A O Aasen

University of Oslo (UiO), Oslo, Oslo, Norway

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Publications (200)381.01 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Acute pancreatitis was induced in anesthetized pigs by injection of Na-taurocholate into the pancreatic duct. The pigs were allocated to 4 groups. One group remained untreated while the other groups received either C1-inhibitor, aprotinin or methyl-prednisolone intravenously as pretreatment. Extensive necroses of the pancreatic parenchyma, peripancreatic oedema and accumulation of large amounts of fluid in the abdominal cavity developed within a few hours in all experimental groups. Pretreatment significantly improved hemodynamics and increased the survival rate at 6 hours. It is concluded that the most essential effect of the pretreatments were reduction of proteolytic activities which are secondary to the pancreatic lesions.
    Apmis 08/2009; 95A(1‐6):377 - 382. · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ultrastructure of developing lung lesions in two groups of dogs exposed to a combination of haemorrhagic hypotension and liver trauma was studied with particular attention to changes at the alveolar level and lung micro-vessels. Lung samples were obtained every four hours and at collapse in one group and 12 hrs after initiation of the trauma in the other. An interstitial oedema was recognized in biopsies obtained 4 hrs after initiation of the trauma, and before marked lesions were observed at the ultrastructural level in endothelial cells. Endothelial damage was, however, evident in biopsies obtained at 8 hrs and at collapse. Aggregates of degranulated and degenerated leucocytes and platelets were occasionally found to obstruct respiratory capillaries together with erythrocytes, some of which seemed to be haemolysing. A considerable amount of protein-rich oedema, cellular debris and fibrinoid material was found in alveolar lumina at collapse. The present experiments indicate that increased vascular permeability in lung micro-vessels is of importance for the development of the characteristic lesions seen in shock lungs. Possible pathogenetic mechanisms, initiating the lung lesions, are discussed with special emphasis on the significance of kinin activation and the presence of polymorphonuclear leucocytes and microthrombi.
    Apmis 08/2009; 90A(1‐6):113 - 123. · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Penetrating injuries are frequently combined with polybacterial soiling. Clearance of the microorganisms depends on the ability to activate immune responses, but post-traumatic hyporeactivity of immune cells is almost universal. The aim of this study was to map the early time course of this altered leukocyte reactivity, and to compare the reactions to subsequent Gram-positive or Gram-negative challenges. Twelve juvenile pigs sustained two standardized rounds, one through the right femur and one through the left upper abdomen. First aid treatment and acute surgery were started immediately. Blood samples were drawn before trauma and after 10, 30, 60, and 90 min, and thereafter stimulated in ex vivo whole blood for 3 h with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 ng/ml), peptidoglycan (PepG, 1 microg/ml), or an equivalent amount of normal saline. The leukocyte response was evaluated by measurement of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 in the supernatant. In the post-traumatic in vivo serum, the concentration of TNF-alpha increased steadily (significant after 60 min). A reduced ex vivo reaction to LPS was evident after 10 min, and was statistically significant after 30 min. The lowest levels were reached after 90 min. The ex vivo synthesis of TNF-alpha after stimulation with PepG remained unaltered. A similar development was seen for IL-6. IL-1 beta levels did not change, while IL-8 increased significantly only after 60 and 90 min. Trauma almost instantaneously reprogrammed circulating leukocytes. As measured with TNF-alpha, a profound hyporeactivity to LPS, but not to PepG, was induced. In addition, no global down-regulation of leukocyte function was found after stimulation with LPS.
    Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 11/2008; 52(9):1231-7. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: beta-Glucans are glucose polymers with a variety of stimulatory effects on the immune system. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of prophylactic oral administration of soluble Saccharomyces cerevisiae-derived beta-1,3/1,6-glucan (SBG) on the outcome of experimental endotoxaemia and shock-associated organ injury. Male Wistar rats were pretreated with SBG orally (SBGpo, 20 mg/kg/day) for 14 days, subcutaneously (SBGsc, 2 mg/kg/day) for 3 days, or vehicle (placebo). Rats were anaesthetized and subjected to endotoxaemia by intravenous infusion of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (6 mg/kg) or saline infusion (sham). We observed significant levels of plasma beta-glucan in the SBGpo group (P<0 x 5), although the SBGsc group had levels approximately 40-fold higher despite a 10-fold lower dose. SBG prophylaxis caused enhanced blood pressure recovery following LPS-induced blood pressure collapse. Oral treatment with SBG attenuated the LPS-induced rise in plasma creatinine levels (P<0 x 05), indicating protection against renal injury. SBG also attenuated the plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (SBGpo, P<0 x 01; SBGsc, P<0 x 01), indicating protection against LPS-induced hepatic injury. A moderate increase in baseline interleukin (IL)-1beta levels was observed in the SBGsc group (P< 0 x 05). In the LPS-challenged rats, plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines was moderately reduced in both SBG-treated groups compared to placebo. SBG treatment, particularly oral administration, had a striking effect on the haemodynamics of LPS-treated rats, although only a minute fraction of the orally administered beta-glucan translocated to the circulation. Enhanced organ perfusion may thus be responsible for the attenuated levels of indicators of kidney and liver injury seen in SBG-treated rats.
    Clinical & Experimental Immunology 04/2007; 148(1):168-77. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have implicated a role of bacterial DNA, containing unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG) motifs, in the initiation of systemic inflammation. This is based on the ability of CpG-DNA to act in synergy with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to trigger tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) production in murine monocytes and to enhance LPS toxicity in rodents. In this study we investigated the capacity of CpG-DNA to trigger and modulate cytokine responses in human leukocytes. A human blood assay, as well as isolated cultures of monocytes and neutrophils, was exposed to the synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) CpG ODN (2006) and GpC ODN (2006-GC), alone or in combination with peptidoglycan or LPS. Plasma or supernatants were isolated and analyzed for TNFalpha, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta), IL-6 and IL-8 by ELISA. In the blood, 2006 (but not 2006-GC) induced the release of TNFalpha (P < 0.05) and possibly IL-1beta and IL-6. IL-8 was induced in a CpG-independent manner. When co-administered with peptidoglycan, both ODNs enhanced the release of cytokines, but not consistently CpG dependent. When co-administered with LPS, only IL-8 values were enhanced, whereas IL-6 was suppressed at early time points. In monocyte and neutrophil cultures, CpG dependent induction of cytokine release was not observed. However, both ODNs inhibited LPS-induced IL-6. In conclusion, the capacity of CpG DNA to trigger the release of TNFalpha and to enhance LPS-induced release of this cytokine is confirmed in human whole blood, but not in adherent human monocytes. Most effects of the ODNs on cytokine release in human leukocytes were CpG independent.
    Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 07/2006; 64(1):61-8. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enamel matrix derivative (EMD), extracted from porcine tooth buds, has been shown to promote periodontal healing in patients with severe periodontitis. This involves modulation of the inflammatory response followed by the onset of periodontal regeneration. Based on these observations, we examined the ability of EMD to modulate the release of a pro-inflammatory cytokine [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha], an anti-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-10) and a chemokine (interleukin- 8) in whole human blood challenged by bacterial cell wall components. Whole blood from healthy donors was challenged by lipopolysaccharide or peptidoglycan and incubated with different concentrations of EMD or a cAMP analogue 8-(4-chlorophenyl)thio-cAMP (8-CPT-cAMP). TNF-alpha, interleukin-8 and interleukin-10 were analysed from plasma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) while cAMP levels of peripheral blood mononuclear cell lysates were analysed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). We found that EMD attenuated the release of TNF-alpha and interleukin-8 in whole blood from healthy donors challenged by lipopolysaccharide or peptidoglycan, while the release of interleukin-10 was unchanged. Enamel matrix derivative also produced a four-fold increase in the cAMP levels of peripheral blood mononuclear cell lysates. Like EMD, 8-CPT-cAMP attenuated the formation of TNF-alpha, but not of interleukin-10, in blood challenged by lipopolysaccharide. Enamel matrix derivative limits the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by lipopolysaccharide or peptidoglycan in human blood, suggesting that it has anti-inflammatory properties. We propose that this effect of EMD is, at least partly, secondary to an increase in the intracellular levels of cAMP in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
    Journal of Periodontal Research 07/2006; 41(3):208-13. · 2.22 Impact Factor
  • Shock 01/2006; 26. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Disseminated fungal infections are increasing. However, the interactions between the body's largest population of tissue macrophages, the Kupffer cells and the fungal pathogens are scarcely understood. The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signalling in cytokine production, using primary cultures of rat and murine Kupffer cells exposed to Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans hyphae and conidia. All fungal components induced the release of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), but with delayed kinetics compared with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Candida albicans was the most potent inducer of TNF-alpha protein and mRNA and the only inducer of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in rat Kupffer cells. All fungal components induced enhanced mRNA levels of macrophage inhibitory protein-2 (MIP-2) in the cells, similar to LPS. Inhibitors of Src tyrosine kinases added to cells prior to stimulation led to attenuation in the release of both TNF-alpha (60%, P < 0.05) and IL-10 (70%, P < 0.05) induced by C. albicans conidia but did not influence the LPS-mediated cytokine release. Murine Kupffer cells (C57BL/10J) also released TNF-alpha as well as the chemokines keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) and MIP-2 in response to fungal component. Surprisingly, Kupffer cells from TLR4-deficient C57BL/ScCr mice exhibited significantly enhanced production of KC and MIP-2 upon stimulation by fungal components compared with control littermates (P < 0.05). Our study demonstrates that Aspergillus and Candida components induce cytokine production in rat Kupffer cells and that the response to C. albicans conidia involves Src tyrosine kinases. The experiments with TLR4-deficient Kupffer cells suggest that the cytokine response in these cells to fungal component is not mediated by TLR4.
    Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 08/2005; 62(2):148-54. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Severe trauma is a challenge to the immune response and may cause reduced immune capacity. As a marker of decreased cellular activity, studies with ex vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of whole blood or isolated mononuclear cells from injured patients have revealed reduced production of inflammatory cytokines. To gain further insight into immune alterations in orthopaedic surgery, we studied LPS-induced tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-10 in whole blood of patients during peri- and postoperative phases of total hip replacement. Four females and 3 males undergoing elective total hip replacement were included in the study. Ex vivo LPS-induced TNF-alpha and IL-10 were measured in a whole blood assay before, during and at 1 and 6 days after operation. In addition, the counts of white blood cells were determined. During the operation, there were significant reductions in the number of monocytes, but at day 1 and 6 after surgery, there were significant increases as compared to the levels before surgery. The capacity of whole blood to express TNF-alpha and IL-10 did not change significantly during the operation and the following postoperative day. At day 6, however, there were significant reductions in expression of both TNF-alpha and IL-10 as compared to the levels before the operation. In relation to the values of monocytes, there was a significant reduction in the expression of TNF-alpha also at day 1 after operation. Our data indicate that in the course of at least 6 days after a major orthopaedic trauma, there is suppression of the whole blood capacity to express the inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 when exposed to LPS. During this time, then, the patient is particular susceptible to septic complications.
    European Surgical Research 01/2005; 37(4):210-5. · 1.43 Impact Factor
  • Shock 01/2004; 21(Supplement):33. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the main initiator of the early signaling events leading to sepsis caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Late stages of sepsis are associated with impairments of T lymphocyte function, a condition associated with nosocomial infection and poor outcome. The molecular basis for septic immunosuppression is not fully understood. Human whole blood was incubated ex vivo with purified LPS. Cytokine responses and T cell proliferation were assessed, and the role of cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in T cell suppression by LPS was studied using a cAMP-antagonist (Rp-8-Br-cAMPS). Adding LPS (0.01 to 10 microg/ml) to human blood ex vivo caused a release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, with maximal levels of PGE2 obtained with 10 microg LPS per ml blood after 10 hours of incubation. Adding PGE2-concentrations ranging from 0.03 to 10 microM to purified T cells completely abrogated T cell activation and proliferative response, which was largely reversed by adding Rp-8-Br-cAMPS. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and T cells harvested from whole blood cultured in the presence of LPS ex vivo showed attenuated proliferative response (30-70%) (purified T cells and PBMC) and reduced IL-2 production (85%) upon T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 activation with anti-CD3. The proliferation in T cells and PBMC was in part restored by Rp-8-Br-cAMPS. The human whole blood model of LPS-mediated T lymphocyte suppression described in this paper is time and cost efficient, as well as easy to use.
    Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 04/2003; 9(3):BR120-6. · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pro-inflammatory potential of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Staphylococcus aureus is controversial. The present study was undertaken to examine the ability of highly purified and characterized S. aureus LTA to stimulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in human leukocytes at both mRNA and protein level, and to study the involvement of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and CD14 in this response. Purified LTA was administered to whole human blood ex-vivo (or primary adherent monocytes) and the cytokine response assessed in plasma by EIA. Cytokine mRNA was measured by RT-PCR on leukocyte subsets isolated following stimulation. To study the involvement of specific receptors for LTA signaling, CHO cells transfected with CD14 and/or TLR2, TLR4 were used, as well as antibodies directed against these receptors. Addition of highly purified LTA to human whole blood or primary adherent human monocytes elicited a time and concentration dependent release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), IL-6 and IL-8. Messenger RNA encoding TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-6 seemed to be accumulated in monocytes and T cells, but not in granulocytes and B cells. Expression of TLR2, but not TLR4, in chinese hamster ovary cells conferred responsiveness to LTA. However, antibodies directed towards TLR2 (clone TL2.1) or TLR4 (clone HTA125) failed to inhibit TNF-a release induced by LTA in both the whole blood model and in adherent monocytes. In contrast, blockade of the CD14 receptor with MAb18D11 strongly attenuated the LTA induced release of TNF-alpha in both models. We propose that (i) LTA from S. aureus triggers the release of cytokines during staphylococcal infections, and (ii) both monocytes and T cells contribute to cytokine production induced by LTA. TLR2 may mediate cellular activation by LTA, but the functional significance of this receptor during staphylococcal infections remains elusive.
    Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 06/2002; 8(5):BR149-56. · 1.22 Impact Factor
  • Shock 01/2002; 18(Supplement):30. · 2.73 Impact Factor
  • C. D. Krohn, J. E. Wang, A. O. Aasen
    Shock 01/2002; 18(Supplement):14-15. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pathophysiological mechanisms involved in mixed bacterial infections caused by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria are largely unknown. The present study examines the potential interaction between lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and peptidoglycan (PepG) in the induction of the sepsis-associated cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-10 in whole human blood. Plasma values of these cytokines were measured by enzyme immunoassays and a TNF bioassay. Co-administration of PepG (10 microg/mL) or muramyl dipeptide (MDP, 1 microg/mL) with LPS (10 ng/mL) caused significantly elevated values of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in the blood that could not be obtained by the sum of the values obtained by each stimulant alone, or by 3-fold higher doses of either bacterial component alone. This phenomenon was observed 1 h after stimulation, throughout the experimental period (24 h), and with different doses of LPS and PepG. In contrast, the release of IL-10 was not influenced by the co-administration of PepG or MDP with LPS. The TNF-alpha release induced by co-administration of LPS and PepG was abrogated after pretreatment with a monoclonal antibody against CD14 (18D11). Addition of PepG or MDP to whole blood caused a 2-fold increase in the surface expression of CD14 on monocytes, as measured by flow cytometry. In contrast, LPS caused decreased expression of this receptor. Our data suggest that PepG and MDP primes human whole blood leukocytes for LPS-induced release of proinflammatory cytokines. We speculate that synergy between PepG and LPS may contribute to the pathogenesis in sepsis caused by mixed bacterial infections.
    Shock 10/2001; 16(3):178-82. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their endogenous inhibitors (tissue inhibitors of MMPs; TIMPs) have been shown to correlate with in vitro invasiveness and clinical outcome in several adult malignancies. The importance of MMP and TIMP expression in neuroblastoma (NB) and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) is incompletely understood. The aim of the current study was to relate in vitro invasion of NB and PNET cell lines with MMP and TIMP expression and evaluate the effect of a synthetic MMP inhibitor. Furthermore, S100A4 levels were determined because recent reports have suggested a possible association between MMPs, TIMPs, and the metastasis-associated gene S100A4. Expression of MMPs, TIMPs, and S100A4 was evaluated at both mRNA and protein levels in 2 human NB and 2 PNET cell lines. In vitro invasion and effects of the synthetic MMP inhibitor Marimastat were assessed in the Transwell chamber assay. The most invasive cells expressed the highest levels of MMPs and S100A4. Marimastat reduced invasion by 30%. In vitro invasion correlated with MMP and S100A4 expression. The fact that Marimastat reduced in vitro invasion is encouraging for further studies on a possible therapeutic application for proteinase inhibitors.
    Journal of Pediatric Surgery 08/2001; 36(7):1040-4. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the effects of bypass circuit surface heparinization on kallikrein-kinin, coagulation, fibrinolytic and complement activation in a closed model system for simulating veno-venous bypass (WBP) in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). The circuits were identical to those in routine use during clinical OLT in our institution. Fresh whole human blood diluted 1:2 with Ringer's acetate was circulated at a non-pulsatile flow (2 l/min) and at a constant temperature (37.5 degrees C) for 12 h. In 10 experiments, the entire inner surface of the circuits was coated with end-point attached heparin (HC). In the remaining 10, non-treated PVC tubing was used (NC). Components of the plasma kallikrein-kinin, coagulation, fibrinolytic and complement systems were analyzed using functional techniques (chromogenic peptide substrate assays) and enzyme immunoassays at baseline, 3 and 12 h. Significant activation of the initial (C3bc) and terminal (TCC) components of the complement system were found in both the NC and HC groups after 3 and 12 h: C3bc: NC: baseline = 4 (3.5-7.7), 3 h = 17.3* (12.5-27), 12h = 31* (17.7-63.6), HC: baseline = 4.9 (3.2-6.8), 3h = 9* (6-14.4), 12h = 13.7* (7.4-18.1). TCC: NC: baseline = 0.4 (0.2-0.6), 3h = 5*(0.8-11.9), 12 h: 13.1* (4.2-25.7). HC: baseline = 0.5 (0.1-0.6), 3 h = 0.6* (0.1-0.8), 12 h = 1.2* (0.3-2) AU/ml; median and range (*: p < 0.05). The C3bc and TCC concentrations were significantly higher in the NC group at 3 and 12 h, compared to the HC group: C3bc (NC vs. HC group): 3 h, p < 0.001; 12 h, p < 0.001. TCC (NC vs. HC group): 3h, p < 0.001; 12 h, p < 0.001. Significant increases in the values of thrombin-antithrombin complexes (p = 0.003), prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (p = 0.006) and plasmin-alpha2-antiplasmin complexes (p = 0.016) were found in the non-coated group, but not in the heparin-coated group during the observation period, showing that the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems were activated in the non-coated circuits. We conclude that heparin-coating of the internal surface of the extracorporeal perfusion circuit used for WBP reduces activation of the plasma cascade systems in a closed venous system in vitro.
    Perfusion 08/2001; 16(4):285-92. · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the influence of the gram-positive cell wall products peptidoglycan (PepG) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), compared to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), on the monocyte expression of receptors involved in antigen presentation (HLA-DR, B7.1, and B7.2), cell adhesion (intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1] and lymphocyte function associated antigen-3 [LFA-3]), phagocytosis (Fc gamma RI), and cell activation (CD14). We also evaluated possible influences of the immunosuppressive drugs cyclosporine A, tacrolimus, and sirolimus on the expression of these receptors. Pretreatment of whole blood for 4 h with the immunosuppressive drugs did not influence the expression of the surface receptors in normal or stimulated blood. Stimulation with both PepG and LTA caused significant up-regulation of the surface expression of ICAM-1 and HLA-DR on whole blood monocytes, similar to that obtained with LPS, whereas B7.1, B7.2, LFA-3, and Fc gamma RI were not modulated. PepG and LTA also caused increased expression of CD14, whereas LPS down-regulated this molecule. In contrast, we did not detect any significant influence of any of the bacterial products on the plasma concentration of soluble CD14. We hypothesized that the increased expression of surface CD14 in blood stimulated with PepG would prime for cellular activation by LPS. Indeed, we show that PepG and the partial PepG structure muramyl dipeptide acted in synergy with LPS to cause the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. The results suggest that PepG and LPS provoke partly different responses on monocyte phenotype and that CD14 may play different roles in the innate response to gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.
    Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 06/2001; 8(3):515-21. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Invasive fungal infections represent an increasing problem associated with high mortality. The present study was undertaken to identify leukocyte subsets that are activated by hyphal fragments in a whole-human-blood model, as well as to examine the involvement of CD14 and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in activation of monocytes by hyphae. Incubation of whole human blood with hyphal fragments from Aspergillus fumigatus and Scedosporium prolificans for 6 h caused induction of mRNAs for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and IL-6 in T cells, B cells, and monocytes, but not in granulocytes, as analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR with mRNA isolated from very pure populations of these leukocyte subsets. In primary adherent human monocytes, induction of TNF-alpha by hyphal fragments was dependent on plasma. Heat treatment of plasma at 56 degrees C for 30 min strongly reduced the ability of plasma to prime for activation. Pretreatment of human monocytes with different concentrations (1, 3, and 10 microg/ml) of monoclonal antibody (MAb) HTA125 (anti-TLR4) or MAb 18D11 (anti-CD14) for 30 min inhibited the release of TNF-alpha induced by hyphal fragments in a dose-dependent manner. Maximal inhibitions of 35 and 70% were obtained with 10 microg of HTA125 and 18D11 per ml, respectively. In contrast, pretreatment with MAb TL2.1 (anti-TLR2) did not affect signaling induced by hyphae. Pretreatment with the lipid A antagonist B975 blocked lipopolysaccharide signaling but did not inhibit TNF-alpha production induced by hyphal fragments. Our results suggest that T cells, B cells, and monocytes are involved in the innate immune response to invasive fungal pathogens and that serum components are relevant for activation of monocytes by hyphae. CD14 and TLR4 may be involved in signaling of Aspergillus hyphae in monocytes, but further studies to elucidate this issue are warranted.
    Infection and Immunity 05/2001; 69(4):2402-6. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Current immunosuppressive strategies are aimed at abrogating the allospecific T-cell response against donor tissues or organs. However, little information is yet available on the potential influences of these drugs on innate immune responses. In order to address this, we have employed a whole blood model. Human whole blood was pretreated with sirolimus, cyclosporine A or tacrolimus in therapeutic as well as supra therapeutic doses, and subsequently stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PepG) or lipoteichoic acid (LTA). Plasma cytokine analyses revealed a potent inhibitory effect of sirolimus on interleukin(IL)-10 production induced by all bacterial products tested. In contrast, cyclosporine A and tacrolimus inhibited the tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production in response to LPS, but not to PepG and LTA. Using a quantitative mRNA analyses, we also observed that sirolimus significantly decreased the IL-10 mRNA accumulation to sub-basal levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). This suggests that the sirolimus inhibits IL-10 production by interfering with the IL-10 gene transcription. However, the molecular mechanism of this inhibition remains unclear. Based on the present study and observations by others, we postulate that the clinical use of the sirolimus may be associated with a dysregulated innate immune response to bacterial infection and thus an increased risk of hyperinflammation and sepsis.
    Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 03/2001; 53(2):184-91. · 1.88 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
381.01 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1985–2009
    • University of Oslo (UiO)
      • • Division of Surgery
      • • Institute for Cancer Research (ICR)
      • • Department of Orthopaedics (ORTHO)
      Oslo, Oslo, Norway
  • 1986–2008
    • Oslo University Hospital
      • Institute for Surgical Research
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo County, Norway
  • 1993
    • Institutt for samfunnsforskning, Oslo
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo County, Norway