ABSTRACT: Initial fixation strength is critical for the early post-operative rehabilitation of patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. However, even the best femoral fixation devices remain controversial. We compared the biomechanical characteristics of tendon grafts fixed by different biodegradable femoral fixation devices following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.
The Bio-TransFix, Rigidfix, Bioscrew with EndoPearl augmentation and Bioscrew devices were used to fix porcine flexor digitorum profundus tendon grafts in 32 porcine femora. Displacement of each tendon graft was evaluated after cyclic loading testing. Stiffness, ultimate failure load and failure mode of these fixation devices were measured with load-to-failure testing.
The displacement of the femur-graft-cement complex in response to cyclic loading was lower (P<0.05) for the Bio-TransFix than the Rigidfix, Bioscrew with EndoPearl augmentation, and Bioscrew groups. The fixation stiffness values of the Rigidfix and the Bioscrew were significantly greater (P<0.05) than that of the Bio-TransFix. The ultimate failure load was significantly greater for the Bio-TransFix and the Rigidfix than the Bioscrew with EndoPearl augmentation or the Bioscrew (P<0.05).
The Bio-TransFix provided the least graft displacement under cyclic loading. However, this device gave less stability. The Rigidfix device provided better stability and stiffness of the tendon graft among those fixation devices that showed no significant differences in graft displacement under cyclic loading. However, no single fixation device provided less displacement along with a larger failure load and stiffness in this study.
Clinical biomechanics (Bristol, Avon) 03/2009; 24(5):435-40. · 1.76 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: A stable fixation of the graft is imperative for early aggressive rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The suspension devices such as Endobutton-CL and Cross-pin system are common techniques of femoral fixation for the hamstring tendon graft and provide superior initial biomechanical properties than the screws system. It remains unclear how such implants perform under cyclic loading and initial pull-out strength.
Cross-pin and Endobutton-CL femoral fixation devices were tested for initial fixation strength in porcine knee joints by cyclic loads following a load-to-failure test. The Cross-pin and Endobutton-CL were used for femoral fixation of a porcine profundus flexor digitorum tendon autograft in 20 porcine knees. Ten specimens of femoral-graft-tibia complex in each group were loaded cyclically to between 0 and 150 N at 1 Hz for 1000 cycles following a load-to-failure test at a rate of 150 mm/min.
The amount of total femur-graft-tibia complex graft displacement was significantly lower in the Cross-pin fixation group (5.37 +/- 0.28 mm) than in Endobutton-CL fixation group (6.08 +/- 0.61 mm: P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the maximal failure load, yield load, and stiffness between the Cross-pin and Endobutton-CL fixation groups.
This biomechanical study reveals that the Endobutton-CL and Cross-pin femoral fixation devices have an equally strong and safe fixation for ACL reconstruction. However, the Cross-pin fixation has significantly less displacement of femur-graft-tibia complex than that of Endobutton-CL fixation in response to the cyclic loading test. It indicates that the Cross-pin fixation is more suitable for early aggressive rehabilitation following ACL reconstruction.
Journal of Surgical Research 03/2009; 161(2):282-7. · 2.25 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: We aimed to establish an animal model to investigate primary osteoarthritis of the lumbar facet joints after collagenase injection in rats and its effects on chondrocyte apoptosis. We hypothesized that osteoarthritic-like changes would be induced by collagenase injection and that apoptosis of chondrocytes would increase. Collagenase (1, 10, or 50 U) or saline (control) was injected into the lumbar facet joints. The histology and histochemistry of cartilage, synovium, and subchondral bone were examined at 1, 3, and 6 weeks after surgery. Apoptotic cells induced by 1 U of collagenase were quantified using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay. Degeneration of the cartilage and changes to the synovium and subchondral bone were dependent on both the doses of collagenase and the time after surgery. There were significantly more apoptotic chondrocytes in collagenase-treated joints than in control (P < 0.001 at 1 and 3 weeks and P < 0.05 at 6 weeks). Thus, lumbar facet joints subjected to collagenase developed osteoarthritic-like changes that could be quantified and compared. This model provides a useful tool for further study on the effects of compounds that have the potential to inhibit enzyme-associated damage to cartilage.
European Spine Journal 05/2008; 17(5):734-42. · 1.97 Impact Factor