Alex F de Vos

Academic Medical Center (AMC), Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (92)528.22 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most commonly identified pathogen in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Myeloid-related protein (MRP) 8/14 is a major component of neutrophils that is released upon infection or injury. MRP8/14 is essential for protective immunity during infection by a variety of micro-organisms through its capacity to chelate manganese and zinc. Here, we aimed to determine the role of MRP8/14 in pneumococcal pneumonia.
    Thorax 09/2014; · 8.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important cause of sepsis. The common Toll-like receptor adapter myeloid differentiation primary response gene (MyD)88 is crucial for host defense against Klebsiella. Here we investigated the role of MyD88 in myeloid and endothelial cells during Klebsiella pneumosepsis. Mice deficient for MyD88 in myeloid (LysM-Myd88-/-) and myeloid plus endothelial (Tie2-Myd88-/-) cells showed enhanced lethality and bacterial growth. Tie2-Myd88-/- mice reconstituted with control bone marrow, representing mice with a selective MyD88 deficiency in endothelial cells, showed an unremarkable antibacterial defense. Myeloid or endothelial cell MyD88 deficiency did not impact on lung pathology or distant organ injury during late stage sepsis, while LysM-Myd88-/- mice demonstrated a strongly attenuated inflammatory response in the airways early after infection. These data suggest that myeloid but not endothelial MyD88 is important for host defense during gram-negative pneumonia derived sepsis.
    PLoS Pathogens 09/2014; 10(9):e1004368. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Streptococcus (S.) pneumoniae is a common gram-positive pathogen in community-acquired pneumonia and sepsis. Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is a receptor on phagocytes known to amplify inflammatory responses. Previous studies showed that TREM-1 inhibition protects against lethality during experimental gram-negative sepsis. We here aimed to investigate the role of TREM-1 in an experimental model of pneumococcal pneumonia using TREM-1/3 deficient (Trem-1/3(-/-) ) and wild type (Wt) mice. Additionally ex vivo responsiveness of Trem-1/3(-/-n) eutrophils and macrophages was examined. S. pneumoniae infection resulted in a rapid recruitment of TREM-1 positive neutrophils into the bronchoalveolar space while high constitutive TREM-1 expression on alveolar macrophages remained unchanged. TREM-1/3 deficiency led to increased lethality accompanied by enhanced growth of S. pneumoniae at the primary site of infection and increased dissemination to distant organs. Within the first 3-6 hours of infection Trem-1/3(-/-m) ice demonstrated a strongly impaired innate immune response in the airways, as reflected by reduced local release of cytokines and chemokines and a delayed influx of neutrophils. Trem-1/3(-/-a) lveolar macrophages produced less cytokines upon exposure to S. pneumoniae in vitro and were less capable of phagocytosing this pathogen. TREM-1/3 deficiency did not influence neutrophil responsiveness to S. pneumoniae. These results identify TREM-1 as key player in protective innate immunity during pneumococcal pneumonia most likely by enhancing the early immune response of alveolar macrophages.
    The Journal of Pathology 04/2014; · 7.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of pneumonia and sepsis. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a pivotal role in the host defense against infection. In this study, we sought to determine the role of single immunoglobulin interleukin-1 receptor-related molecule (SIGIRR a.k.a. TIR8), a negative regulator of TLR signaling, in pneumococcal pneumonia and sepsis. Wild-type and SIGIRR-deficient (sigirr-/-) mice were infected intranasally (to induce pneumonia) or intravenously (to induce primary sepsis) with S. pneumoniae and euthanized after 6, 24, or 48 h for analyses. Additionally, survival studies were performed. sigirr-/- mice showed delayed mortality during lethal pneumococcal pneumonia. Accordingly, sigirr-/- mice displayed lower bacterial loads in lungs and less dissemination of the infection 24 h after the induction of pneumonia. SIGIRR deficiency was associated with increased interstitial and perivascular inflammation in lung tissue early after infection, with no impact on neutrophil recruitment or cytokine production. sigirr-/- mice also demonstrated reduced bacterial burdens at multiple body sites during S. pneumoniae sepsis. sigirr-/- alveolar macrophages and neutrophils exhibited an increased capacity to phagocytose viable pneumococci. These results suggest that SIGIRR impairs the antibacterial host defense during pneumonia and sepsis caused by S. pneumoniae. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Journal of Innate Immunity 02/2014; · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus (S.) aureus has emerged as an important cause of necrotizing pneumonia. Lung injury during S. aureus pneumonia may be enhanced by local release of damage associated molecular patterns such as high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). In the current study we sought to determine the functional role of HMGB1 and its receptors, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), in the injurious host response to S. aureus pneumonia. Pneumonia was induced in wild type (Wt), TLR4 deficient (tlr4-/-) and RAGE deficient (rage-/-) mice by intranasal inoculation of 1 x 107 colony-forming units (CFU) of a USA300 S. aureus. In a separate set of experiments, Wt mice were injected intraperitoneally with a monoclonal anti-HMGB1 antibody or an isotype matched control antibody immediately before and every 24 hours after intranasal infection of S. aureus. Mice were sacrificed at 6, 24, 48 or 72 hours after infection for harvesting of blood and organs. S. aureus pneumonia was associated with HMGB1 release in the bronchoalveolar compartment peaking after 24 hours. Anti-HMGB1 attenuated lung pathology and protein leak and reduced interleukin-1beta release 6 hours after infection, but not at later time points. RAGE deficiency more modestly attenuated lung pathology without influencing protein leak, while TLR4 deficiency did not impact on lung injury. These data suggest that HMGB1 and RAGE, but not TLR4, contribute to lung injury accompanying the early phase of S. aureus pneumonia.
    Critical care (London, England) 12/2013; 17(6):R296. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Mast cells are implicated in allergic and innate immune responses in asthma, although their role in models using an allergen relevant for human disease is incompletely understood. House dust mite (HDM) allergy is common in asthma patients. Our aim was to investigate the role of mast cells in HDM-induced allergic lung inflammation. Methods: Wild-type (Wt) and mast cell-deficient Kit(w-sh) mice on a C57BL/6 background were repetitively exposed to HDM via the airways. Results: HDM challenge resulted in a rise in tryptase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of Wt mice, indicative of mast cell activation. Kit(w-sh) mice showed a strongly attenuated HDM- induced recruitment of eosinophils in BALF and lung tissue, accompanied by reduced pulmonary levels of the eosinophil chemoattractant eotaxin. Remarkably, Kit(w-sh) mice demonstrated an unaltered capacity to develop lung pathology and increased mucus production in response to HDM. The increased plasma IgE in response to HDM in Wt mice was absent in Kit(w-sh) mice. Conclusion: These data contrast with previous reports on the role of mast cells in models using ovalbumin as allergen in that C57BL/6 Kit(w-sh) mice display a selective impairment of eosinophil recruitment without differences in other features of allergic inflammation. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Journal of Innate Immunity 10/2013; · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis, is a devastating infectious disease causing many deaths world-wide. Thrombomodulin (TM) is a multidomain glycoprotein expressed on all vascular endothelial cells. We here studied the role of the lectin-like domain of TM, responsible for a variety of anti-inflammatory properties of TM, during TB. We compared the extent of TM-expression in human lung tissue of TB and control patients. The, the role of the lectin-like domain of TM was investigated by comparing mice lacking this domain (TMLeD/LeD mice) with wild-type (WT) mice during experimental lung TB induced by infection with M. tuberculosis via the airways. Lungs were harvested for analyses at two, six and 29 weeks after infection. Lung TM-expression was downregulated in TB patients, which was not related to changes in the amount of endothelium in infected lungs. TMLeD/LeD mice showed unaltered mycobacterial loads in lungs, liver and spleen during experimental TB. Additionally, lung histopathology and cytokine concentrations were largely similar in TMLeD/LeD and WT mice, while total leukocyte counts were increased in lungs of TMLeD/LeD mice after 29 weeks of infection. Mortality did not occur in either group. The lectin-like domain of TM does not play an important role in the host response to M. tuberculosis infection in mice.
