-ides), sulfidic fraction, and residual fraction. Distribution of antimony in the solid phase is similar, but contents are lower. The principal attenuation mechanism for As(V) is adsorption to ferric oxide and hydroxides, but the adsorp-tion seems to be limited by the competition with Sb(V) produced by the oxidation of stibnite for adsorption sites. Water in mine tailings is at equilibrium with gypsum and calcite, but far from equilibrium with any arsenic and antimony minerals. The concentrations of arsenic and antimony in the surrounding aquifer are much lower, with maximum values of 215 and 426 lg/L, respectively. Arsenic and antimony are transported by ground water flow towards the Blatina Creek, but their loading from ground water to the creek is much lower compared with the input from the mine adits. In the Blatina Creek, arsenic and antimony are attenuated by dilution and by adsorption on ferric iron minerals in stream sediments with resulting respective concentrations of 93 and 45 lg/L at the site boundary south of mine tailing ponds.
    Environmental earth sciences 01/2012; 66(4):1043. · 1.45 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the groundwater chemistry with special concern to metal pollution in selected communities in the Wassa West district, Ghana. In this mining area, 40 ground water samples, mainly from drilled wells, were collected. The groundwaters have generally from neutral to acidic pH values and their Eh values indicate oxidising conditions. The dominating ions are calcium, sodium, and bicarbonate. The metal concentrations in the study area are generally lower than those typically found in mining regions. Only 17 wells show metal concentrations exceeding WHO guidelines for at least one metal. The main contaminants are manganese and iron, but arsenic and aluminium also exceed the guidelines in some wells probably affected by acid mine drainage (AMD). Metal concentrations in the groundwater seem to be controlled by the adsorption processes. Hydrogeochemical modelling indicates supersaturation of groundwater with respect to several mineral phases including iron-hydroxides/oxides, suggesting that adsorption on these minerals may control heavy metal and arsenic concentrations in groundwater. The area is hilly, with many groundwater flow divides that result in several local flow systems. The aquifers therefore are not strongly affected by weathering of minerals due to short groundwater residence times and intense flushing. The local character of groundwater flow systems also prevents a strong impact of acid mine drainage on groundwater systems in a regional scale.
    Journal of African Earth Sciences 01/2012; 66-67:72 - 84. · 1.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Arsenic (As) enrichment in groundwater has become a major global environmental disaster. Groundwater samples were collected from 64 sites located in the districts of 24-Parganas (S), and Nadia in West Bengal, India (Bhagirathi sub-basin), and 51 sites located in the districts of Comilla, Noakhali, Magura, Brahman baria, Laxmipur, Munshiganj, Faridpur and Jhenaida in Bangladesh (Padma-Meghna sub-basin). Groundwater samples were also collected from two As-affected areas (Chianan and Lanyang plains) of Taiwan (n = 26). The concentrations of major solutes in groundwater of the Padma-Meghna sub-basin are more variable than the Bhagirathi sub-basin, suggesting variations in the depositional and hydrological settings. Arsenic concentrations in groundwaters of the studied areas showed large variations, with mean As concentrations of 125 μg/L (range: 0.20 to 1,301 μg/L) in Bhagirathi sub-basin, 145 μg/L (range: 0.20 to 891 μg/L) in Padma-Meghna sub-basin, 209 μg/L (range: 1.3 to 575 μg/L) in Chianan plain, and 102 μg/L (range: 2.5 to 348 μg/L) in Lanyang plain groundwater. The concentrations of Fe, and Mn are also highly variable, and are mostly above the WHO-recommended guideline values and local (Indian and Bangladeshi) drinking water standard. Piper plot shows that groundwaters of both Bhagirathi and Padma-Meghna sub-basins are of Ca–HCO3 type. The Chianan plain groundwaters are of Na–Cl type, suggesting seawater intrusion, whereas Lanyang plain groundwaters are mostly of Na–HCO3 type. The study shows that reductive dissolution of Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides is the dominant geochemical process releasing As from sediment to groundwater in all studied areas.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A 09/2011; Part A(Vol. 46):1163-1176. · 1.25 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 09/2011; 46(11):1161-2.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Use of natural geological materials for arsenic (As) removal is an emerging solution at a household level for poor people in remote rural settlements, especially when the materials are locally available and can be collected by the local population. Their low or zero cost makes these materials very attractive compared with synthetic or commercial materials. Sometimes, this may be the only option to provide safe water to very poor settlements. Their suitability for As removal from water is mainly due to adsorption, co-precipitation and ion exchange processes involving Fe- and Al-rich minerals and clay minerals present in the soils or sediments. In the present study, various clay-rich soils from the Santiago del Estero province (SDE, NW Argentina) and, for comparison, a laterite from the Misiones province have been tested as adsorbents for As in shallow naturally contaminated groundwaters of the Río Dulce alluvial aquifer in SDE. Batch adsorption experiments showed higher As(V) removal for the Misiones laterite sample (99 %) as compared with the soils from SDE (40-53 %), which can be related to lower contents of water-soluble and oxalate extractable Al and Fe in the last samples. These results suggest the application of the Misiones laterite soil as an alternative for As removal. However, high transportation costs from Misiones to SDE can be an economical restriction for the low-income population of SDE.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 09/2011; 46(11):1297-310.

Publication Stats

700 Citations
109.30 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2014
    • Palacký University of Olomouc
      • Department of Geology
      Olmütz, Olomoucký, Czech Republic
    • Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S. C.
      Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Mexico
  • 2002–2012
    • Charles University in Prague
      • • Institute of Hydrogeology, Engineering Geology and Applied Geophysics
      • • Přírodovědecká fakulta
      Praha, Praha, Czech Republic
    • Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro
      • Department of Civil Engineering (CIV)
      Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • 2007–2011
    • KTH Royal Institute of Technology
      • Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering (LWR)
      Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden
    • University of Texas at Austin
      • Bureau of Economic Geology
      Texas City, TX, United States
  • 2010
    • Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas
      Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico
  • 2004–2008
    • Masaryk University
      • Faculty of Science
      Brünn, South Moravian, Czech Republic
    • Laval University
      Québec, Quebec, Canada
    • Universidade Federal Fluminense
      Vila Real da Praia Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil