[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Novel classes of tetrahydropyrido-pyrazole thioether amines and arylalkynes that display potency against human Cathepsin S have been previously reported. Here, key pharmacophoric elements of these two classes are merged, and SAR investigations of the P4 region are described, in conjunction with re-optimization of the P5 and P1/P1'/P3 regions. Identification of meta-substituted arylalkynes with good potency and improved solubility is described.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leukotrienes (LT's) are known to play a physiological role in inflammatory immune response. Leukotriene A(4) hydrolase (LTA(4)H) is a cystolic enzyme that stereospecifically catalyzes the transformation of LTA(4) to LTB(4). LTB(4) is a known pro-inflammatory mediator. This paper describes the identification and synthesis of substituted benzofurans as LTH(4)H inhibitors. The benzofuran series demonstrated reduced mouse and human whole blood LTB(4) levels in vitro and led to the identification one analog for advanced profiling. Benzofuran 28 showed dose responsive target engagement and provides a useful tool to explore a LTA(4)H inhibitor for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as asthma and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, benzthiazole containing LTA(4)H inhibitors were discovered that were potent (1-3), but were associated with the potential for a hERG liability. Utilizing medicinal chemistry first principles (e.g., introducing rigidity, lowering cLogD) a new benzthiazole series was designed, congeners of 1-3, which led to compounds 7a, 7c, 12a-d which exhibited LTA(4)H IC(50)=3-6nM and hERG Dofetilide Binding IC(50)=8.9-> >10μM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The discovery of a series of novel, potent, and selective blockers of the cyclic nucleotide-modulated channel HCN1 is disclosed. Here we report an SAR study around a series of selective blockers of the HCN1 channel. Utilization of a high-throughput VIPR assay led to the identification of a novel series of 2,2-disubstituted indane derivatives, which had moderate selectivity and potency at HCN1. Optimization of this hit led to the identification of the potent, 1,1-disubstituted cyclohexane HCN1 blocker, 2-ethoxy-N-((1-(4-isopropylpiperazin-1-yl)cyclohexyl)methyl)benzamide. The work leading to the discovery of this compound is described herein.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This report discloses the development of a series of tricyclic histamine H(4) receptor antagonists. Starting with a low nanomolar benzofuranopyrimidine HTS hit devoid of pharmaceutically acceptable properties, we navigated issues with metabolism and solubility to furnish a potent, stable and water soluble tricyclic histamine H(4) receptor antagonist with desirable physiochemical parameters which demonstrated efficacy a mouse ova model.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: By employing a stereosimplification approach, a thorough SAR exploration of the piperidine region of Sch 206272 was possible through a practical and efficient synthesis of substituted cyclic ureas. This SAR study led to the identification of a benzimidazolinone series of compounds which display single digit nanomolar NK1/NK2 affinity and near micromolar binding for the NK3 receptor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous research on histamine H(3) antagonists has led to the development of a pharmacophore model consisting of a central phenyl core flanked by two alkylamine groups. Recent investigation of the replacement of the central phenyl core with heteroaromatic fragments resulted in the preparation of novel 3,5-, 3,6- and 3,7-substituted indole and 3,5-substituted benzothiophene analogs that demonstrate good to excellent hH(3) affinities. Select analogs were profiled in a rat pharmacokinetic model.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of pyrazole-based thioethers were prepared and found to be potent cathepsin S inhibitors. A crystal structure of 13 suggests that the thioether moiety may bind to the S3 pocket of the enzyme. Additional optimization led to the discovery of aminoethylthioethers with improved enzymatic activity and submicromolar cellular potency.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel class of tetrahydropyrido-pyrazole thioether amines that display potency against human Cathepsin S have been previously reported. Here, further SAR investigations of the P3, P4, and P5 regions are described. In particular, 4-fluoropiperidine is identified as a competent P3 binding element when utilized in conjunction with a (S)-2-hydroxypropyl linker-containing P5 moiety and oxamide or sulfonamide P4 substitution.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of tetrahydropyrido-pyrazole cathepsin S (CatS) inhibitors with thioether acetamide functional groups were prepared with the goal of improving upon the cellular activity of amidoethylthioethers. This Letter describes altered amide connectivity, in conjunction with changes to other binding elements, resulting in improved potency, as well as increased knowledge of the relationship between this chemotype and human CatS activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new protocol of incompatible chemical reagent segregation has been developed. Serving as a second-level segregation beyond typical first-level separation of explosives/nonexplosives, flammables/nonflammables, corrosives/noncorrosives, and caustics/noncaustics, this method involves assigning the reactive functional groups constituting a given reagent to one of seven classes based on reactivity and then storing that reagent according to which of those functional groups is of the highest priority, based on defined rankings. This scheme, requiring a small number of segregation groups, differs from previously reported segregation methods by accounting for the fact that organic reagents typically contain multiple sites of varying reactivity.
Organic Process Research & Development 11/2009; 13(6). DOI:10.1021/op900094d · 2.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) is a ubiquitously distributed 69-kDa zinc-containing cytosolic enzyme with both hydrolase and aminopeptidase activity. As a hydrolase, LTA4H stereospecifically catalyzes the transformation of the unstable epoxide LTA4 to the diol leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a potent chemoattractant and activator of neutrophils and a chemoattractant of eosinophils, macrophages, mast cells, T cells, dendritic cells, smooth muscle cells and keratinocytes. Inhibiting the formation of LTB4 is expected to be beneficial in the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, asthma and atherosclerosis. Objective: The focus of this review will be on patent applications/patents containing LTA4H inhibitors that were published between 1996 and March 2008 from four different companies. The documents reviewed are presented in a tabular manner. Method: The first part of this review focuses on the primary literature supporting LTA4H as a potential target. The second part covers the patent literature organized by applicant identified during the prescribed period. Conclusion: Activity towards identifying small molecule inhibitors of LTA4H has escalated in the last few years in line with important scientific and clinical developments involving the leukotriene pathway. One inhibitor from deCODE, DG-051, is reported to be in clinical trials for myocardial infarction and future reports of clinical efficacy will undoubtedly stimulate further work in the field by others.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: LTA 4H is a ubiquitously distributed 69 kDa zinc-containing cytosolic enzyme with both hydrolase and aminopeptidase activity. As a hydrolase, LTA 4H stereospecifically catalyzes the transformation of the unstable epoxide LTA 4 to the diol LTB 4, a potent chemoattractant and activator of neutrophils and a chemoattractant of eosinophils, macrophages, mast cells, and T cells. Inhibiting the formation of LTB 4 is expected to be beneficial in the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), asthma, and atherosclerosis. We developed a pharmacophore model using a known inhibitor manually docked into the active site of LTA 4H to identify a subset of compounds for screening. From this work we identified a series of benzoxazole, benzthiazole, and benzimidazole inhibitors. SAR studies resulted in the identification of several potent inhibitors with an appropriate cross-reactivity profile and excellent PK/PD properties. Our efforts focused on further profiling JNJ 27265732, which showed encouraging efficacy in a disease model relevant to IBD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leukotriene A(4) hydrolase (LTA(4)H) catalyzes production of the proinflammatory lipid mediator, leukotriene (LT) B(4), which is implicated in a number of inflammatory diseases. We have identified a potent and selective inhibitor of both the epoxide hydrolase and aminopeptidase activities of recombinant human LTA(4)H (IC(50), approximately 10 nM). In a murine model of arachidonic acid-induced ear inflammation, the LTA(4)H inhibitor, JNJ-26993135 (1-[4-(benzothiazol-2-yloxy)-benzyl]-piperidine-4-carboxylic acid), dose-dependently inhibited ex vivo LTB(4) production in blood, in parallel with dose-dependent inhibition of neutrophil influx (ED(50), 1-3 mg/kg) and ear edema. In murine whole blood and in zymosan-induced peritonitis, JNJ-26993135 selectively inhibited LTB(4) production, without affecting cysteinyl leukotriene production, while maintaining or increasing production of the anti-inflammatory mediator, lipoxin (LX) A(4). The 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) inhibitor zileuton showed inhibition of LTB(4), LTC(4), and LXA(4) production. Although zileuton inhibited LTB(4) production in the peritonitis model more effectively than the LTA(4)H inhibitor, the influx of neutrophils into the peritoneum after 1 and 2 h was significantly higher in zileuton- versus JNJ-26993135-treated animals. This difference may have been mediated by the increased LXA(4) levels in the presence of the LTA(4)H inhibitor. The selective inhibition of LTB(4) production by JNJ-26993135, while increasing levels of the anti-inflammatory mediator, LXA(4), may translate to superior therapeutic efficacy versus 5-LO or 5-LO-activating protein inhibitors in LTB(4)-mediated inflammatory diseases.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 07/2007; 321(3):1154-60. DOI:10.1124/jpet.106.115436 · 3.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously reported a novel class of tetrahydroindazoles that display potency against a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, potentially via interaction with type II bacterial topoisomerases. Herein are reported SAR investigations of this new series. Several compounds possessing broad-spectrum potency were prepared. Further, these compounds exhibit activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-positive microorganisms equivalent to that against susceptible strains. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In an attempt to search for a new class of antibacterial agents, we have discovered a series of pyrazole analogs that possess good antibacterial activity for Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms via inhibition of type II bacterial topoisomerases. We have investigated the structure-activity relationships of this series, with an emphasis on the length and conformation of the linker. This work led to the identification of tetrahydroindazole analogs, such as compound 1, as the most potent class of compounds.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of competitive, reversible cathepsin S (CatS) inhibitors was investigated. An earlier disclosure detailed the discovery of the 4-(2-keto-1-benzimidazolinyl)-piperidin-1-yl moiety as an effective replacement for the 4-arylpiperazin-1-yl group found in our screening hit. Continued investigation into replacements for the 4-aryl piperazine resulted in the identification of potentially useful CatS inhibitors with enzymatic and cellular activity similar to that of JNJ 10329670 as disclosed in a previous publication.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three series of H(4) receptor ligands, derived from indoly-2-yl-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-methanones, have been synthesized and their structure-activity relationships evaluated for activity at the H(4) receptor in competitive binding and functional assays. In all cases, substitution of small lipophilic groups in the 4 and 5-positions led to increased activity in a [(3)H]histamine radiolabeled ligand competitive binding assay. In vitro metabolism and initial pharmacokinetic studies were performed on selected compounds leading to the identification of indole 8 and benzimidazole 40 as potent H(4) antagonists with the potential for further development. In addition, both 8 and 40 demonstrated efficacy in in vitro mast cell and eosinophil chemotaxis assays.