    Thrombosis and Haemostasis 10/2013; 111(2). · 5.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) is abundantly expressed in the pulmonary compartment. House dust mite (HDM) is a common cause of allergic asthma and contains multiple PAR2 agonistic proteases. The aim of this study was to determine the role of PAR2 in HDM-induced allergic lung inflammation. For this, the extent of allergic lung inflammation was studied in wild type (Wt) and PAR2 knockout (KO) mice after repeated airway exposure to HDM. HDM exposure of Wt mice resulted in a profound influx of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and accumulation of eosinophils in lung tissue, which both were strongly reduced in PAR2 KO mice. PAR2 KO mice demonstrated attenuated lung pathology and protein leak in the bronchoalveolar space, accompanied by lower BALF levels of the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. This study reveals, for the first time, an important role for PAR2 in allergic lung inflammation induced by the clinically relevant allergens contained in HDM.
    Innate Immunity 09/2013; · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-1 receptor like 1 (ST2) has been implicated as a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor signaling. We here sought to elucidate the role of ST2 in cytokine release and systemic infection caused by two common human sepsis pathogens, Streptococcus (S.) pneumoniae (gram-positive) and Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae (gram-negative). Whole blood leukocytes and splenocytes were harvested from ST2 deficient (st2) and wild type (WT) mice and stimulated ex vivo with S. pneumoniae or K. pneumoniae. In addition, st2 and WT mice were infected intravenously with these bacteria and bacterial loads and cytokine levels were measured in blood, spleens and lungs at 6, 24 and 48 hours thereafter. Unexpectedly, st2 blood leukocytes and splenocytes produced lower levels of cytokines and chemokines than WT cells in response to either pathogen. In contrast, the in vivo role of ST2 during sepsis caused by these bacteria was limited, although at 6 and 24 hours after infection with S. pneumoniae bacterial loads were lower in spleens of st2 mice. ST2 augments rather than inhibits cytokine release by blood leukocytes and splenocytes exposed to S. pneumoniae or K. pneumoniae, but plays a limited role in host defense during sepsis caused by these pathogens.
    Shock (Augusta, Ga.) 07/2013; · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the most common causes of sepsis. Sepsis is associated with the release of 'damage-associated molecular patterns' (DAMPs). The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor, abundantly expressed in the lungs, that recognizes several of these DAMPs. Triggering of RAGE leads to activation of the NF-κB pathway and perpetuation of inflammation. Earlier investigations have shown that the absence of RAGE reduces inflammation and bacterial dissemination and increases survival in sepsis caused by S. pneumoniae pneumonia. We hypothesized that the detrimental role of RAGE depends on the level of RAGE expression in the primary organ of infection. By directly injecting S. pneumoniae intravenously, thereby circumventing the extensive RAGE-expressing lung, we here determined whether RAGE contributes to an adverse outcome of bacteremia or whether its role is restricted to primary lung infection. During late-stage infection (48 h), rage(-/-) mice had an attenuated systemic inflammatory response, as reflected by lower plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines, reduced endothelial cell activation (as measured by E-selectin levels) and less neutrophil accumulation in lung tissue. However, RAGE deficiency did not influence bacterial loads or survival in this model. In accordance, plasma markers for cell injury were similar in both mouse strains. These results demonstrate that while RAGE plays a harmful part in S. pneumoniae sepsis originating from the respiratory tract, this receptor has a limited role in the outcome of primary bloodstream infection by this pathogen.
    Journal of Innate Immunity 06/2013; · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The protein C (PC) system is an important regulator of both coagulation and inflammation. Activated PC (APC), together with its receptor the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR), has anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties. During tuberculosis (TB), a devastating chronic pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis, both a local inflammatory reaction characterised by the recruitment of mainly mononuclear cells and the formation of pulmonary granulomas as well as activation of coagulation occurs as part of the host immune response. We investigated the role of EPCR and APC in a mouse model of TB using mice overexpressing EPCR (Tie2-EPCR), mice deficient for EPCR (EPCR -/- ), mice treated with APC-inhibiting antibodies and mice overexpressing APC (APC high ) and compared them with wild-type (WT) mice. Blood and organs were harvested to quantify bacterial loads, cellular influxes, cytokines, histopathology and coagulation parameters. Additionally observation studies were performed. Lung EPCR expression was upregulated during experimental TB. No significant differences in bacterial growth were seen between WT and Tie2-EPCR mice. However, Tie2-EPCR mice had decreased pulmonary coagulation activation, displayed an increased influx of macrophages 2 and 6 weeks after infection, but no increase in other proinflammatory markers. On the other hand, in EPCR -/- -mice coagulation activation was decreased 6 weeks post-infection, with little impact on other inflammation markers. APC-overexpression or treatment with anti-(A)PC antibodies displayed minimal effects during experimental TB. In conclusion, EPCR and APC play a limited role in the host response during experimental pulmonary TB.
