G R Corazza

University of Pavia, Ticinum, Lombardy, Italy

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Publications (597)3249.45 Total impact

  • Thrombosis and Haemostasis 05/2015; 114(3). DOI:10.1160/TH15-02-0101 · 5.76 Impact Factor
  • Internal and Emergency Medicine 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11739-015-1240-6 · 2.41 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 04/2015; 148(4):S-328. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(15)31087-8 · 13.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Whipple's disease (WD) is a rare systemic infection due, in genetically susceptible individuals, to Tropheryma whipplei, a heterogeneous Gram-positive actinobacteria. Although it has already been recognised that WD affects mainly middle-aged Caucasian men, the prevalence of WD is virtually unknown. The annual incidence of WD in the general population is said to be less than 1 per 1,000,000, but scientific evidence for these figures is still lacking. On the basis of the number of patients recorded with a diagnosis of Whipple's disease in the regional registers for rare diseases of Lombardia, Liguria and Piemonte-Valle d'Aosta regions, we studied the prevalence of WD in the north-western part of Italy. Forty-six patients with Whipple's disease were recorded in these regions (13 females; mean age at diagnosis 52.1 ± 11.1 years). Since 16,130,725 inhabitants live in these four regions, prevalence of WD in the general population is 3/10(6) and almost 30 % of the patients are females. WD is certainly a rare disease but it also affects women in a considerable proportion of cases.
    European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10096-015-2357-2 · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of colonic methane production in functional bowel disorders is still uncertain. In small samples of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients, it was shown that methane breath excretion correlates with clinical presentation and delayed gastrointestinal transit time. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between intestinal production and breath excretion of CH4 and to correlate CH4 production with the presence and the severity of symptoms, in a large cohort of IBS patients and in a group of healthy volunteers.
    The American Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2015; DOI:10.1038/ajg.2015.47 · 9.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Crohn's disease-related inflammation is characterized by reduced activity of the immunosuppressive cytokine transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) due to high levels of SMAD7, an inhibitor of TGF-β1 signaling. Preclinical studies and a phase 1 study have shown that an oral SMAD7 antisense oligonucleotide, mongersen, targets ileal and colonic SMAD7. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial, we evaluated the efficacy of mongersen for the treatment of persons with active Crohn's disease. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 10, 40, or 160 mg of mongersen or placebo per day for 2 weeks. The primary outcomes were clinical remission at day 15, defined as a Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) score of less than 150, with maintenance of remission for at least 2 weeks, and the safety of mongersen treatment. A secondary outcome was clinical response (defined as a reduction of 100 points or more in the CDAI score) at day 28. The proportions of patients who reached the primary end point were 55% and 65% for the 40-mg and 160-mg mongersen groups, respectively, as compared with 10% for the placebo group (P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the percentage of participants reaching clinical remission between the 10-mg group (12%) and the placebo group. The rate of clinical response was significantly greater among patients receiving 10 mg (37%), 40 mg (58%), or 160 mg (72%) of mongersen than among those receiving placebo (17%) (P=0.04, P<0.001, and P<0.001, respectively). Most adverse events were related to complications and symptoms of Crohn's disease. We found that study participants with Crohn's disease who received mongersen had significantly higher rates of remission and clinical response than those who received placebo. (Funded by Giuliani; EudraCT number, 2011-002640-27.).
    New England Journal of Medicine 03/2015; 372(12):1104-13. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1407250 · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: RAGE is a transmembrane receptor expressed on immune and endothelial cells, whose binding with its ligands, the S100 calgranulins, leads to chronic inflammation. Conversely, its soluble form (sRAGE) plays a protective role by acting as a decoy. We carried out a cross-sectional analysis of the sRAGE and S100A12 serum levels in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) and searched for a correlation with clinical and biological markers of activity. METHODS: We enrolled 60 CD, 67 UC patients, and 66 controls (all adults). Disease activity was scored through the clinical, endoscopic, and histologic indexes of severity, whilst disease location and behaviour were assessed according to the Montreal classification. In all cases, the levels of serum sRAGE, S100A12, C-reactive protein, and faecal calprotectin were measured. RESULTS: sRAGE levels were significantly lower in UC, both active and inactive, than in controls and CD (817.35, range 437.3-1449; 1211, range 843.7-1618; 1207.5, range 743.15-1875.75; P < 0.05 for both), and inversely correlated with clinical and endoscopic indexes of activity in both IBD groups (P < 0.05 for all) and with the histologic score in the CD group. Moreover, those CD patients with a penetrating behaviour showed a significant reduction in both sRAGE (P = 0.006) and S100A12 (P = 0.034) as compared to those with an inflammatory/stricturing pattern. Although S100A12 levels were not found up-regulated, a negative correlation appeared evident with the clinical (r = -0.38) and endoscopic (r = -0.32) indexes of activity in UC and CD, respectively. CONCLUSION: These data suggest a different role for RAGE in CD and UC, and a potential use of sRAGE as a new biomarker.
