Kathleen J Sikkema

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (151)386.23 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: By 2015, one-half of all HIV-positive persons in the U.S. will be 50-plus years of age, and as many as 30 % of older adults living with HIV/AIDS continue to engage in unprotected sexual intercourse. Contemporary positive prevention models often include mental health treatment as a key component of HIV prevention interventions. This secondary data analysis characterized longitudinal patterns of sexual behavior in HIV-positive older adults enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of group mental health interventions and assessed the efficacy of psychosocial treatments that targeted depression to reduce sexual risk behavior. Participants were 295 HIV-positive adults ≥50 years of age experiencing mild to severe depressive symptoms, randomized to one of three study conditions: a 12-session coping improvement group intervention, a 12-session interpersonal support group intervention, or individual therapy upon request. Approximately one-fifth of participants reported one or more occasions of unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse with HIV-negative sexual partners or persons of unknown HIV serostatus over the study period. Changes in sexual behavior did not vary by intervention condition, indicating that standalone treatments that target and reduce depression may be insufficient to reduce sexual risk behavior in depressed HIV-positive older adults.
    AIDS and Behavior 03/2014; · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: South Africa has one of the world's highest rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) and interpersonal trauma. These co-occurring public health problems raise the need to understand alcohol consumption among trauma-exposed pregnant women in this setting. Since a known predictor of drinking during pregnancy is drinking behavior before pregnancy, this study explored the relationship between women's drinking levels before and after pregnancy recognition, and whether traumatic experiences - childhood abuse or recent intimate partner violence (IPV) - moderated this relationship. Women with incident pregnancies (N = 66) were identified from a longitudinal cohort of 560 female drinkers in a township of Cape Town, South Africa. Participants were included if they reported no pregnancy at one assessment and then reported pregnancy four months later at the next assessment. Alcohol use was measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and traumatic experiences of childhood abuse and recent IPV were also assessed. Hierarchical linear regressions controlling for race and age examined childhood abuse and recent IPV as moderators of the effect of pre-pregnancy recognition drinking on post-pregnancy recognition AUDIT scores. Following pregnancy recognition, 73% of women reported drinking at hazardous levels (AUDIT >= 8). Sixty-four percent reported early and/or recent exposure to trauma. While drinking levels before pregnancy significantly predicted drinking levels after pregnancy recognition, t(64) = 3.50, p < .01, this relationship was moderated by experiences of childhood abuse, B = -.577, t(60) = -2.58, p = .01, and recent IPV, B = -.477, t(60) = -2.16, p = .04. Pregnant women without traumatic experiences reported drinking at levels consistent with levels before pregnancy recognition. However, women with traumatic experiences tended to report elevated AUDIT scores following pregnancy recognition, even if low-risk drinkers previously. This study explored how female drinkers in South Africa may differentially modulate their drinking patterns upon pregnancy recognition, depending on trauma history. Our results suggest that women with traumatic experiences are more likely to exhibit risky alcohol consumption when they become pregnant, regardless of prior risk. These findings illuminate the relevance of trauma-informed efforts to reduce FASD in South Africa.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 03/2014; 14(1):97. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: South Africa has one of the highest rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) in the world. However, little is known about what men and women who attend alcohol serving establishments believe about alcohol use during pregnancy and how these beliefs may be related to alcohol use. Objectives: To understand FASD beliefs and related behaviors among men and women attending alcohol-serving establishments. Methods: We surveyed 1047 men (n = 565) and women (n = 482) -including pregnant women and men with pregnant partners- attending alcohol serving establishments in a township located in Cape Town, South Africa. Results: Among both pregnant (n = 53) and non-pregnant (n = 429) women, 54% reported drinking alcohol at least 2-4 times per month, and 57% reported having at least 3-4 alcohol drinks during a typical drinking session. Pregnant women were less likely to believe that they should not drink alcohol and that alcohol can harm a fetus when compared to non-pregnant women. Similar findings were observed between men with pregnant partners compared to men without pregnant partners. Among women, beliefs about how much alcohol pregnant women can safely drink were associated with self-reported alcohol use. Conclusions: Efforts to address FASD need to focus on understanding how men and women perceive alcohol use during pregnancy and situational factors that contribute to alcohol consumption among pregnant women attending alcohol serving establishments. Structural and individual-level interventions targeting women at alcohol serving establishments should be prioritized to mitigate alcohol use during pregnancy.
    The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 03/2014; 40(2):87-94. · 1.55 Impact Factor
  • Sarah M Wilson, Kathleen J Sikkema, Krista W Ranby
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to examine gender moderation within a stress and coping model of HIV medication adherence in adults with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Sequelae of CSA, including negative coping, psychological distress, and drug use, interfere with adherence to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). These obstacles to adherence are likely moderated by gender. Gender may particularly influence the mediational effect of drug use on adherence. Participants included 206 adults living with HIV/AIDS and CSA. Categorical/continuous variable methodology in a structural equation modeling framework was used to test a multigroup model with women and men. Gender significantly moderated several effects in the model. For women, the effect of psychological distress on HAART adherence was mediated by drug use and the effect of drug use on viral load was mediated by HAART adherence. Among men, drug use did not significantly impact adherence. Since gender appears to moderate the effect of drug use on medication adherence, it is particularly important to address drug use within the context of HIV disease management in women with a history of CSA. Further, interventions to increase HAART adherence should take trauma history, gender, and drug abuse into account when assessing efficacy.
    AIDS Care 01/2014; · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the HIV context, risky sexual behaviours can be reduced through effective parent–adolescent communication. This study used the Parent Adolescent Communication Scale to determine parent–adolescent communication by ethnicity and identify predictors of high parent–adolescent communication amongst South African adolescents post-apartheid. A cross-sectional interviewer-administered survey was administered to 822 adolescents from Johannesburg, South Africa. Backward stepwise multivariate regressions were performed. The sample was predominantly Black African (62%, n = 506) and female (57%, n = 469). Of the participants, 57% (n = 471) reported high parent–adolescent communication. Multivariate regression showed that gender was a significant predictor of high parent–adolescent communication (Black African OR:1.47, CI: 1.0–2.17, Indian OR: 2.67, CI: 1.05–6.77, White OR: 2.96, CI: 1.21–7.18). Female-headed households were predictors of high parent–adolescent communication amongst Black Africans (OR:1.49, CI: 1.01–2.20), but of low parent–adolescent communication amongst Whites (OR:0.36, CI: 0.15–0.89). Overall levels of parent–adolescent communication in South Africa are low. HIV prevention programmes for South African adolescents should include information and skills regarding effective parent–adolescent communication.
    Journal of Adolescence 01/2014; 37(3):313–324. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Over the last decade, South Africa's Western Cape has experienced a dramatic increase in methamphetamine ("tik") use. Our study explored local impressions of the impact of tik use in a peri-urban township community in Cape Town, South Africa. We conducted individual in-depth interviews with 55 women and 37 men who were regular attendees of alcohol-serving venues. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. A content analysis approach was used to identify themes related to the impact of tik use based on levels of the socio-ecological framework (individual, inter-personal and community). Tik use was reported to be a greater issue among Coloureds, compared to Blacks. At an individual level, respondents reported that tik use had adverse effects on mental, physical, and economic well-being, and limited future opportunities through school drop-out and incarceration. At an inter-personal level, respondents reported that tik use contributed to physical and sexual violence as well as increased rates of sexual risk behaviour, particularly through transactional sex relationships. Respondents described how tik use led to household conflict, and had negative impacts on children, including neglect and poor birth outcomes. At a community level, respondents linked tik use to increased rates of crime, violence and corruption, which undercut community cohesion. Our results highlight the negative impact that tik is having on individuals, households and the overall community in a peri-urban setting in South Africa. There is a clear need for interventions to prevent tik use in South Africa and to mitigate and address the impact of tik on multiple levels.
    The International journal on drug policy 10/2013; · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study explored narratives of drinking as a coping strategy among female drinkers in a South African township. In 2010-2011, we conducted qualitative in-depth interviews with 54 women recruited from 12 alcohol-serving venues. Most women drank heavily and linked their drinking to stressors. They were motivated to use drinking to manage their emotions, facilitate social engagement, and achieve a sense of empowerment, even while recognizing the limitations of this strategy. This study helps to contextualize heavy drinking behavior among women in this setting. Multifaceted interventions that help female drinkers to more effectively manage stressors may aid in reducing hazardous drinking.
    Substance Use &amp Misuse 08/2013; · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prior investigations suggest that maternal HIV/AIDS poses significant challenges to young children. This study investigates the relationships between mothers' psychological functioning, parenting, and children's behavioral outcomes and functioning in a population of women living with HIV (N = 361) with a child between the ages of 6 and 10 years in Tshwane, South Africa. Utilizing path analysis, findings revealed that maternal depression is related to increased parenting stress and parent-child dysfunction, maternal coping is related to parenting style, and maternal coping, parenting style and stress, and parent-child dysfunction are associated with children's behavior and functioning, with parenting emerging as an important mediator. These findings suggest that interventions for women living with HIV and their children should not only address maternal psychological functioning (depression and coping), but should also focus on parenting, promoting a positive approach.
    AIDS and Behavior 07/2013; · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services 07/2013; 12(3-4):404-423.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for contracting and transmitting HIV. They are increasingly encouraged to get tested, but understanding of the interplay between HIV testing and risk behavior is limited. One hundred fifty newly HIV-diagnosed (within past 3 months) MSM were recruited from a community clinic in New York City. Participants completed an interview assessing sexual behavior and substance use during the 3 months pre-diagnosis, current depressive symptoms, and prior HIV testing. HIV-related health characteristics at diagnosis were abstracted from medical records. Analyses examined factors associated with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the 3 months pre-diagnosis, and with a negative HIV test in the 12 months pre-diagnosis. The sample was young (mean age=32.5, SD=8.8), ethnically diverse (62% racial/ethnic minority), low-income (71%≤$30,000/year), and educated (48% college/advanced degree). Most (95%) had a prior negative HIV test, 55% within the last 12 months. Significant risk behavior was reported, with 79% reporting UAI. UAI was associated with recent testing and use of substances during sexual behavior. Recent testing was associated with being employed/a student, having had UAI, and higher CD4 count. Implications for future research addressing perceived HIV risk, HIV testing utilization, and risk behavior are discussed.
    AIDS patient care and STDs 06/2013; 27(6):333-41. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Community-based participatory research (CBPR) introduces new ethical challenges for HIV prevention studies in low-resource international settings. We describe a CBPR study in rural Kenya to develop and pilot a family-based HIV prevention and mental health promotion intervention. Academic partners (APs) worked with a community advisory committee (CAC) during formative research, intervention development, and a pilot trial. Ethical challenges emerged related to: negotiating power imbalances between APs and the CAC; CAC members' shifting roles as part of the CAC and wider community; and anticipated challenges in decision making about sustainability. Factors contributing to ethical dilemmas included low access to education, scarcity of financial resources, and the shortage of HIV-related services despite high prevalence.
    Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics 04/2013; 8(2):119-28. · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: South Africa has the highest rate of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in the world. While efforts have been made to curb the high rate of FAS, little is known about situational factors that may contribute to alcohol use during pregnancy. In the current paper, we focus on the role of food insecurity and its relationship to alcohol use among pregnant women. Women completed computer-assisted interviews. Generalized linear modeling was used in all analyses. Women attending alcohol-serving establishments in a township in Cape Town, South Africa were recruited for the study. Five hundred sixty women were sampled and 95 women reported being pregnant. High levels of alcohol use were reported among pregnant women: 65 % of women consumed alcohol at least every month and 29 % consumed alcohol as often as two to three times per week. Thirty-four percent of the women reported having six or more drinks per occasion on at least a weekly basis. The majority (87 %) of pregnant women reported experiencing some form of food insecurity (e.g., food unavailable, eating less) in the past month. Alcohol use was significantly associated with food insecurity, even when controlling for relevant demographic variables. Intervention with pregnant women who consume alcohol is urgently needed. Future research should focus on understanding the intersection of food insecurity and alcohol, and how the experience of food insecurity may contribute to greater rates of alcohol use and abuse among pregnant women.
    Prevention Science 03/2013; · 2.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa has largely focused on the needs of heterosexual men and women. However, little is known about the sexual risk histories of men who have sex with both men and women (MSMW). Furthermore, we know very little about the psychosocial health needs or of the possibility of a syndemic (numerous interrelated epidemics) among MSMW. We surveyed 1,203 men attending drinking establishments in a township located in Cape Town, South Africa. We compared the behaviors and experiences of MSMW to men reporting only having sex with women (MSW). Twelve percent of the sample reported having sex with both men and women in the past 4 months. MSMW were twice as likely as MSW to report being HIV positive (10.5 vs. 4.6 %). MSW were more likely to be married than MSMW but reported similar numbers of female sex partners. MSMW were more likely to report a history of childhood sexual abuse, recent experienced and perpetrated physical and sexual partner violence, both receiving and giving sex for money, drugs, or shelter, and a recent STI. These factors were found to be interrelated among MSW but not MSMW. Although MSMW demonstrate considerable risk taking and report higher rates of HIV infection than MSW, their needs are largely unmet and underemphasized. Findings suggest the need to better understand factors contributing to sexual risk taking among MSMW. HIV prevention interventions should consider psychosocial health problems unique to MSMW residing in South African townships.
    Archives of Sexual Behavior 03/2013; · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Adults with HIV are living longer due to earlier diagnosis and increased access to antiretroviral medications. Therefore, fewer young children are being orphaned and instead, are being cared for by parents who know they are HIV positive, although they may be asymptomatic. Presently, it is unclear whether the psychological functioning of these young children is likely to be affected or, alternatively, whether it is only when a mother is ill, that children suffer adverse effects. We, thus, aimed to compare the behavior and psychological functioning of young children (aged 6-10 years) of HIV-positive and HIV-negative mothers. We also aimed to examine the association between HIV status disclosure and child outcomes. This study uses cross-sectional data from the baseline assessment of a randomized controlled trial conducted in Tshwane, South Africa. Participants (n=509) and their children were recruited from area health clinics. Among the 395 mothers with HIV, 42% reported symptoms of HIV disease. Multivariate linear regression models suggested that after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, children of HIV-positive mothers had significantly greater externalizing behaviors than children of HIV-negative mothers. Importantly, children whose mothers were symptomatic had greater internalizing and externalizing behaviors compared with children of HIV-negative mothers, but this was not true for children of asymptomatic mothers. Additionally, among children of HIV-positive mothers, those who had been told their mothers were sick compared with children who had been told nothing had less internalizing and externalizing behaviors and improved daily living skills. This study, therefore, provides evidence that maternal HIV disease can affect the behaviors of young children in South Africa but, importantly, only when the mothers are symptomatic from their disease. Furthermore, results suggest that disclosure of maternal illness but not HIV status was associated with improved behavior and psychological functioning among young children.
    AIDS Care 03/2013; · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between transactional sex, HIV risk, and partner violence has been well documented in South Africa, but research has focused primarily on women and has not been conducted in high-risk social contexts. The aim of this study was to examine associations between transactional sex and HIV risk among women and men in alcohol-serving venues in Cape Town, South Africa. We surveyed 1,989 women and 2,468 men attending alcohol-serving venues in Cape Town, South Africa to assess transactional sex behavior (i.e., receiving money or goods in exchange for sex), alcohol and drug use, history of childhood abuse, current relationship violence, and sexual risk behaviors. Among both women and men, trading sex was related to higher alcohol use, greater likelihood of drug use, substance use in sexual contexts, and a greater likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. Compared to other women, women who traded sex reported a greater proportion of condom-unprotected sex; this relationship was not found for men. Analyses showed that men were almost twice as more likely to report trading sex for items, including money or alcohol, than women (9.7 vs. 5.8 %). Overall, men who traded sex were similar to their female counterparts. Similar associations between trading sex and different risk behaviors were found among women and men with limited economic means and substance use problems. Future research should more closely study transactional sex in high-risk venues as it relates to violence and should examine men who trade sex as a potential bridge population between heterosexual women and men who have sex with men.
    Prevention Science 03/2013; · 2.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of HIV infection in older adults is increasing; by 2015, over half of adults living with HIV/AIDS in the United States will be over 50. This study describes the prevalence of drug use and examines psychosocial predictors of drug use in a sample of HIV-infected adults aged 50 and older. Participants were 301 HIV-positive older adults enrolled in a clinical trial of a coping intervention aimed to reduce their depressive symptoms. One-quarter used illicit drugs in the past 60 days (48% any cocaine, 48% weekly marijuana, 44% any other drugs) with an average of 36 days for marijuana and 15 days for cocaine. After controlling for demographics, self-destructive avoidance was positively associated and spiritual coping was negatively associated with drug use. These findings suggest that assessment of drug abuse should be a routine part of care for older patients in HIV clinics. Furthermore, interventions designed to increase spiritual coping and decrease self-destructive avoidance may be particularly efficacious for HIV-infected older adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
    Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 02/2013; · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: South Africa remains a country with one of the highest prevalence rates of HIV/AIDS at 18 % among 15-49 year olds. Underdeveloped urban areas, or townships, are particularly hard hit by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Alcohol use in these townships has been established as an important risk factor for HIV transmission. Likewise, alcohol serving venues (shebeens) have been identified as sites where substance abuse and sexual risk taking occur. However, little is known about how proximity of alcohol serving establishments (shebeens) to one's residence may be related to sexual risk-taking We surveyed 3,261 men and women attending shebeens in a township located in Cape Town, South Africa. We investigated the relationships between attending nearby (<15 min walk) versus distant (>15 min walk) shebeens, and sex and substance abuse related risk-taking. Women who attended distant shebeens versus nearby shebeens relative to their residence were approximately twice as likely to report HIV positive status. Bivariate analyses demonstrated that these women were also more likely to report other sexually transmitted infections, greater numbers of sex partners, higher rates of alcohol and drug use, and seeking out new sex partners at shebeen. No differences in sex behavior, substance use or HIV/STI were identified among men. Proximity of shebeens appears to be an important contextual factor in explaining HIV/STI transmission risk-taking. Future studies should focus on how anonymity may be related to sexual risk and substance use behaviors among women in South African townships.
    Journal of Behavioral Medicine 02/2013; · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify psychosocial variables related to the use of coping strategies by HIV-positive South African women diagnosed during pregnancy, structured interviews were conducted with 224 HIV-positive women at antenatal clinics over a period of 2 years. Two coping styles, active and avoidant coping, were assessed using an adapted version of the Brief COPE. Psychosocial variables associated with changes in coping over time were identified with mixed linear analysis. Increases in active coping were associated with decreasing levels of internalized stigma and depression, increasing self-esteem and positive social support, knowing someone who is living with HIV, being physically healthy and living above the poverty line. Increases in avoidant coping were associated with increasing internalized stigma and depression, lower levels of self-esteem, HIV-knowledge and lower levels of education. Recommendations are made for psychological support services to strengthen women's ability to cope and enhance their health and that of their infants.
    AIDS and Behavior 11/2012; · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In South Africa, women comprise the majority of HIV infections. Syndemics, or co-occurring epidemics and risk factors, have been applied in understanding HIV risk among marginalized groups. PURPOSE: The purposes of this study are to apply the syndemic framework to examine psychosocial problems that co-occur among women attending drinking venues in South Africa and to test how the co-occurrence of these problems may exacerbate risk for HIV infection. METHOD: Five hundred sixty women from a Cape Town township provided data on multiple psychosocial problems, including food insufficiency, depression, abuse experiences, problem drinking, and sexual behaviors. RESULTS: Bivariate associations among the syndemic factors showed a high degree of co-occurrence and regression analyses showed an additive effect of psychosocial problems on HIV risk behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the utility of a syndemic framework to understand co-occurring psychosocial problems among women in South Africa. HIV prevention interventions should consider the compounding effects of psychosocial problems among women.
    Annals of Behavioral Medicine 10/2012; · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine whether (a) Living in the Face of Trauma (LIFT), a group intervention to address coping with HIV and childhood sexual abuse (CSA), significantly reduced traumatic stress over a 1-year follow-up period more than an attention-matched support group comparison intervention; and (b) reductions in avoidant coping over time mediated reductions in traumatic stress. Method: In a randomized controlled trial, 247 participants completed measures of traumatic stress and avoidant coping at pre- and post intervention, and at 4-, 8-, and 12-month follow-ups. Latent growth curve modeling examined changes over the 5 time points; standardized path coefficients provide estimates of effects. Results: As compared with the support intervention, the coping intervention led to a reduction in traumatic stress over time (b = -.20, p < .02). Participants in the coping intervention also reduced their use of avoidant coping strategies more than did participants in the support intervention (b = -.22, p < .05). Mediation analyses showed reductions in avoidant coping related to reductions in traumatic stress (b = 1.45, p < .001), and the direct effect of the intervention on traumatic stress was no longer significant (b = .04, ns), suggesting that changes in avoidant coping completely mediated intervention effects on traumatic stress. Conclusions: The LIFT intervention significantly reduced traumatic stress over time, and changes in avoidant coping strategies mediated this effect, suggesting a focus on current stressors and coping skills improvement are important components in addressing traumatic stress for adults living with HIV and CSA. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 10/2012; · 4.85 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
386.23 Total Impact Points


  • 2007–2014
    • Duke University
      • Department of Psychology and Neuroscience
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
    • New York University
      New York City, New York, United States
    • McLean Hospital
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2012–2013
    • University of Connecticut
      • Center for Health, Intervention, and Prevention (CHIP)
      Storrs, CT, United States
  • 2002–2013
    • Yale-New Haven Hospital
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2011–2012
    • University of Pretoria
      • Department of Psychology
      Πρετόρια/Πόλη του Ακρωτηρίου, Gauteng, South Africa
    • University of the Witwatersrand
      • Perinatal HIV Research Unit
      Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa
    • Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College
      Moschi, Kilimanjaro, Tanzania
  • 2008–2012
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • • Duke Global Health Institute
      • • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science
      Durham, NC, United States
  • 2009
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Ohio University
      • Department of Geriatric Medicine & Gerontology
      Athens, OH, United States
    • McGill University
      • Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology (ECP)
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2000–2009
    • Yale University
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Department of Psychology
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS (CIRA)
      New Haven, CT, United States
  • 1994–2009
    • Medical College of Wisconsin
      • Center for AIDS Intervention Research
      Milwaukee, WI, United States
  • 2007–2008
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Sociomedical Sciences
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2006
    • Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
      • Department of Psychology
      Blacksburg, VA, United States
  • 1995
    • University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
      Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States