    Thrombosis and Haemostasis 01/2013; 109(4). · 5.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently we proposed exploring the potential of treatment stimulated testing as diagnostic method for tuberculosis (TB). An infection controlled placebo controlled mouse study was performed to investigate whether serum cytokine levels changed measurably during the early phase of TB chemotherapy. Serum was collected prior to and during the first 3 weeks of isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF) chemotherapy, and levels of 23 selected cytokines/chemokines were measured using a liquid bead array. The serum levels of IFNγ, IP-10, MIG, MCP-1, IL-17 and IL-6 were elevated in the TB infected mice compared to non-infected mice at least at 1 time point measured. In infected mice, IFNγ, IP-10, MIG and MCP-1 levels decreased within 7 days of treatment with RIF+INH compared to placebo. Treatment of non-infected mice in the absence of tuberculosis infection had no effect on these cytokines. IL-17 and IL-6 had decreased to baseline in all infected mice prior to the initiation of treatment. This study demonstrates that systemic levels of some cytokines, more specifically IFNγ, IP-10, MIG and MCP-1, rapidly and specifically change upon starting TB chemotherapy only in the presence of infection in a mouse model. Thus, IFNγ, IP-10, MIG and MCP-1 are promising 'Treat-to-Test' targets for the diagnosis of TB and deserve further investigation in a study on human TB suspects.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e57997. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-1 receptor like 1 (ST2) is a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. TLRs are important for host defense during respiratory tract infections by both influenza and Streptococcus (S.) pneumoniae. Enhanced susceptibility to pneumococcal pneumonia is an important complication following influenza virus infection. We here sought to determine the role of ST2 in primary influenza A infection and secondary pneumococcal pneumonia. ST2 knockout (st2 -/-) and wild-type (WT) mice were intranasally infected with influenza A virus; in some experiments mice were infected 2 weeks later with S. pneumoniae. Both mouse strains cleared the virus similarly during the first 14 days of influenza infection and had recovered their weights equally at day 14. Overall st2-/- mice tended to have a stronger pulmonary inflammatory response upon infection with influenza; especially 14 days after infection modest but statistically significant elevations were seen in lung IL-6, IL-1β, KC, IL-10, and IL-33 concentrations and myeloperoxidase levels, indicative of enhanced neutrophil activity. Interestingly, bacterial lung loads were higher in st2-/- mice during the later stages of secondary pneumococcal pneumonia, which was associated with relatively increased lung IFN-γ levels. ST2 deficiency did not impact on gross lung pathology in either influenza or secondary S. pneumoniae pneumonia. These data show that ST2 plays a limited anti-inflammatory role during both primary influenza and postinfluenza pneumococcal pneumonia.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e58191. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The complex biology of asthma compels to use more relevant human allergens, such as house dust mite (HDM), to improve translation of animal models to human asthma. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure is associated with aggravation of asthma but mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we studied the effects of increasing LPS doses on HDM-evoked allergic lung inflammation. To this end mice were intranasally sensitized and challenged with HDM with or without increasing doses of LPS (0.001 - 10 µg). LPS dose-dependently inhibited HDM-induced eosinophil recruitment into the lungs and mucus production in the airways. LPS attenuated the production of Th2-cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13) in HDM-challenged lungs, while enhancing HDM-induced release of IL-17, IL-33, IFN-γ and TNF-α. The shift towards a Th1 inflammatory response was further illustrated by a predominant neutrophilic lung inflammation after LPS administration at higher doses. LPS did not influence HDM-induced plasma IgE levels. While LPS did not significantly impact on activation of coagulation or complement in HDM-challenged lungs, it reduced HDM-initiated endothelial cell activation. This study is the first study to give insight in the effect of LPS in an allergic lung inflammation model making use of a clinically relevant allergen without systemic adjuvant, revealing that LPS dose-dependently inhibits HDM-induced pulmonary Th2 responses.
    American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 12/2012; · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae is a common cause of pneumonia-derived sepsis. Myeloid related protein 8 (MRP8, S100A8) and MRP14 (S100A9) are the most abundant cytoplasmic proteins in neutrophils. They can form MRP8/14 heterodimers that are released upon cell stress stimuli. MRP8/14 reportedly exerts antimicrobial activity, but in acute fulminant sepsis models MRP8/14 has been found to contribute to organ damage and death. We here determined the role of MRP8/14 in K. pneumoniae sepsis originating from the lungs, using an established model characterized by gradual growth of bacteria with subsequent dissemination. Infection resulted in gradually increasing MRP8/14 levels in lungs and plasma. Mrp14 deficient (mrp14(-/-)) mice, unable to form MRP8/14 heterodimers, showed enhanced bacterial dissemination accompanied by increased organ damage and a reduced survival. Mrp14(-/-) macrophages were reduced in their capacity to phagocytose Klebsiella. In addition, recombinant MRP8/14 heterodimers, but not MRP8 or MRP14 alone, prevented growth of Klebsiella in vitro through chelation of divalent cations. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) prepared from wildtype but not from mrp14(-/-) neutrophils inhibited Klebsiella growth; in accordance, the capacity of human NETs to kill Klebsiella was strongly impaired by an anti-MRP14 antibody or the addition of zinc. These results identify MRP8/14 as key player in protective innate immunity during Klebsiella pneumonia.
    PLoS Pathogens 10/2012; 8(10):e1002987. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is ubiquitous in the environment. Inhalation of LPS has been implicated in the pathogenesis and/or severity of several lung diseases, including pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Alveolar macrophages are the main resident leukocytes exposed to inhaled antigens. To obtain insight into which innate immune pathways become activated within human alveolar macrophages upon exposure to LPS in vivo, we conducted a study in eight healthy humans, in which we instilled sterile saline into a lung segment by bronchoscope, followed by instillation of LPS into the contralateral lung. Six hours later a bilateral bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and whole-genome transcriptional profiling was done on purified alveolar macrophages, comparing cells exposed to saline or LPS from the same individuals. LPS induced differential expression of 2932 genes in alveolar macrophages; 1520 genes were upregulated, whereas 1440 genes were downregulated. Twenty-six biological functions were overrepresented in LPS exposed macrophages, Forty-four canonical pathways affected by LPS were identified, among which the genes associated with the role of pattern recognition receptors in recognition of bacteria and viruses represented the top pathway. Other pathways included cellular immune response, signaling by tumor necrosis factor (receptor) family members, cytokine signaling and glucocorticoid receptor signaling. These results reveal for the first time a large number of functional pathways influenced by the biologically relevant challenge provided by LPS administered into the airways. These data can assist in identifying novel targets for therapeutic intervention in pulmonary diseases associated with LPS exposure, including pneumonia, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
    Molecular Medicine 08/2012; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Pneumonia is frequently caused by gram-negative pathogens, among which Klebsiella pneumoniae prominently features. Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is important for an appropriate immune response during infection. TLR signaling can proceed via 2 distinct routes that are dependent on the adaptor proteins Myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88) (MyD88) and TIR-domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-β (TRIF). The aim of the study was to determine the relative contribution of MyD88 and TRIF signaling in resident and hematopoietic cells to host defense during pneumonia. Methods. Bone marrow chimeras of MyD88 deficient/wild type and TRIF mutant/wild type mice were created and infected with K. pneumoniae via the airways. Results. MyD88 in both resident and hematopoietic cells contributed to survival and antibacterial defense in late-stage infection, whereas only TRIF in hematopoietic cells was protective. On the other hand, resident MyD88 and hematopoietic TRIF contributed to distant cellular injury. Resident MyD88 was pivotal for early chemokine release and neutrophil recruitment in the bronchoalveolar space. Conclusions. MyD88- and TRIF-dependent signaling has a differential contribution to host defense in different cell types that changes from early- to late-stage gram-negative pneumonia.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 08/2012; 206(9):1415-23. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pneumonia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality and the most frequent source of sepsis. Bacteria that try to invade normally sterile body sites are recognized by innate immune cells through pattern recognition receptors, among which toll-like receptors (TLRs) feature prominently. Interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R)-associated kinase (IRAK)-M is a proximal inhibitor of TLR signaling expressed by epithelial cells and macrophages in the lung. To determine the role of IRAK-M in host defense against bacterial pneumonia, IRAK-M-deficient (IRAK-M(-/-)) and normal wild-type (WT) mice were infected intranasally with Klebsiella pneumoniae. IRAK-M mRNA was upregulated in lungs of WT mice with Klebsiella pneumonia, and the absence of IRAK-M resulted in a strongly improved host defense as reflected by reduced bacterial growth in the lungs, diminished dissemination to distant body sites, less peripheral tissue injury and better survival rates. Although IRAK-M(-/-) alveolar macrophages displayed enhanced responsiveness toward intact K. pneumoniae and Klebsiella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro, IRAK-M(-/-) mice did not show increased cytokine or chemokine levels in their lungs after infection in vivo. The extent of lung inflammation was increased in IRAK-M(-/-) mice shortly after K. pneumoniae infection, as determined by semiquantitative scoring of specific components of the inflammatory response in lung tissue slides. These data indicate that IRAK-M impairs host defense during pneumonia caused by a common gram-negative respiratory pathogen.
    Molecular Medicine 06/2012; 18(1):1067-75. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT:  Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common causative organism in community-acquired pneumonia. Pneumococci that try to invade the lower airways are recognized by innate immune cells through pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptors 2, 4, and 9. Interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)-M is a proximal inhibitor of Toll-like receptor signaling. To determine the role of IRAK-M in host defense during pneumococcal pneumonia, IRAK-M- deficient and wild-type mice were intranasally infected with S. pneumoniae. IRAK-M-deficient mice demonstrated a reduced lethality after infection with S. pneumoniae via the airways. Whereas bacterial burdens were similar in IRAK-M-deficient and wild-type mice early (3 hours) after infection, from 24 hours onward the number of pneumococci recovered from lungs and distant body sites were 10-100-fold lower in the former mouse strain. The diminished bacterial growth and dissemination in IRAK-M-deficient mice were preceded by an increased early influx of neutrophils into lung tissue and elevated pulmonary levels of IL-1β and CXCL1. IRAK-M deficiency did not influence bacterial growth after intravenous administration of S. pneumoniae. These data suggest that IRAK-M impairs host defense during pneumococcal pneumonia at the primary site of infection at least in part by inhibiting the early immune response.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 04/2012; 205(12):1849-57. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a mouse model of Escherichia coli sepsis characterized by a primary peritoneal infection with 10(4) E. coli and a gradually growing bacterial load, we here show that the early cytokine response and antibacterial defense are dominated by TLR4 via a cooperative action of MyD88 and Trif. Although MyD88(-/-) mice succumbed earlier than WT mice in this E. coli peritonitis model, Trif(-/-) mice displayed a small but significant survival advantage. Despite a large early deficit in antimicrobial defense, TLR4(-/-) mice showed an unaltered survival with normal neutrophil attraction to the peritoneal cavity and normal or even elevated late cytokine release. TLR2 compensated for the lack of TLR4 because TLR2(-/-)/TLR4(-/-) mice did show decreased neutrophil attraction and increased mortality compared with WT mice. Nearly normal early peritoneal TNFα production and lack of early counterregulating systemic levels of the chemoattractant KC were associated with normal peritoneal neutrophil attraction in TLR4(-/-) mice. Late stage increased TNF, IL-1β, IFN-β, and typical IFN-γ production in TLR4(-/-) mice prompted us to evaluate expression of the negative feedback regulator SOCS-1. Lack of early hepatic SOCS-1 expression in TLR4(-/-) mice explained the late innate production of IFN-γ by the liver in TLR4(-/-) mice in this low dose E. coli peritonitis model. In contrast, early TLR4-induced IFN-γ production is described as a hallmark in high dose E. coli peritonitis models. The present study displays how the kinetics of pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms are regulated by TLRs during peritonitis by a gradually growing E. coli load and how these kinetics may affect outcome.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2011; 286(42):36603-18. · 4.65 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
528.22 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • Academic Medical Center (AMC)
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2003–2014
    • University of Amsterdam
      • Faculty of Medicine AMC
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2005–2013
    • Academisch Medisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam
      • • Center for Experimental and Molecular Medicine
      • • Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam
      • • Academic Medical Center
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2006
    • Sozialstiftung Bamberg/Klinikum Bamberg
      Bamberg, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2002–2005
    • Erasmus MC
      • Department of Immunology
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands