[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Hematoma expansion is the only modifiable predictor of outcome in adult intracerebral hemorrhage; however, the frequency and clinical significance of hematoma expansion after childhood intracerebral hemorrhage are unknown. OBJECTIVE To assess the frequency and extent of hematoma expansion in children with nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective observational cohort study at 3 tertiary care pediatric hospitals. Children (≥37 weeks' gestation to 18 years) with nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage were enrolled in a study from 2007 to 2012 focused on predictors of outcome. For this planned substudy of hematoma expansion, neonates 28 days or younger and participants with isolated intraventricular hemorrhage were excluded. Children with 2 head computed tomography (CT) scans within 48 hours were evaluated for hematoma expansion and were compared with children with only 1 head CT scan. Consent for the primary cohort was obtained from 73 of 87 eligible participants (84%); 41 of 73 children enrolled in the primary cohort met all inclusion/exclusion criteria for this substudy, in whom 22 had 2 head CT scans obtained within 48 hours that could be evaluated for hematoma expansion. Within our substudy cohort, 21 of 41 (51%) were male, 25 of 41 (61%) were white, 16 of 41 (39%) were black, and median age was 7.7 years (interquartile range, 2.0-13.4 years). MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE Primary outcome was prevalence of hematoma expansion. RESULTS Of 73 children, 41 (56%) met inclusion criteria, and 22 (30%) had 2 head CT scans to evaluate expansion. Among these 22 children, median time from symptom onset to first CT was 2 hours (interquartile range, 1.3-6.5 hours). Median baseline hemorrhage volume was 19.5 mL, 1.6% of brain volume. Hematoma expansion occurred in 7 of 22 (32%). Median expansion was 4 mL (interquartile range, 1-11 mL). Three children had significant (>33%) expansion; 2 required urgent hematoma evacuation. Expansion was not associated with poorer outcome. Compared with children with only 1 head CT scan within 48 hours, children with 2 head CT scans had larger baseline hemorrhage volumes (P = .05) and were more likely to receive treatment for elevated intracranial pressure (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Hematoma expansion occurs in children with intracerebral hemorrhage and may require urgent treatment. Repeat CT should be considered in children with either large hemorrhage or increased intracranial pressure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) score is the most commonly used clinical grading scale for outcome prediction after adult ICH. We created a similar scale in children to inform clinical care and assist in clinical research.
Children, full-term newborns to 18 years, with spontaneous ICH were prospectively enrolled from 2007 to 2012 at 3 centers. The pediatric ICH score was created by identifying factors associated with poor outcome. The score's ability to detect moderate disability or worse and severe disability or death was examined with sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve.
The pediatric ICH score components include ICH volume >2% to 3.99% of total brain volume (TBV): 1 point; ICH volume ≥4% TBV: 2 points; acute hydrocephalus: 1 point; herniation: 1 point; and infratentorial location: 1 point. The score ranges from 0 to 5. At 3-month follow-up of 60 children, 10 were severely disabled or dead, 30 had moderate disability, and 20 had good recovery. A pediatric ICH score ≥1 predicted moderate disability or worse with a sensitivity of 75% (95% confidence interval [CI], 59% to 87%) and a specificity of 70% (95% CI, 46% to 88%). A pediatric ICH score ≥2 predicted severe disability or death with a sensitivity and specificity of 90% (95% CI, 55% to 99%) and 68% (95% CI, 53% to 80%), respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for classifying outcome as severe disability or death was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.78-0.97).
The pediatric ICH score is a simple clinical grading scale that may ultimately be used for risk stratification, clinical care, and research.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few data regarding causes and outcomes of haemorrhagic stroke (HS) in term neonates are available. We characterised risk factors, mechanism and short-term outcomes in term and late preterm neonates with acute HS.
Single-centre tertiary care stroke registry.
Term and late preterm neonates (≥34 weeks gestation), born 2004-2010, with acute HS ≤28 days of life were identified, and clinical information was abstracted. Short-term outcomes were assessed via standardised neurological exam and rated using the Paediatric Stroke Outcome Measure (PSOM).
Among 42 neonates, median gestational age was 39.7 weeks (IQR 38-40.7 weeks). Diagnosis occurred at a median of 1 day (IQR 0-7 days) after delivery. Twenty-seven (64%) had intraparenchymal and intraventricular haemorrhage. Mechanism was haemorrhagic transformation of venous or arterial infarction in 22 (53%). Major risk factors included congenital heart disease (CHD), fetal distress and haemostatic abnormalities. Common presentations included seizure, apnoea, and poor feeding or vomiting. Acute hydrocephalus was common. Mortality was 12%. Follow-up occurred in 36/37 survivors at a median of 1 year (IQR 0.5-2.0 years). Among 17/36 survivors evaluated in stroke clinic, 47% demonstrated neurologic deficits. Deficits were mild (PSOM 0.5-1.5) in 9/36 (25%), and moderate-to-severe (PSOM ≥2.0) in 8/36 (22%).
In our cohort with acute HS, most presented with seizures, apnoea and/or poor feeding. Fetal distress and CHD were common. Nearly two-thirds had intraparenchymal with intraventricular haemorrhage. Over half were due to haemorrhagic transformation of infarction. Short-term neurologic deficits were present in 47% of survivors.
Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition 08/2013; · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Seizures are believed to be common presenting symptoms in neonates and children with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, few data are available on the epidemiology of acute symptomatic seizures or the risk for later epilepsy. OBJECTIVE To define the incidence of and explore risk factors for seizures and epilepsy in children with spontaneous ICH. Our a priori hypotheses were that younger age at presentation, cortical involvement of ICH, acute symptomatic seizures after presentation, ICH due to vascular malformation, and elevated intracranial pressure requiring urgent intervention would predict remote symptomatic seizures and epilepsy. DESIGN Prospective cohort study conducted between March 1, 2007, and January 1, 2012. SETTING Three tertiary care pediatric hospitals. PARTICIPANTS Seventy-three pediatric subjects with spontaneous ICH including 20 perinatal (≥37 weeks' gestation to 28 days) and 53 childhood subjects (>28 days to <18 years at presentation). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Acute symptomatic seizures (clinically evident and electrographic-only seizures within 7 days), remote symptomatic seizures, and epilepsy. RESULTS Acute symptomatic seizures occurred in 35 subjects (48%). Acute symptomatic seizures as a presenting symptom of ICH occurred in 12 perinatal (60%) and 19 childhood (36%) subjects (P = .07). Acute symptomatic seizures after presentation occurred in 7 children. Electrographic-only seizures were present in 9 of 32 subjects (28%) with continuous electroencephalogram monitoring. One-year and 2-year remote symptomatic seizure-free survival rates were 82% (95% CI, 68-90) and 67% (95% CI, 46-82), respectively. One-year and 2-year epilepsy-free survival rates were 96% (95% CI, 83-99) and 87% (95% CI, 65-95), respectively. Elevated intracranial pressure requiring acute intervention was a risk factor for seizures after presentation (P = .01; Fisher exact test), remote symptomatic seizures, and epilepsy (P = .03, and P = .04, respectively; log-rank test). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Presenting seizures are common in perinatal and childhood ICH. Continuous electroencephalography may detect electrographic seizures in some subjects. Single remote symptomatic seizures occur in many, and development of epilepsy is estimated to occur in 13% of patients at 2 years. Elevated intracranial pressure requiring acute intervention is a risk factor for acute seizures after presentation, remote symptomatic seizures, and epilepsy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Numbers are conceptualized spatially along a horizontal mental line. This view is supported by mounting evidence from healthy adults and patients with unilateral spatial neglect. Little is known about children's representation of numbers with respect to space. This study investigated elementary school children's directional biases in physical and numerical space to better understand the relation between space and number. We also examined the nature of spatial organization in numerical space. In two separate tasks, children (n=57) were asked to bisect a physical line and verbally estimate the midpoint of number pairs. In general, results indicated leftward biases in both tasks, but the degree of deviation did not correlate between the tasks. In the number bisection task, leftward bias (underestimating the midpoint) increased as a function of numerical magnitude and interval between number pairs. In contrast, a rightward deviation was found for smaller number pairs. These findings suggest that different underlying spatial attentional mechanisms might be directed in physical and numerical space in young school children, which would be integrated in adulthood.
European Journal of Developmental Psychology 01/2013; 10(4):433-448. · 1.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purposes of this study were to determine the incidence of neurovascular events as late complications in pediatric patients with brain tumor and to evaluate radiation as a risk factor.
Patients were ascertained using the tumor database of a pediatric tertiary care center. Included patients had a primary brain tumor, age birth to 21 years, initial treatment January 1, 1993, to December 31, 2002, and at least 2 visits with neuro-oncology. Radiation exposure included: whole brain, whole brain plus a focal boost, or focal brain. The primary outcome was stroke or transient ischemic attack.
Of 431 subjects, 14 had 19 events of stroke or transient ischemic attack over a median follow-up of 6.3 years. The incidence rate was 548/100 000 person-years. Overall, 61.5% of subjects received radiation, including 13 of 14 subjects with events. Median time from first radiation to first event was 4.9 years. The stroke/transient ischemic attack hazard ratio for any brain irradiation was 8.0 (95% CI, 1.05-62; P=0.045); for the circle of Willis, radiation was 9.0 (95% CI, 1.2-70; P=0.035); and for focal noncircle of Willis, radiation was 3.4 (95% CI, 0.21-55; P=0.38).
The incidence of neurovascular events in this population is 100-fold higher than in the general pediatric population and cranial irradiation is an important risk factor. By defining the incidence of this late effect, physicians are better able to counsel parents regarding treatment, monitor patients at risk, and target a population for primary stroke prevention in future studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We developed the Recurrence and Recovery Questionnaire (RRQ) by converting the Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure (PSOM) to a questionnaire for telephone interview and sought to validate the RRQ in a large cohort.
We analyzed parents' RRQ responses and same-day PSOM assessments for 232 children who had arterial ischemic stroke, cerebral sinovenous thrombosis, or presumed perinatal ischemic stroke. We assessed the agreement and consistency of the PSOM and RRQ, and we identified conditions that contributed to differences between the 2 measures. We tested selected factors as predictors of differences between the total PSOM and total RRQ (tPSOM and tRRQ) scores.
Median PSOM score was 1.5 and median RRQ score was 1.5. There was good agreement between tPSOM and tRRQ, and RRQ was a reliable estimator of PSOM at the total and component level. Preexisting neurologic deficits or chronic illnesses increased the difference between the tPSOM and tRRQ; the chronic illness effect was confirmed with univariate analysis.
The RRQ can characterize poststroke function when a child cannot return for examination. While the RRQ is not identical to the PSOM, the 2 measures likely assess closely related aspects of recovery. The RRQ is particularly useful when assessing outcomes of large cohorts, and will be useful in performing long-term follow-up studies of pediatric stroke.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and Purpose: Larger infarct volume as a percent of supratentorial brain volume (SBV) predicts poor outcome and hemorrhagic transformation in childhood arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). In perinatal AIS, higher scores on a modified pediatric version of the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score using acute MRI (modASPECTS) predict later seizure occurrence. The objectives were to establish the relationship of modASPECTS to infarct volume in perinatal and childhood AIS and to establish the interrater reliability of the score. Methods: We performed a cross sectional study of 31 neonates and 40 children identified from a tertiary care center stroke registry with supratentorial AIS and acute MRI with diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and T2 axial sequences. Infarct volume was expressed as a percent of SBV using computer-assisted manual segmentation tracings. ModASPECTS was performed on DWI by three independent raters. The modASPECTS were compared among raters and to infarct volume as a percent of SBV. Results: ModASPECTS correlated well with infarct volume. Spearman rank correlation coefficients (ρ) for the perinatal and childhood groups were 0.76, p < 0.001 and 0.69, p < 0.001, respectively. Excluding one perinatal and two childhood subjects with multifocal punctate ischemia without large or medium sized vessel stroke, ρ for the perinatal and childhood groups were 0.87, p < 0.001 and 0.80, p < 0.001, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficients for the three raters for the neonates and children were 0.93 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89-0.97, p < 0.001] and 0.94 (95% CI 0.91-0.97, p < 0.001), respectively. Conclusion: The modified pediatric ASPECTS on acute MRI can be used to estimate infarct volume as a percent of SBV with a high degree of validity and interrater reliability.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Pediatric National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (PedNIHSS), an adaptation of the adult National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, is a quantitative measure of stroke severity shown to be reliable when scored prospectively. The ability to calculate the PedNIHSS score retrospectively would be invaluable in the conduct of observational pediatric stroke studies. The study objective was to assess the concurrent validity and reliability of estimating the PedNIHSS score retrospectively from medical records.
Neurological examinations from medical records of 75 children enrolled in a prospective PedNIHSS validation study were photocopied. Four neurologists of varying training levels blinded to the prospective PedNIHSS scores reviewed the records and retrospectively assigned PedNIHSS scores. Retrospective scores were compared among raters and to the prospective scores.
Total retrospective PedNIHSS scores correlated highly with total prospective scores (R(2)=0.76). Interrater reliability for the total scores was "excellent" (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.94-0.97). Interrater reliability for individual test items was "substantial" or "excellent" for 14 of 15 items.
The PedNIHSS score can be scored retrospectively from medical records with a high degree of concurrent validity and reliability. This tool can be used to improve the quality of retrospective pediatric stroke studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies of pediatric intracerebral hemorrhage have investigated isolated intraparenchymal hemorrhage. The authors investigated whether detailed assessment of intraventricular hemorrhage enhanced outcome prediction after intracerebral hemorrhage. They prospectively enrolled 46 children, full-term to 17 years, median age 2.7 years, with spontaneous intraparenchymal hemorrhage and/or intraventricular hemorrhage. Outcome was assessed with the King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury. Twenty-six (57%) had intraparenchymal hemorrhage, 10 (22%) had pure intraventricular hemorrhage, and 10 (22%) had both. There were 2 deaths, both with intraparenchymal hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage volume ≥4% of total brain volume. Presence of intraventricular hemorrhage was not associated with poor outcome, but hydrocephalus showed a trend (P = .09) toward poor outcome. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, combined intraparenchymal hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage volume also showed a trend toward better outcome prediction than intraparenchymal hemorrhage volume alone. Although not an independent outcome predictor, future studies should assess intraventricular hemorrhage qualitatively and quantitatively.
Journal of child neurology 11/2011; 27(4):526-31. · 1.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although acute seizures are common among neonates with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS), the incidence of subsequent seizures is unknown. The goals of this study were to determine the incidence of seizures following hospital discharge after perinatal acute AIS, and to assess lesion characteristics associated with later seizure occurrence.
Neonates with confirmed acute AIS on MRI were identified through a prospective stroke registry. Clinic visits and telephone follow-up identified occurrence of seizures after hospital discharge. MRI scans were graded for size and characteristics of infarct, and associations with seizures after stroke were analyzed.
At a mean (SD) follow-up of 31.3 (16.1) months, 11 of 46 (23.9%) patients with perinatal AIS had at least 1 seizure. Five patients had a single episode of seizure, and 6 developed epilepsy. The Kaplan-Meier probability of remaining seizure-free at 3 years was 73%. Stroke size on MRI was significantly associated with development of later seizures, with an incidence rate of later seizures 6.2 times higher among those with larger stroke size.
Seizures occurred in <25% of patients during initial follow-up after perinatal AIS. Of those with seizures, nearly half had a single episode of seizure and not early epilepsy. Larger stroke size was associated with higher risk of seizure. These data suggest that prolonged treatment with anticonvulsant agents may not be indicated for seizure prophylaxis after perinatal AIS. These findings may help guide clinicians in counseling families and could form the basis for much-needed future research in this area.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stroke is an important cause of death and disability among children. Clinical trials for childhood stroke require a valid and reliable acute clinical stroke scale. We evaluated interrater reliability (IRR) of a pediatric adaptation of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale.
The pediatric adaptation of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was developed by pediatric and adult stroke experts by modifying each item of the adult National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale for children, retaining all examination items and scoring ranges of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Children 2 to 18 years of age with acute arterial ischemic stroke were enrolled in a prospective cohort study from 15 North American sites from January 2007 to October 2009. Examiners were child neurologists certified in the adult National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Each subject was examined daily for 7 days or until discharge. A subset of patients at 3 sites was scored simultaneously and independently by 2 study neurologists.
IRR testing was performed in 25 of 113 a median of 3 days (interquartile range, 2 to 4 days) after symptom onset. Patient demographics, total initial pediatric adaptation of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores, risk factors, and infarct characteristics in the IRR subset were similar to the non-IRR subset. The 2 raters' total scores were identical in 60% and within 1 point in 84%. IRR was excellent as measured by concordance correlation coefficient of 0.97 (95% CI, 0.94 to 0.99); intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.99 (95% CI, 0.97 to 0.99); precision measured by Pearson ρ of 0.97; and accuracy measured by the bias correction factor of 1.0.
There was excellent IRR of the pediatric adaptation of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale in a multicenter prospective cohort performed by trained child neurologists.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To define the incidence of seizures as a presenting symptom of acute arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) in children and to determine whether younger age, infarct location, or AIS etiology were risk factors for seizure at AIS presentation.
Children aged 2 months to 18 years presenting with AIS between January 2005 and December 2008 were identified from a single center prospective pediatric stroke registry. Clinical data were abstracted, and a neuroradiologist reviewed imaging studies.
Among the 60 children who met our inclusion criteria, 13 experienced seizure at stroke presentation (22%). Median age was significantly younger in children who presented with seizures than in those who did not (1.1 years vs 10 years; P = .0009). Seizures were accompanied by hemiparesis in all patients. Three of 4 children with clinically overt seizures at presentation also had nonconvulsive seizures on continuous electroencephalography monitoring.
Twenty-two percent of children with acute AIS present with seizures. Seizures were always accompanied by focal neurologic deficits. Younger age was a risk factor for seizures at presentation. Seizure at presentation was not associated with infarct location or etiology. Nonconvulsive seizures may occur during the acute period.
The Journal of pediatrics 03/2011; 159(3):479-83. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to describe the occurrence of hemorrhagic transformation (HT) among children with arterial ischemic stroke within 30 days after symptom onset and to describe clinical factors associated with HT.
Sixty-three children aged 1 month to 18 years with arterial ischemic stroke between January 2005 and November 2008 were identified from a single-center prospective pediatric stroke registry. All neuroimaging studies within 30 days of stroke were reviewed by a study neuroradiologist. Hemorrhage was classified according to the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study-1 definitions. Association of HT with clinical factors, systemic anticoagulation, stroke volume, and outcome was analyzed.
HT occurred in 19 of 63 children (30%; 95% CI, 19% to 43%), only 2 (3%) of whom were symptomatic. Hemorrhage classification was hemorrhagic infarction (HI)1 in 14, HI2 in 2, parenchymal hematoma (PH)1 in 2, and PH2 in 1. HT was less common in children with vasculopathy (relative risk, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.07 to 1.06; P=0.04) than in those with other stroke mechanisms. HT was not significantly associated with anticoagulation versus antiplatelet therapy (relative risk, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.2 to 1.5; P=0.26) but was associated with larger infarct volumes (P=0.0084). In multivariable analysis, worse Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure scores were associated with infarct volume ≥5% of total supratentorial brain volume (OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.1 to 15; P=0.04), and a trend existed toward association of worse Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure scores with HT (OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 0.9 to 18; P=0.07).
HT occurred in 30% of children with arterial ischemic stroke within 30 days. Most hemorrhages were petechial and asymptomatic. Infarct volume was associated with HT and worse outcome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mortality from malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMCAI) approaches 80% in adult series. Although decompressive craniectomy decreases mortality and leads to an acceptable outcome in selected adult patients, there are few data on MMCAI in children with stroke. This study evaluated the frequency of MMCAI and the use of decompressive craniectomy in children.
We retrospectively reviewed cases of MMCAI from five pediatric tertiary care centers.
Ten children (two females, eight males; median age 9y 10mo, range 22mo-14y) had MMCAI, with a median Glasgow Coma Scale score of 6 (range 3-9). MMCAI represented fewer than 2% of cases of pediatric arterial ischemic stroke. Three patients who did not undergo decompression, all of whom had monitoring of intracranial pressure, developed intractable intracranial hypertension, and fulfilled criteria for brain death. In contrast, seven patients underwent decompressive craniectomy and survived, with rapid improvement in their level of consciousness postoperatively. All seven survivors now walk independently with mild to moderate residual hemiparesis and speak fluently, even though four had left-sided infarcts.
Decompressive craniectomy can lead to a moderately good outcome for children with MMCAI and should be considered, even with symptomatic stroke and deep coma. Monitoring of intracranial pressure may delay life-saving treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify predictors of antithrombotic treatment in neonates with cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT) in a large multinational study.
Neonates with CSVT from 10 countries were enrolled in the International Pediatric Stroke Study from 2003 through 2007. Term neonates with CSVT who presented with neurologic symptoms or signs of systemic illness and neuroimaging evidence of thrombus or flow interruption within cerebral venous system were included.
Of 341 neonates enrolled, 84 had isolated CSVT. Neuroimaging findings, available in 67/84 neonates, included venous ischemic infarction in 5, hemorrhagic infarction or other intracranial hemorrhage in 13, both infarction and hemorrhage in 26, and no parenchymal lesions in 23. Treatment data, available in 81/84 neonates, included antithrombotic medications in 52% (n = 43), comprising heparin (n = 14), low molecular weight heparin (n = 34), warfarin (n = 1), and aspirin (n = 2). By univariate logistic regression analysis, deep venous system thrombosis (P = .05) and location in the United States (P = .001) predicted nontreatment. Presence of infarction, hemorrhage, dehydration, systemic illness, and age did not predict treatment or nontreatment. In multivariate analysis only geographic location remained significant.
In neonatal CSVT, regional antithrombotic treatment practices demonstrate considerable variability and uncertainty about indications for antithrombotic therapy. Additional studies are warranted.
The Journal of pediatrics 02/2010; 156(5):704-10, 710.e1-710.e2. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intracerebral hemorrhage volume (ICHV) as a percentage of total brain volume (TBV) is a strong predictor of outcome in childhood intracerebral hemorrhage with ICHV/TBV >2% associated with functional impairment. We aimed to determine whether easily performed approximations of intracerebral hemorrhage and brain volume can accurately and reliably stratify intracerebral hemorrhage by size.
CT scans of 18 children with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage were independently reviewed by 4 neurologists. ICHV as a proportion of TBV was estimated as ABC/XYZ expressed as a percentage: A= largest axial hemorrhage diameter; B=largest axial diameter perpendicular to A on the same slice; and C=hemorrhage vertical diameter. Similarly, X=largest midline axial diameter of supratentorial brain; Y=largest axial diameter perpendicular to X; and Z=brain vertical diameter. Interrater reliability was measured with intraclass correlation coefficients. ICHV and TBV were measured using computer-assisted manual segmentation tracings to establish criterion validity. Each intracerebral hemorrhage was classified as small (< or = 2% TBV) or large (>2% TBV).
Estimates of ICHV, TBV, and ICHV/TBV using the ABC/XYZ method had outstanding interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.95 to 0.99). These estimates were highly correlated with volumetric measures (R2=0.77 to 0.96). Sensitivity of the ABC/XYZ method for identifying an ICHV >2% TBV was 100% (95% CI, 89% to 100%). Specificity was 95% (95% CI, 83% to 99%).
The ABC/XYZ method accurately and reliably estimates ICHV and TBV in children. These values can be used to approximate quickly and easily ICHV as a percentage of TBV, which has important prognostic implications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cerebrovascular diseases are a common cause of cognitive impairment in adults and a clinically significant cause of cognitive
disability in children. Ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke are the main types of cerebrovascular disease. Risk factors for stroke,
clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic evaluation and treatment are discussed for each category of cerebrovascular disease,
and differences across the life span are highlighted. Mechanisms underlying cognitive dysfunction due to cerebrovascular disorders
are discussed. An approach to the neuropsychological assessment of children and adults with cerebrovascular disease is provided,
emphasizing specific domains most commonly affected by stroke and common methods used to evaluate function. These include
intellectual functioning, language, memory, attention and neglect, executive function, higher-order visual processing skills,
fine motor and sensory function, and emotional and behavioral function. Issues unique to acute assessment are discussed. Long-term
outcome and promising treatments are also described.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purposes of this study were to describe features of children with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and to determine predictors of short-term outcome in a single-center prospective cohort study.
A single-center prospective consecutive cohort study was conducted of spontaneous ICH in children aged 1 to 18 years from January 2006 to June 2008. Exclusion criteria were inciting trauma; intracranial tumor; isolated epidural, subdural, intraventricular, or subarachnoid hemorrhage; hemorrhagic transformation of ischemic stroke; and cerebral sinovenous thrombosis. Hospitalization records were abstracted. Follow-up assessments included outcome scores using the Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure and King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury. ICH volumes and total brain volumes were measured by manual tracing.
Twenty-two patients, median age 10.3 years (range, 4.2 to 16.6 years), had presenting symptoms of headache in 77%, focal deficits 50%, altered mental status 50%, and seizures 41%. Vascular malformations caused hemorrhage in 91%. Surgical treatment (hematoma evacuation, lesion embolization or excision) was performed during acute hospitalization in 50%. One patient died acutely. At a median follow-up of 3.5 months (range, 0.3 to 7.5 months), 71% of survivors had neurological deficits; 55% had clinically significant disability. Outcome based on Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure and King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury scores was worse in patients with ICH volume >2% of total brain volume (P=0.023) and altered mental status at presentation (P=0.005).
Spontaneous childhood ICH was due mostly to vascular malformations. Acute surgical intervention was commonly performed. Although death was rare, 71% of survivors had persisting neurological deficits. Larger ICH volume and altered mental status predicted clinically significant disability.