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences 03/2015; · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RAGE is a transmembrane receptor expressed on immune and endothelial cells, whose binding with its ligands, the S100 calgranulins, leads to chronic inflammation. Conversely, its soluble form (sRAGE) plays a protective role by acting as a decoy. We carried out a cross-sectional analysis of the sRAGE and S100A12 serum levels in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) and searched for a correlation with clinical and biological markers of activity. We enrolled 60 CD, 67 UC patients, and 66 controls (all adults). Disease activity was scored through the clinical, endoscopic, and histologic indexes of severity, whilst disease location and behaviour were assessed according to the Montreal classification. In all cases, the levels of serum sRAGE, S100A12, C-reactive protein, and faecal calprotectin were measured. sRAGE levels were significantly lower in UC, both active and inactive, than in controls and CD (817.35, range 437.3-1449; 1211, range 843.7-1618; 1207.5, range 743.15-1875.75; P < 0.05 for both), and inversely correlated with clinical and endoscopic indexes of activity in both IBD groups (P < 0.05 for all) and with the histologic score in the CD group. Moreover, those CD patients with a penetrating behaviour showed a significant reduction in both sRAGE (P = 0.006) and S100A12 (P = 0.034) as compared to those with an inflammatory/stricturing pattern. Although S100A12 levels were not found up-regulated, a negative correlation appeared evident with the clinical (r = -0.38) and endoscopic (r = -0.32) indexes of activity in UC and CD, respectively. These data suggest a different role for RAGE in CD and UC, and a potential use of sRAGE as a new biomarker.
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10620-015-3619-7 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is debate over the existence of nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) -intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms in response to ingestion of gluten-containing foods by people without celiac disease or wheat allergy. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial to determine the effects of administration of low doses of gluten to subjects with suspected NCGS. We enrolled 61 adults without celiac disease or wheat allergy who believe ingestion of gluten-containing food to be the cause of their intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given either 4.375 g/day gluten or rice starch (placebo) for 1 week, each via gastro-soluble capsules. After a 1 week of gluten-free diet, participants crossed over to the other group. The primary outcome was the change in overall (intestinal and extra-intestinal) symptoms, determined by established scoring systems, between gluten and placebo intake. A secondary outcome was the change in individual symptom scores between gluten vs placebo. According to the per-protocol analysis of data from the 59 patients who completed the trial, intake of gluten significantly increased overall symptoms compared with placebo (P=.034). Abdominal bloating (P=.040) and pain (P=.047), among the intestinal symptoms, and foggy mind (P=.019), depression (P=.020), and aphthous stomatitis (P=.025), among the extra-intestinal symptoms, were significantly more severe when subjects received gluten than placebo. In a cross-over trial of subjects with suspected NCGS, the severity of overall symptoms increased significantly during 1 week of intake of small amounts of gluten, compared with placebo. Clinical trial no: ISRCTN72857280. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cgh.2015.01.029 · 6.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the best diagnostic technique and risk factors of the human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A cohort of 40 IBD patients (17 refractory) and 40 controls underwent peripheral blood and endoscopic colonic mucosal sample harvest. Viral infection was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, and correlations with clinical and endoscopic indexes of activity, and risk factors were investigated. All refractory patients carried detectable levels of HCMV and/or EBV mucosal load as compared to 13/23 (56.5%) non-refractory and 13/40 (32.5%) controls. The median DNA value was significantly higher in refractory (HCMV 286 and EBV 5.440 copies/10(5) cells) than in non-refractory (HCMV 0 and EBV 6 copies/10(5) cells; P < 0.05 and < 0.001) IBD patients and controls (HCMV and EBV 0 copies/10(5) cells; P < 0.001 for both). Refractory patients showed DNA peak values ≥ 10(3) copies/10(5) cells in diseased mucosa in comparison to non-diseased mucosa (P < 0.0121 for HCMV and < 0.0004 for EBV), while non-refractory patients and controls invariably displayed levels below this threshold, thus allowing us to differentiate viral colitis from mucosal infection. Moreover, the mucosal load positively correlated with the values found in the peripheral blood, whilst no correlation with the number of positive cells at immunohistochemistry was found. Steroid use was identified as a significant risk factor for both HCMV (P = 0.018) and EBV (P = 0.002) colitis. Finally, a course of specific antiviral therapy with ganciclovir was successful in all refractory patients with HCMV colitis, whilst refractory patients with EBV colitis did not show any improvement despite steroid tapering and discontinuation of the other medications. Viral colitis appeared to contribute to mucosal lesions in refractory IBD, and its correct diagnosis and management require quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay of mucosal specimens.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is a surrogate marker of subclinical atherosclerosis and it is able to predict both coronary and cerebral vascular events. No data exist on the association between cIMT and non valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) type. We conduct this study with the aim to analyze the association between abnormal cIMT and NVAF type. Methods: A cross-sectional study of the "Atrial fibrillation Registry for Ankle-brachial index Prevalence Assessment-Collaborative Italian Study (ARAPACIS)" has been performed. Among 2027 patients enrolled in the ARAPACIS, 673 patients, who underwent carotid ultrasound examination to assess cIMT, were included in the study. Results: Among the entire population, 478 patients (71%) had cIMT > 0.90 mm. Patients with an abnormal cIMT (>0.90 mm) were significantly older and more likely hypertensive, diabetic and with a previous history of stroke than those with normal cIMT (≤0.90 mm). These patients had more permanent/persistent NVAF and CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥ 2 (p < 0.0001) compared to those with cIMT <0.90 mm. Excluding all patients affected by previous cardiovascular disease, logistic regression analysis showed that independent predictors of abnormal cIMT were: age class 65-74 yrs. (p < 0.001), age class ≥75 yrs. (p < 0.001), arterial hypertension (p < 0.001), calcium-channel blockers use (p < 0.001) and persistent/permanent NVAF (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Our findings show a high prevalence of abnormal cIMT in NVAF patients, reinforcing the concept that NVAF and systemic atherosclerosis are closely associated. Abnormal cIMT was particularly evident in persistent/permanent NVAF suggesting a more elevated atherosclerotic burden in patients with long-standing NVAF. Trial registration: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01161251. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Atherosclerosis 12/2014; 238(2):350-355. DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.12.022 · 3.97 Impact Factor
  • Federico Biagi, Gino Roberto Corazza
    Gut 12/2014; DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2014-308567 · 13.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:Little information is available on the mechanisms responsible for dyspeptic symptoms in postprandial distress syndrome (PDS), characterized by the presence of prevalently meal-related early satiation and fullness, and the epigastric pain syndrome (EPS), characterized by the prominent symptom of epigastric pain, generally not meal related. In a group of PDS patients, the presence of hypersensitivity to gastric distension in both fasting and postprandial phases was described as the main pathophysiological mechanism; on the contrary, we have no information on the pathophysiology of EPS.METHODS:Sixty Helicobacter pylori (HP)-negative, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-negative, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-negative patients with functional dyspepsia according to Rome III criteria underwent symptom, anxiety, depression, and somatization evaluation, gastric barostat test, and gastric emptying time evaluation for solids. Fifteen age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (HVs) were also enrolled as a control group.RESULTS:In PDS patients, the prevalence of both fasting and postprandial hypersensitivity was higher than in EPS patients, and the extent of postprandial reduction of discomfort threshold was significantly correlated with symptom severity. In EPS patients, gastric volume at fasting discomfort threshold and fasting compliance were significantly lower than in PDS patients. Gastric emptying time and gastric accommodation were similar between the two dyspeptic groups. Dyspeptic patients showed a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders than HVs, but the prevalence was similar between PDS and EPS patients.CONCLUSIONS:Fasting and postprandial hypersensitivity characterize PDS patients and a reduction of gastric compliance is present in EPS patients. However, the pathophysiology of EPS appears more complex than PDS and further studies are needed to analyze central processing and integration of afferent pathways in order to clarify the role of the central nervous system in this condition.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 9 September 2014; doi:10.1038/ajg.2014.231.
    The American Journal of Gastroenterology 09/2014; 109(10). DOI:10.1038/ajg.2014.231 · 9.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, thanks to the development of miniaturized ultrasound devices, comparable to personal computers, tablets and even to smart phones, we have seen an increasing use of bedside ultrasound in internal medicine departments as a novel kind of ultrasound stethoscope. The clinical ultrasound-assisted approach has proved to be particularly useful in assessing patients with nodules of the neck, dyspnoea, abdominal pain, and with limb edema. In several cases, it has allowed a simple, rapid and precise diagnosis. Since 2005, the Italian Society of Internal Medicine and its Ultrasound Study Group has been holding a Summer School and training courses in ultrasound for residents in internal medicine. A national network of schools in bedside ultrasound was then organized for internal medicine specialists who want to learn this technique. Because bedside ultrasound is a user-dependent diagnostic method, it is important to define the limits and advantages of different new ultrasound devices, to classify them (i.e. Echoscopy and Point of Care Ultrasound), to establish appropriate different levels of competence and to ensure their specific training. In this review, we describe the point of view of the Italian Internal Medicine Society on these topics.
    Internal and Emergency Medicine 08/2014; 9(7). DOI:10.1007/s11739-014-1113-4 · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Coeliac disease is a common enteropathy characterized by an increased mortality mainly due to its complications. The natural history of complicated coeliac disease is characterised by two different types of course: patients with a new diagnosis of coeliac disease that do not improve despite a strict gluten-free diet (type A cases) and previously diagnosed coeliac patients that initially improved on a gluten-free diet but then relapsed despite a strict diet (type B cases). Our aim was to study the prognosis and survival of A and B cases. Methods Clinical and laboratory data from coeliac patients who later developed complications (A and B cases) and sex- and age-matched coeliac patients who normally responded to a gluten-free diet (controls) were collected among 11 Italian centres. Results 87 cases and 136 controls were enrolled. Complications tended to occur rapidly after the diagnosis of coeliac disease and cumulative survival dropped in the first months after diagnosis of complicated coeliac disease. Thirty-seven cases died (30/59 in group A, 7/28 in group B). Type B cases presented an increased survival rate compared to A cases. Conclusions Complicated coeliac disease is an extremely serious condition with a high mortality and a short survival. Survival depends on the type of natural history.
    BMC Gastroenterology 08/2014; 14(1):139. DOI:10.1186/1471-230X-14-139 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The clinical presentation of organic and functional intestinal disorders can overlap and clinicians often rely on invasive and time-consuming procedures to make a final diagnosis. Regenerating islet-derived 3-alpha (Reg3α) is detectable in the circulation of patients with intestinal graft-versus host disease and patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).AimTo determine whether serum Reg3α testing is useful for discriminating mucosal enteropathies from functional intestinal disorders.Methods We prospectively included 47 patients with active coeliac disease (ACD), 13 patients with refractory coeliac disease (RCD), seven patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), 72 patients with active Crohn's disease, 22 patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC) and 28 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-related diarrhoea. Sera were also taken from 10 CD patients before and after 6–12 months of a gluten-free diet (GFD) and from 14 patients with IBD before and after induction therapy with Infliximab (IFX). Sera of 119 healthy volunteers were used to determine the cut-off value. Reg3α levels were measured by a commercial ELISA kit.ResultsLevels of Reg3α exceeded the cut-off value of the assay in 43/47(91%) ACD patients, 13/13(100%) RCD patients, 7/7(100%) CVID patients, 65/72(90%) Crohn's disease patients, 17/22(77%) UC patients and one patient with IBS(4%). Reg3α levels distinguished mucosal enteropathies from IBS with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 96%. Reg3α levels significantly decreased in CD patients following a GFD and in IBD patients after treatment with IFX.Conclusion Reg3α is a serum biomarker of intestinal damage that, combined with clinical data, identifies patients who should undergo invasive tests for diagnosing enteropathies.
    Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 08/2014; 40(8). DOI:10.1111/apt.12920 · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) represents a major health-care problem, needing an extensive and strict thrombosis prevention for stroke and cardiovascular (CV) disease risks. NVAF management guidelines recommend adequate antithrombotic and anti-atherosclerotic therapies. Medication adherence has been recognized as a pivotal element in health quality promotion and in the achievement of better clinical outcomes. We conducted a post-hoc analysis of the "Atrial fibrillation Registry for Ankle-brachial index Prevalence Assessment-Collaborative Italian Study (ARAPACIS)" with the aim of discerning differences in pharmacological management and medication adherence among NVAF Italian patients. Furthermore, data were analysed according to Italian geographical macro-regions (North, Center, South) to evaluate whether socioeconomic conditions might also influence medication adherence. Thus, we selected 1,366 NVAF patients that fulfilled the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-4 items. Regional disparities in drug prescriptions were observed. In particular, in high-risk patients (CHA2DS2-VASc ≥2) oral anticoagulants were more prescribed in Northern and Center patients (61 and 60 %, respectively) compared to 53 % of high-risk Southern patients. Also, medication adherence showed a progressive decrease from North to South (78 vs. 60 %, p < 0.001). This disparity was independent of the number of drugs consumed for any reason, since prevalence of poly-therapy among the three macro-regions was similar. Our results show regional differences in NVAF patients' antithrombotic management and medication adherence, potentially reflecting well-known disparities in socioeconomic status among Italian regions. Future interventions promoting campaigns to global health-care education may be desirable to improve clinical outcomes in NVAF patients.
    Internal and Emergency Medicine 07/2014; 10(2). DOI:10.1007/s11739-014-1096-1 · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Patients affected by primary immunodeficiency usually undergo a wide range of infections, including reactivation of latent ones. Here we report two cases suffering from late-onset combined immunodeficiency in which ulcerative enteritis due to human Cytomegalovirus caused a life-threatening malabsorption syndrome. Methods The assessment of the viral load was carried out on both blood and mucosal samples by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. The generation of autologous virus-specific cytotoxic T cell lines was performed according to Good Manufacturing Practice protocol after peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected through a single leukapheresis. Results In both patients, the viral load resulted negligible in peripheral blood, but very high in mucosal specimens (range 1.064 - 1.031.692 copies/105 cells). After two rounds of antiviral therapy proved unsuccessful, the generation of virus-specific cytotoxic T cell lines was carried out despite severe lymphopenia, and their infusion resulted safe and durably effective in healing intestinal ulcerations and resetting the viral load. Conclusions Virus-specific cellular therapy was useful in reconstituting specific immunity and treating severe human Cytomegalovirus-related enteritis in patients with primary immunodeficiency.
    Journal of Clinical Immunology 06/2014; 34(6). DOI:10.1007/s10875-014-0060-1 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. Coeliac disease is a chronic enteropathy requiring a close follow-up. However, the best way to follow up coeliac patients has not yet been established. In the last 14 years, we have been offering patients a thorough series of periodical examinations including a histological re-evaluation at 12-18 months. Patients and methods. The notes of all coeliac patients attending our clinic between September 1999 and March 2013 were examined. Results. Data from 317 adult patients were collected. Duodenal biopsy showed a lack of satisfactory histological response in 25/317 patients; endomysial antibodies were still positive in 76, and diet adherence and clinical response were unsatisfactory in 58 and 97, respectively. Correlations of serological data, clinical response, and diet adherence with histological findings were evaluated. Although the P values showed statistically significant differences, sensitivity and specificity were disappointing: 64% and 80% for serological response, 48% and 71% for clinical response, 56% and 85% for diet adherence. Conclusions. After 12-18 months on a gluten-free diet, 8% of the patients do not present a satisfactory histological response; only some of them could have been identified with a serological and/or clinical re-evaluation. Therefore, a duodenal biopsy seems to be the only tool that could identify patients with unsatisfactory histological response.
    Annals of Medicine 05/2014; 46(6):1-4. DOI:10.3109/07853890.2014.913378 · 4.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

9k Citations
3,249.45 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2015
    • University of Pavia
      • • Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine
      • • Department of Molecular Medicine
      Ticinum, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2001–2014
    • Policlinico San Matteo Pavia Fondazione IRCCS
      Ticinum, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2013
    • Sapienza University of Rome
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2009
    • University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein
      Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany
    • Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù
      Roma, Latium, Italy
    • Ospedale Maggiore Carlo Alberto Pizzardi di Bologna
      Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 1983–2008
    • University of Bologna
      • • Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine DIMES
      • • School of Medicine
      Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 2007
    • University of Florence
      Florens, Tuscany, Italy
  • 1991–2007
    • Università degli Studi dell'Aquila
      • • Department of Experimental Medicine
      • • SS in Internal Medicine
      • • SS in Clinical Pathology
      • • Department of Internal Medicine and Public Health
      Aquila, Abruzzo, Italy
  • 2006
    • Università degli studi di Parma
      Parma, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 2002
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2000
    • Università degli Studi di Palermo
      Palermo, Sicily, Italy
  • 1998
    • The Catholic University of America
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
    • Clínica Palermo
      Santa Rosalía de Guagua, Huila, Colombia
  • 1997
    • Catholic University of the Sacred Heart
      • Institute of Internal and Geriatric Medicine
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1995–1997
    • University of Milan
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1993
    • Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi
      Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy