Gerd Geisslinger

Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME, Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

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Publications (460)2085.48 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Resolution of acute inflammation is an active process coordinated by proresolving lipid mediators (SPMs) such as lipoxins (LXs) and resolvins (Rvs), which are formed by the concerted action of 2 lipoxygenases (LOs). Because the exact molecular mechanisms of SPM biosynthesis are not completely understood, we aimed to investigate LX and D-type Rv formation in human leukocytes and HEK293T cells overexpressing leukotriene (LT) pathway enzymes. Activity assays in precursor (15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids, 17-HDoHE)-treated granulocytes [polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL)] showed a strict dependence of LXA4/RvD1 biosynthesis on cell integrity, and incubation with recombinant human 5-LO did not lead to LX or Rv formation. Pharmacologic inhibition of 5-LO activating protein (FLAP) by MK-886 inhibited LXA4/RvD1 biosynthesis in precursor-treated PMNL (drug concentration causing 50% inhibition ∼0.3/0.2 µM), as did knockdown of the enzyme in MM6 cells, and precursor-treated HEK293T overexpressing 5-LO produced high amounts of LXA4 only in the presence of FLAP. In addition, inhibition of cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) interfered with LXA4/RvD1 formation from exogenous precursors in PMNL. Furthermore, inhibition of the LT synthases LTA4 hydrolase and LTC4 synthase in PMNL/platelet coincubations augmented LXA4 levels. These findings show that several enzymes known to be involved in the biosynthesis of proinflammatory LTs such as FLAP and cPLA2α also contribute to LX and Rv formation.-Lehmann, C., Homann, J., Ball, A., Blöcher, R., Kleinschmidt, T. K., Basavarajappa, D., Angioni, C., Ferreirós, N., Häfner, A., Rådmark, O., Proschak, E., Haeggström, J. Z., Geisslinger, G., Parnham, M. J., Steinhilber, D., Kahnt, A. S. Lipoxin and resolvin biosynthesis is dependent on 5-lipoxygenase activating protein. © FASEB.
    The FASEB Journal 08/2015; DOI:10.1096/fj.15-275487 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophages respond to the Th2 cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4) with elevated expression of arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (ALOX15). Although IL-4 signaling elicits anti-inflammatory responses, 15-lipoxygenase may either support or inhibit inflammatory processes in a context-dependent manner. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic sensor/regulator that supports an anti-inflammatory macrophage phenotype. How AMPK-activation is linked to IL-4-elicited gene signatures remains unexplored. Using primary human macrophages stimulated with IL-4, we observed elevated ALOX15 mRNA and protein expression, which was attenuated by AMPK activation. AMPK activators, e.g. phenformin and aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) inhibited IL-4-evoked activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3, while leaving activation of STAT6 and induction of typical IL-4-responsive genes intact. However, phenformin prevented IL-4-induced association of STAT6 and histone H3K9-acetylation at the ALOX15 promoter. Activating AMPK abolished cellular production of 15-lipoxygenase arachidonic acid metabolites in IL-4-stimulated macrophages, which was mimicked by an ALOX15 knockdown. Finally, pre-treatment of macrophages with IL-4 for 48h increased the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-12, CXCL9, CXCL10 induced by subsequent stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. This response was attenuated by inhibition of ALOX15 or activation of AMPK during incubations with IL-4. In conclusion, limiting ALOX15 expression by AMPK may promote an anti-inflammatory phenotype of IL-4-stimulated human macrophages. Copyright © 2015, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2015; DOI:10.1074/jbc.M115.678243 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Accumulating lines of evidence indicate that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) contributes to the processing of chronic pain. However, the sources of H2S production in the nociceptive system are poorly understood. Here we investigated the expression of the H2S releasing enzyme cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) in the nociceptive system and characterized its role in chronic pain signaling using CSE deficient mice. We show that paw inflammation and peripheral nerve injury led to upregulation of CSE expression in dorsal root ganglia. However, conditional knockout mice lacking CSE in sensory neurons as well as global CSE knockout mice demonstrated normal pain behaviors in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models as compared to WT littermates. Thus, our results suggest that CSE is not critically involved in chronic pain signaling in mice and that sources different from CSE mediate the pain relevant effects of H2S. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Brain research 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2015.07.058 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activation of the adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated kinase (AMPK) contributes to beneficial effects such as improvement of the hyperglycemic state in diabetes as well as reduction of obesity and inflammatory processes. Furthermore, stimulation of AMPK activity has been associated with increased exercise capacity. A study published in 2008, directly before the Olympic Games in Beijing, showed that the AMPK activator AICAR (5-amino-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide) increased the running capacity of mice without any training and thus, prompted the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) to include certain AMPK activators in the list of forbidden drugs. This raises the question as to whether all AMPK activators should be considered for registration or whether the increase in exercise performance is only associated with specific AMPK-activating substances. In this review, we intend to shed light on currently published AMPK-activating drugs, their working mechanisms, and their impact on body fitness.
    07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40279-015-0366-z
  • K M J Syhr · B G Oertel · G Geisslinger
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    ABSTRACT: Pain is one of the most common reasons for consulting a physician. Chronic pain patients often suffer from a variety of comorbidities, such as depression and anxiety and they are therefore often simultaneously treated with more than one drug. The probability of drug interactions increases with every additional drug. A systematic internet and literature search up to February 2015 was carried out. Systematic lists were included. In addition, the drug prescription information sheets were used and an internet search via Pubmed and google.com was carried out for drugs alone and in combination in order to find substance-specific interactions. A differentiation is made between pharmaceutical, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic drug interactions. Pharmaceutical interactions are caused by chemical, physical or physicochemical incompatibility of drugs or adjuvants used. These can even occur outside the body and during concomitant administration via the same route. A pharmacodynamic interaction in pain management is for example the additive sedative effect of opioids and benzodiazepines when taken together. Pharmacokinetic interactions occur during the absorption, distribution, metabolism and in the elimination phases. Many drug interactions can be avoided by careful and continuous evaluation of pharmacotherapy and if necessary its adaptation; however, a sound knowledge of the underlying pharmacological mechanisms and the properties of currently used analgesics is necessary.
    Der Schmerz 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00482-015-0017-1 · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endocannabinoids modulate neuroendocrine networks by directly targeting cannabinoid receptors. The time-hormone melatonin synchronizes these networks with external light condition and guarantees time-sensitive and ecologically well-adapted behaviors. Here, the endocannabinoid arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA) showed rhythmic changes in rat pineal glands with higher levels during the light-period and reduced amounts at the onset of darkness. Norepinephrine, the essential stimulus for nocturnal melatonin biosynthesis, acutely down-regulated AEA and other endocannabinoids in cultured pineal glands. These temporal dynamics suggest that AEA exerts time-dependent autocrine and/or paracrine functions within the pineal. Moreover, endocananbinoids may be released from the pineal into the CSF or blood stream.
    Chronobiology International 06/2015; DOI:10.3109/07420528.2015.1041596 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is a cellular energy sensor, which is activated in stages of increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) consumption. Its activation has been associated with a number of beneficial effects such as decrease of inflammatory processes and inhibition of disease progression of diabetes and obesity. A recent study suggested that salicylate, the active metabolite of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) acetyl-salicylic acid (aspirin), is able to activate AMPK pharmacologically. This observation raised the question whether or not other NSAIDs might also act as AMPK activators and whether this action might contribute to their cyclooxygenase (COX)-independent anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated mouse and human neuronal cells and liver tissue of mice after treatment with various NSAIDs. Our results showed that the non-selective acidic NSAIDs ibuprofen and diclofenac induced AMPK activation similar to aspirin while the COX-2 selective drug etoricoxib and the non-opioid analgesic paracetamol, both drugs have no acidic structure, failed to activate AMPK. In conclusion, our results revealed that AMPK can be activated by specific non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as salicylic acid, ibuprofen or diclofenac possibly depending on the acidic structure of the drugs. AMPK might therefore contribute to their antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    European journal of pharmacology 06/2015; 762. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2015.06.001 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: TANK-binding kinase (TBK1) is a non-canonical IκB kinase (IKK) involved in the regulation of type I interferons and of NF-κB signal transduction. It is activated by viral infections and inflammatory mediators and has therefore been associated with viral diseases, obesity, and rheumatoid arthritis. Its role in pain has not been investigated so far. Due to the important roles of NF-κB, classical IκB Kinases and the IKK-related kinase, IKKε in inflammatory nociception, we hypothesized that TBK1, which is suggested to form a complex with IKKε under certain conditions, might also alter the inflammatory nociceptive response. We investigated TBK1 expression and regulation in "pain-relevant" tissues of C57BL/6 mice by immunofluorescence, quantitative PCR, and Western blot analysis. Furthermore, nociceptive responses and the underlying signal transduction pathways were assessed using TBK1(-/-) mice in two models of inflammatory nociception. Our data show that TBK1 is expressed and regulated in the spinal cord after peripheral nociceptive stimulation and that a deletion of TBK1 alleviated the inflammatory hyperalgesia in mice while motor function and acute nociception were not altered. TBK1-mediated effects are at least partially mediated by regulation of NF-κB dependent COX-2 induction but also by alteration of expression of c-fos via modulation of MAP kinases as shown in the spinal cord of mice and in cell culture experiments. We suggest that TBK1 exerts pronociceptive effects in inflammatory nociception which are due to both modulation of NF-κB dependent genes and regulation of MAPKs and c-fos. Inhibition of TBK1 might therefore constitute a novel effective tool for analgesic therapy.
    Journal of Neuroinflammation 05/2015; 12(1):100. DOI:10.1186/s12974-015-0319-3 · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: At the site of injury activated platelets release various mediators, one of which is sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). It was the aim of this study to explore whether activated human platelets had a pronociceptive effect in an in vivo mouse model and whether this effect was based on the release of S1P and subsequent activation of neuronal S1P receptors 1 or 3. Human platelets were prepared in different concentrations (10(5)/μl, 10(6)/μl, 10(7)/μl) and assessed in mice with different genetic backgrounds (WT, S1P1 (fl/fl), SNS-S1P1 (-/-), S1P3 (-/-)). Intracutaneous injections of activated human platelets induced a significant, dose-dependent hypersensitivity to noxious thermal stimulation. The degree of heat hypersensitivity correlated with the platelet concentration as well as the platelet S1P content and the amount of S1P released upon platelet activation as measured with LC MS/MS. Despite the significant correlations between S1P and platelet count, no difference in paw withdrawal latency (PWL) was observed in mice with a global null mutation of the S1P3 receptor or a conditional deletion of the S1P1 receptor in nociceptive primary afferents. Furthermore, neutralization of S1P with a selective anti-S1P antibody did not abolish platelet induced heat hypersensitivity. Our results suggest that activated platelets release S1P and induce heat hypersensitivity in vivo. However, the platelet induced heat hypersensitivity was caused by mediators other than S1P.
    Frontiers in Neuroscience 04/2015; 9:140. DOI:10.3389/fnins.2015.00140 · 3.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ceramides (Cer) are mediators of inflammatory processes. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), we observed that CerS6 mRNA expression was upregulated 15-fold in peripheral blood leukocytes before the onset of EAE symptoms. In peripheral blood leukocytes from MS patients, a 3.9-fold upregulation was found. Total genetic deletion of CerS6 and the selective deletion of CerS6 in peripheral blood leucocytes exacerbated the progression of clinical symptoms in EAE mice. This was associated with enhanced leukocyte, predominantly neutrophil infiltration and enhanced demyelination in the lumbar spinal cord of EAE mice. Interferon-gamma/tumor necrosis factor alpha (IFN-γ/TNF-α) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) both drive EAE development and induce expression of the integrin CD11b and the chemokine receptor CXCR2 and we found they also induce CerS6 expression. In vivo, the genetic deletion of CerS6 enhanced the activation/migration of neutrophils, as reflected by an enhanced upregulation of CD11b and CXCR2. In vivo, the genetic deletion of CerS6 enhanced the activation status of IFN-γ/TNF-α-stimulated neutrophils, as shown by increased expression of nitric oxide (NO) and CD11b and an increased adhesion capacity. In G-CSF-stimulated neutrophils, the migration status was enhanced, as reflected by an elevated level of CXCR2 and an increased migration capacity. These data suggest that CerS6/C16-Cer mediates feedback regulation by inhibiting the formation of CD11b and CXCR2 which are induced either by IFN-γ/TNF-α or by G-CSF, respectively. We conclude that CerS6/C16-Cer mediates anti-inflammatory effects during the development of EAE and MS possibly by suppressing the migration and deactivation of neutrophils.Immunology and Cell Biology accepted article preview online, 02 April 2015. doi:10.1038/icb.2015.47.
    Immunology and Cell Biology 04/2015; DOI:10.1038/icb.2015.47 · 4.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) favors multiple aspects of tumor development and immune evasion. Therefore, microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES-1/-2), is a potential target for cancer therapy. We explored whether inhibiting mPGES-1 in human and mouse models of breast cancer affects tumor-associated immunity. A new model of breast tumor spheroid killing by human PBMCs was developed. In this model, tumor killing required CD80 expression by tumor-associated phagocytes to trigger cytotoxic T cell activation. Pharmacological mPGES-1 inhibition increased CD80 expression, whereas addition of PGE2, a prostaglandin E2 receptor 2 (EP2) agonist, or activation of signaling downstream of EP2 reduced CD80 expression. Genetic ablation of mPGES-1 resulted in markedly reduced tumor growth in PyMT mice. Macrophages of mPGES-1-/- PyMT mice indeed expressed elevated levels of CD80 compared to their wildtype counterparts. CD80 expression in tumor-spheroid infiltrating mPGES-1-/- macrophages translated into antigen-specific cytotoxic T cell activation. In conclusion, mPGES-1 inhibition elevates CD80 expression by tumor-associated phagocytes to restrict tumor growth. We propose that mPGES-1 inhibition in combination with immune cell activation might be part of a therapeutic strategy to overcome the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.
    Oncotarget 03/2015; · 6.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nucleosides and nucleoside triphosphates are the building blocks of nucleic acids and important bioactive metabolites, existing in all living cells. In the present study, two liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry methods were developed to quantify both groups of compounds from the same sample with a shared extraction procedure. After a simple protein precipitation with methanol, the nucleosides were separated with reversed phase chromatography on an Atlantis T3 column while for the separation of the nucleoside triphosphates, an anion exchange column (BioBasic AX) was used. No addition of ion pair reagent was required. A 5500 QTrap was used as analyzer, operating as triple quadrupole. The analytical method for the nucleoside triphosphates has been validated according to the guidelines of the US Food and Drug Administration. The lower limit of quantification values were determined as 10 pg on column (0.5 ng/mL in the injection solution) for deoxyadenosine triphosphate and deoxyguanosine triphosphate, 20 pg (1 ng/mL) for deoxycytidine triphosphate and thymidine triphosphate, 100 pg (5 ng/mL) for cytidine triphosphate and guanosine triphosphate, and 500 pg (25 ng/mL) for adenosine triphosphate und uridine triphosphate respectively. This methodology has been applied to the quantitation of nucleosides and nucleoside triphosphates in primary human CD4 T lymphocytes and macrophages. As expected, the concentrations for ribonucleosides and ribonucleoside triphophates were considerably higher than those obtained for the deoxy derivatives. Upon T cell receptor activation, the levels of all analytes, with the notable exceptions of deoxyadenosine triphosphate and deoxyguanosine triphosphate, were found to be elevated in CD4 T cells.
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 03/2015; epub. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nucleosides and nucleoside triphosphates are the building blocks of nucleic acids and important bioactive metabolites, existing in all living cells. In the present study, two liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry methods were developed to quantify both groups of compounds from the same sample with a shared extraction procedure. After a simple protein precipitation with methanol, the nucleosides were separated with reversed phase chromatography on an Atlantis T3 column while for the separation of the nucleoside triphosphates, an anion exchange column (BioBasic AX) was used. No addition of ion pair reagent was required. A 5500 QTrap was used as analyzer, operating as triple quadrupole. The analytical method for the nucleoside triphosphates has been validated according to the guidelines of the US Food and Drug Administration. The lower limit of quantification values were determined as 10 pg on column (0.5 ng/mL in the injection solution) for deoxyadenosine triphosphate and deoxyguanosine triphosphate, 20 pg (1 ng/mL) for deoxycytidine triphosphate and thymidine triphosphate, 100 pg (5 ng/mL) for cytidine triphosphate and guanosine triphosphate, and 500 pg (25 ng/mL) for adenosine triphosphate und uridine triphosphate respectively. This methodology has been applied to the quantitation of nucleosides and nucleoside triphosphates in primary human CD4 T lymphocytes and macrophages. As expected, the concentrations for ribonucleosides and ribonucleoside triphophates were considerably higher than those obtained for the deoxy derivatives. Upon T cell receptor activation, the levels of all analytes, with the notable exceptions of deoxyadenosine triphosphate and deoxyguanosine triphosphate, were found to be elevated in CD4 T cells.
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 03/2015; 407(13). DOI:10.1007/s00216-015-8588-3 · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human experimental pain models are widely used to study drug effects under controlled conditions, but they require further optimization to better reflect clinical pain conditions. To this end, we measured experimentally induced pain in 110 (46 men) healthy volunteers. The quantitative sensory testing (QST) battery (German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain) was applied on untreated ("control") and topical capsaicin-hypersensitized ("test") skin. Z-transformed QST-parameter values obtained at the test site were compared with corresponding values published from 1236 patients with neuropathic pain using Bayesian statistics. Subjects were clustered for the resemblance of their QST pattern to neuropathic pain. Although QST parameter values from the untreated site agreed with reference values, several QST parameters acquired at the test site treated with topical capsaicin deviated from normal. These deviations resembled in 0 to 7 parameters of the QST pattern observed in patients with neuropathic pain. Higher degrees (50%-60%) of resemblance to neuropathic QST pattern were obtained in 18% of the subjects. Inclusion in the respective clusters was predictable at a cross-validated accuracy of 86.9% by a classification and regression tree comprising 3 QST parameters (mechanical pain sensitivity, wind-up ratio, and z-transformed thermal sensory limen) from the control sites. Thus, we found that topical capsaicin partly induced the desired clinical pattern of neuropathic pain in a preselectable subgroup of healthy subjects to a degree that fuels expectations that experimental pain models can be optimized toward mimicking clinical pain. The subjects, therefore, qualify for enrollment in analgesic drug studies that use highly selected cohorts to enhance predictivity for clinical analgesia.
    Pain 03/2015; 156(3):405-14. DOI:10.1097/01.j.pain.0000460328.10515.c9 · 5.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ceramide synthases (CerS) synthesise ceramides of defined acyl chain lengths, which are thought to mediate cellular processes in a chain length-dependent manner. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), we observed a significant elevation of CerS2 and its products, C24-ceramides, in CD11b(+) cells (monocytes and neutrophils) isolated from blood. This result correlates with the clinical finding that CerS2 mRNA expression and C24-ceramide levels were significantly increased by 2.2- and 1.5-fold, respectively, in white blood cells of MS patients. The increased CerS2 mRNA/C24-ceramide expression in neutrophils/monocytes seems to mediate pro-inflammatory effects, since a specific genetic deletion of CerS2 in blood cells or a total genetic deletion of CerS2 significantly delayed the onset of clinical symptoms, due to a reduced infiltration of immune cells, in particular neutrophils, into the central nervous system. CXCR2 chemokine receptors, expressed on neutrophils, promote the migration of neutrophils into the central nervous system, which is a prerequisite for the recruitment of further immune cells and the inflammatory process that leads to the development of MS. Interestingly, neutrophils isolated from CerS2 null EAE mice, as opposed to WT EAE mice, were characterised by significantly lower CXCR2 receptor mRNA expression resulting in their reduced migratory capacity towards CXCL2. Most importantly, G-CSF-induced CXCR2 expression was significantly reduced in CerS2 null neutrophils and their migratory capacity was significantly impaired. In conclusion, our data strongly indicate that G-CSF-induced CXCR2 expression is regulated in a CerS2-dependent manner and that CerS2 thereby promotes the migration of neutrophils, thus, contributing to inflammation and the development of EAE and MS. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Brain Behavior and Immunity 02/2015; 46. DOI:10.1016/j.bbi.2015.02.010 · 6.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract FTY720 (fingolimod) is after its phosphorylation by sphingosine kinase (SPHK) 2 a potent, non-selective sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonist. FTY720 has been shown to reduce the nociceptive behaviour in the paclitaxel model for chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain through downregulation of S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) in microglia of the spinal cord. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the antinociceptive effects of FTY720 in a model for trauma-induced neuropathic pain. We found that intrathecal administration of phosphorylated FTY720 (FTY720-P) decreased trauma-induced pain behaviour in mice, while intraplantar administered FTY720-P had no effect. FTY720-P, but not FTY720, reduced the nociceptive behaviour in SPHK2-deficient mice suggesting the involvement of S1P receptors. Fittingly, intrathecal administration of antagonists for S1P1 or S1P3, W146 and Cay10444 respectively, abolished the antinociceptive effects of systemically administered FTY720, demonstrating that activation of both receptors in the spinal cord is necessary to induce antinociceptive effects by FTY720. Accordingly, intrathecal administration of S1P1 receptor agonists was not sufficient to evoke an antinociceptive effect. Taken together, the data show that, in contrast to its effects on chemotherapy-induced neuropathy, FTY720 reduces trauma-induced neuropathic pain by simultaneous activation of spinal S1P1 and S1P3 receptor subtypes.
    Biological Chemistry 01/2015; DOI:10.1515/hsz-2014-0276 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Slack (Slo2.2) is a sodium-activated potassium channel that regulates neuronal firing activities and patterns. Previous studies identified Slack in sensory neurons, but its contribution to acute and chronic pain in vivo remains elusive. Here we generated global and sensory neuron-specific Slack mutant mice and analyzed their behavior in various animal models of pain. Global ablation of Slack led to increased hypersensitivity in models of neuropathic pain, whereas the behavior in models of inflammatory and acute nociceptive pain was normal. Neuropathic pain behaviors were also exaggerated after ablation of Slack selectively in sensory neurons. Notably, the Slack opener loxapine ameliorated persisting neuropathic pain behaviors. In conclusion, Slack selectively controls the sensory input in neuropathic pain states, suggesting that modulating its activity might represent a novel strategy for management of neuropathic pain.
    The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 01/2015; 35(3):1125-1135. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2423-14.2015 · 6.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) favors multiple aspects of tumor development and immune evasion. Therefore, microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES-1/-2), is a potential target for cancer therapy. We explored whether inhibiting mPGES-1 in human and mouse models of breast cancer affects tumor-associated immunity. A new model of breast tumor spheroid killing by human PBMCs was developed. In this model, tumor killing required CD80 expression by tumor-associated phagocytes to trigger cytotoxic T cell activation. Pharmacological mPGES-1 inhibition increased CD80 expression, whereas addition of PGE2, a prostaglandin E2 receptor 2 (EP2) agonist, or activation of signaling downstream of EP2 reduced CD80 expression. Genetic ablation of mPGES-1 resulted in markedly reduced tumor growth in PyMT mice. Macrophages of mPGES-1-/- PyMT mice indeed expressed elevated levels of CD80 compared to their wildtype counterparts. CD80 expression in tumor-spheroid infiltrating mPGES-1-/- macrophages translated into antigen-specific cytotoxic T cell activation. In conclusion, mPGES-1 inhibition elevates CD80 expression by tumor-associated phagocytes to restrict tumor growth. We propose that mPGES-1 inhibition in combination with immune cell activation might be part of a therapeutic strategy to overcome the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.
    Oncotarget 01/2015; · 6.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. Telaprevir (TVR)-based triple therapy has substantially improved cure rates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection but side effects are frequent and often severe. Therefore, response predictors are needed for early identification of patients not responding to TVR-based triple therapy. Material and methods. Forty-five patients (mean age: 54 ± 13 years; male gender: 60%; treatment-experienced: 82%; cirrhosis: 58%) with HCV genotype 1 infection were treated with a TVR-based triple-therapy regimen. TVR plasma levels were analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray-ionization-tandem mass spectrometry at weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12 of antiviral therapy. On-treatment HCV RNA response was assessed at weeks 4, 12, and 24 by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results. An extended rapid virological response (eRVR) and sustained virological response (SVR) was achieved in 21 of 45 patients (47%) and 36 of 45 (80%) patients, respectively. Mean ± standard deviation TVR plasma levels at week 2 were 3.4 ± 0.2 log10 ng/ml and did not differ over time (when assessed at weeks 4, 8, and 12). TVR plasma levels at week 2 were significantly higher in patients who achieved an eRVR compared to those who did not achieve eRVR (3.5 ± 0.1 vs. 3.3 ± 0.2 log10 ng/ml; p = 0.003) but were neither associated with SVR nor with treatment-related anemia. Conclusion. TVR plasma levels are associated with on-treatment response but not with overall treatment efficacy. Given the high overall response rates to TVR-based triple therapy, our data suggest that TVR trough levels may not be a useful predictor of treatment response, and routine drug-level monitoring is not required.
    Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 11/2014; 49(12). DOI:10.3109/00365521.2014.978363 · 2.33 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

13k Citations
2,085.48 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME
      Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2000–2015
    • Institut für klinische Pharmakologie
      Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 1999–2015
    • Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main
      • • Institut für Klinische Pharmakologie
      • • Institut für Pharmazeutische Biologie
      • • Zentrum der Pharmakologie
      Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany
  • 2005–2014
    • University Hospital Frankfurt
      Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany
  • 2008–2012
    • Hospital Frankfurt Hoechst
      Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany
  • 1989–2002
    • Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
      • Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology
      Erlangen, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1989–2001
    • Universitätsklinikum Erlangen
      Erlangen, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1998–2000
    • Stanford University
      • • Department of Anesthesia
      • • Department of Medicine
      Palo Alto, California, United States
    • Hadassah Medical Center
      • Department of Medicine
      Jerusalem, Jerusalem District, Israel
  • 1996
    • University of New South Wales
      Kensington, New South Wales, Australia
  • 1992–1994
    • St. Vincent's Hospital Sydney
      • Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia