[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Children are one of the groups with the highest mortality rate on the waiting list for LT. Primary closure of the abdominal wall is often impossible in the pediatric population, due to a size mismatch between a large graft and a small recipient. We present a retrospective cohort study of six pediatric patients, who underwent delayed abdominal wall closure with a biological mesh after LT, and in whom early closure was impossible. A non-cross-linked porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix (Strattice™ Reconstructive Tissue Matrix; LifeCell Corp, Bridgewater, NJ, USA) was used in all of the cases of the series. After a mean follow-up of 26 months (21–32 months), all patients were asymptomatic, with a functional abdominal wall after physical examination. Non-cross-linked porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix (Strattice™) is a good alternative for delayed abdominal wall closure after pediatric LT. Randomized controlled trials are necessary to determine the best moment and the best technique for abdominal wall closure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal failure (RF) is a frequent complication in non-renal solid organ transplants. In the present study, we analyze our experience with intestinal transplants (ITx).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The liver retransplantation rate in Spain is about 6%. The main causes are primary nonfunction, vascular complications, chronic rejection, and recurrent liver disease. The results of this procedure are worse than those of first transplantations.
This retrospective study evaluated our experience with 54 retransplantations performed between January 1992 and December 2006, which were 5.6% of the 960 orthotopic liver transplantations (OLT) during this period.
In this study, 34.7% of the retransplantations were performed between 4 and 30 days after the first transplantation; another 34.7% were within 1 year. Also, 48.9% of the retransplantations were performed in urgent situations. The main causes for retransplantation during the first month were primary hepatic failure (n = 14) and vascular complications (n = 4). After the first month the main causes were chronic rejection (n = 9), recurrence of hepatic disease (n = 3), and biliary complications (n = 4). Postoperative mortality was 23.9% and morbidity was 76.3%. However, 21.2% of the patients needed a third transplant. The overall rate of patient survival was 60.4% (n = 32) and of graft survival was 56.6% (n = 30). The 5-year actuarial graft survival rate was 65.4% with a mean survival time of 89.84 +/- 8.72 months; the 5-year patient survival rate was 64% with a mean survival time of 114.7 +/- 12.53 months. Worse survival was observed in chronic rejection and in retransplantations performed between 31 and 360 days.
Liver retransplantation presents greater surgical complexity than the first transplantation, but is a good option for patients with failure of the first graft with a 5-year patient and graft survival rate greater than 65%.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Solid organ recipients are at high risk to develop malignancies due to the complex interactions of several factors, constituting a major cause of late death after transplantation.
We retrospectively reviewed an historic cohort of adult liver recipients from cadaveric donors (multiorgan recipients excluded) performed from 1986-2002 with a minimum follow-up of 36 months. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess cumulative risk to develop malignancy and survival analyses.
Among the 528 patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) with a mean follow-up of 2400 days, 98 developed cancer among which 25% were skin malignancies. Sixty-seven patients developed at least 1 noncutaneous malignancy, an overall incidence of 12.7%. Eighteen percent suffered from posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease; 14%, lung cancer; 4%, Kaposi's sarcoma; 7%, genitourinary malignancies; and 17%, oropharyngeal or laryngeal cancer. The cumulative patient risks to develop noncutaneous malignancies at 5, 10, and 15 years posttransplantation were 9% (confidence interval [CI]: 0.06-0.11), 18% (CI: 0.14-0.23), and 25% (CI: 0.18-0.31), respectively.
OLT recipients are at higher risk to develop malignancies after transplantation, reaching a cumulative risk of 25% at 15 years. Long-term surveillance measures and screening programs must be seriously conducted for selected groups.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nocardiosis is an infrequent disease that affects patients who display a cellular immunodeficiency, such as transplant recipients on immunosuppressive treatment, but uncommonly associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Disseminated Nocardiosis affecting the central nervous system (CNS), abdomen, skin, and lungs has been described in bone marrow, lung, and kidney transplant recipients. However, to our knowledge, no cases involving all of these structures have been reported in liver transplant recipients. Herein, we have reported a case of CNS, pulmonary, and cutaneous nocardiosis in a liver transplant recipient who experienced hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and received the organ from a non-heart-beating donor. At posttransplantation month 7 the patient was admitted to the emergency department with poor general health status, fever, edema, and subcutaneous nodules in the legs. A computed tomography scan revealed multiple nodules disseminated through both lungs, abdomen, brain, and subcutaneous tissue. A needle biopsy was performed into one of the subcutaneous nodules. Cultures of the material tested positive for Nocardia farcinica. Thus, we started treatment with intravenous sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMZ-TMP), shifting after 1 month to oral therapy. Radiological examination performed after 2 weeks of treatment showed a 70% reduction in subcutaneous, pulmonary, and cerebral lesions. After 6 months of SMZ-TMP treatment, the patient remained free of the symptoms with involution of the subcutaneous nodules and significant radiological improvement. Among opportunistic infections appearing in liver transplant recipients, Nocardia species should have special consideration according to the success of early treatment and the bad prognosis in cases of delayed diagnosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a disorder caused by the Taenia solium larva. It is the most common parasitosis of the central nervous system (CNS). Its distribution is universal, but it is endemic in many developing countries and in the third world. In Spain most patients come from countries where the condition is endemic. However, sporadic cases occur among the population of rural regions. NCC in transplant recipients is uncommon. One renal transplant recipient developed NCC but responded to treatment with praziquantel. Recently, it has been reported to complicate a liver transplantation.
The patient was a 49-year-old Ecuatorian man who received a cadaveric donor liver graft in June 2001 due to acute liver failure induced by toadstool and was under treatment with FK506. In January 2006, the patient presented with a generalized onset of a tonic-clonic seizure for 1 minute without sphincter incontinence, headache, fever, or previous brain trauma. Neurological evaluation did not show evidence of organic brain dysfunction. The neuroimaging findings (brain) computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging were compatible with NCC: many cystic lesions intra- and extraparenchymatous with a scolex visible in three of them. Serology for cysticercosis in plasma was initially indeterminate but positive afterward. The patient was treated with anticonvulsivants (valproic acid) and albendazole. Systemic steroids were added in order to reduce the edema produced upon death of the cyst. Treatment lasted 3 weeks and it was completed without complications or neurological symptoms. Liver function was not affected. One year later the patient remained asymptomatic.
NCC is a condition that must be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with CNS involvement and cystic lesions on neuroimaging investigations in transplant recipients, especially patients originating from or traveling to endemic areas. First-line therapy for active cysts includes antiparasitic drugs (albendazole or praziquantel) as well as steroids and anticonvulsivants. In our patient, this therapy was effective.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skin tumors are the most common malignancies after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). They have been related to sunlight exposure, tobacco consumption, and immunosuppression. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of de novo skin tumors (nonmelanoma) in patients who underwent liver transplantation for alcoholic cirrhosis versus nonalcoholic diseases.
Between April 1986 and July 2004, we performed 1000 OLT in a population of 888 recipients. This study was performed in a sample of 701 adult recipients who survived >2 months after transplantation: 276 patients (39.4%) underwent OLT for alcoholic cirrhosis (AC-group), and 425 (60.6%) for nonalcoholic disease (N-AC). The overall incidence of de novo skin tumors was 3.5% (25 tumors): 5.4% (15 tumors) in the AC-group and 2.4% (10 tumors) in the N-AC group (P = .027). Two patients developed two tumors. There were 19 men and 4 women, mean age at OLT of 54.4 +/- 6.8 years (range, 40 to 66 years). The mean time from OLT to tumor diagnosis was 66.1 +/- 51.4 months (range, 3 to 165 months): 56.4 +/- 44.4 months in the AC-group versus 80.6 +/- 59.8 months in the N-AC group (P = NS). Histologically, 17 tumors (68%) were basal cell carcinomas and eight tumors (32%) were squamous cell carcinomas (P = .128). Fourteen patients (60.8%) were smokers: 11 patients (84.6%) in the AC-group versus 3 patients (30%) in the N-AC group (P = .012). All the patients underwent tumor resection, with only one patient dying, because of lymph node invasion of the neck.
There was a higher incidence of de novo skin tumors among patients who smoked who underwent OLT for alcoholic cirrhosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: short-bowel transplantation has experienced a substantial growth worldwide following improved results from the late 1990's on, and its coverage by Medicare. According to the International Registry (1985-2005), a total of 1,292 intestinal transplants for 1,210 patients in 65 hospitals across 20 countries have been carried out thus far.
to know short-term (6 months) results regarding patient and graft survival from the first Spanish series of intestinal transplants in adult recipients.
we present our experience in the assessment of 20 potential candidates to short-bowel transplantation between June 2004 and October 2005. Of these, 10 patients were rejected and 4 were transplanted, which makes up the sample of our study.
to this date 5 transplants have been carried out in 4 patients (2 retransplants, 2 desmoid tumors, 1 short bowel syndrome after excision as a result of mesenteric ischemia). Upon study completion and after a mean follow-up of 180 days (range 90-190 days) all recipients are alive, and all grafts but one (75%) are fully operational, with complete digestive autonomy. All patients received induction with alemtuzumab except one, who received thymoglobulin; in all induction was initiated with no steroids.
intestinal transplantation represents a therapeutic option that is applicable in our setting and valid for recipients with an indication who have no other feasible alternative to keep their intestinal failure under control.
Revista espanola de enfermedades digestivas: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Patologia Digestiva 11/2006; 98(10):723-39. · 1.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: short-bowel transplantation has experienced a substantial growth worldwide following improved results from the late 1990s on, and its coverage by Medicare. According to the International Registry (1985-2005), a total of 1,292 intestinal trasplants for 1,210 patients in 65 hospitals across 20 countries have been carried out thus far. Objective: to know short-term (6 months) results regarding patient and graft survival from the first Spanish series of intestinal transplants in adult recipients. Material and methods: we present our experience in the assessment of 20 potential candidates to short-bowel transplantation between June 2004 and October 2005. Of these, 10 patients were rejected and 4 were transplanted, which makes up the sample of our study. Results: to this date 5 transplants have been carried out in 4 patients (2 retransplants, 2 desmoid tumors, 1 short bowel syndrome after excision as a result of mesenteric ischemia). Upon study completion and after a mean follow-up of 180 days (range 90-190 days) all recipients are alive, and all grafts but one (75%) are fully operational, with complete digestive autonomy. All patients received induction with alemtuzumab except one, who received thymoglobulin; in all induction was initiated with no steroids. Conclusions: intestinal transplantation represents a therapeutic option that is applicable in our setting and valid for recipients with an indication who have no other feasible alternative to keep their intestinal failure under control.
Revista espanola de enfermedades digestivas: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Patologia Digestiva 10/2006; 98(10):723-739. · 1.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Living donor liver transplantation has emerged as a response to the cadaveric graft shortage, especially for adult recipients. Both right and left liver grafts are widely used, although some technical problems remain unresolved. Herein we describe our technique for reconstruction of the venous outflow in living donor liver transplantation.
From April 1986 to September 2004, 1012 liver transplantations were performed including 30 living donor liver transplantations between April 1995 and September 2004. We have selected the first 28 cases to ensure a mean follow-up of 21.07 +/- 13.11 months. We transplanted 18 right lobe grafts, 7 left lobe grafts, and 3 left lateral segment grafts. A surgical technique is described herein.
No venous outflow obstruction developed among living donor liver transplantation recipients.
We recommend reconstruction of the hepatic veins in living donor liver transplantation including joining together the three hepatic veins in the recipient to avoid venous outflow obstruction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Living donor liver transplantation was first described as a way to alleviate the organ shortage. Extensive studies of both the prospective donor and the recipient are necessary to ensure successful outcome. In this paper we describe our results in 28 living donor liver transplantations from the perspective of the donor and the recipient.
A prospective, longitudinal, observational, comparative study was conducted from April 1995 to October 2004, including 28 living donor liver transplantations.
After a mean follow-up time of 25.6 +/- 20.58 months, all donors are alive, showing normal liver function tests. All of them have been reincorporated into their normal lives. At the end of the study and after a mean follow-up time of 21.2 +/- 14.3 months, 86.3% of the adult recipients are alive. Actuarial recipient survivals at 6, 12, and 36 months were 86.36%. Actuarial mean survival time was 44 months (95% CI, 37 to 51). At the end of the study, 77.3% of the grafts are functioning. Actuarial graft survivals at 6, 12, and 36 months were 77.27%. Actuarial mean graft survival time was 32 months (95% CI, 25 to 39). The main complications were hepatic artery thrombosis (n = 2) and small for-size syndrome (n = 2). At a mean follow-up of 20.33 +/- 7.74 months, all pediatric recipients are alive. Actuarial recipient survivals at 12 and 36 months were 100% and actuarial graft survivals were 80%.
Living donor liver transplantation may increase the liver graft pool, and therefore reduce waiting list mortality. Nevertheless caution must be deserved to avoid surgical morbidity and mortality in with the donor the recipient.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biliary anastomosis during liver transplantation can be safely performed using an end-to-end choledochocholedochostomy, with or without a T tube. The objective of this study was to determine whether the insertion of a T tube was related to more postoperative complications.
Between April 1986 and September 2004, we performed a retrospective, longitudinal, and comparative study of 1012 liver transplantations, including 50 adult recipients with a T tube and a control group with a choledochocholedochostomy without a T tube.
T tube insertion was associated with more postoperative complications and worse actuarial survival of both the recipient and graft, though these differences did not reach statistical significance.
The duct-to-duct biliary anastomosis stented with a T tube tends to be associated with more postoperative complications. Based on this analysis, we recommend the performance of a nonstented anastomosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liver transplantation (OLT) has been advocated for patients with carcinoma hepatocellular (HCC). A preoperative biopsy (fine needle aspiration biopsy) [FNA] facilitates preoperative diagnosis of adverse pathological factors: vascular invasion or histologicalic differentiation. But a biopsy may cause abdominal dissemination and be related to a higher incidence of recurrence.
From April 1986 to December 2003, we performed 95 OLT for HCC. We divided them in two groups: group A without FNA-biopsy (67.9%) and group B with FNA-biopsy (32.1%).
We obtained the diagnosis of HCC in only 15 patients (57.6%). In two patients an OLT was avoided due to the presence of abdominal dissemination at the time of transplant. Recurrence incidence was higher among group B patients (5.9% vs 31.8%; P = .003) due to extrahepatic recurrence (2% vs 27.3%; P = .003). No differences were observed in morbidity or mortality. The two groups were homogeneous in epidemiological and pathological variables except: sex distribution, Child status, AFP level, tumor size, and pTNM stage. If we compare recurrence rates in the two groups attending to these nonhomogeneous variables, it was significantly higher among patients with tumors larger than 3 cm, pTNM I-III stage, Child B-C, AFP >200 ng/mL, and males or females.
Preoperative liver biopsy is associated with a larger incidence of tumor recurrence, so we believe that it is not necessary prior to an OLT for HCC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report three cases of Kaposi's sarcoma after orthotopic liver transplantation performed for cirrhosis related to hepatitis C virus (one case), ethanol (one case), or both (one case). All patients displayed disease within the first year after liver transplantation, and only in one case was the diagnosis obtained before the patient died. All three patients were on tacrolimus-steroid therapy, and in one case mycophenolate mofetil was added to treat acute persistent rejection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Living donor liver transplantation represents a controversial option to increase the donor pool.
Prospective and descriptive clinical study.
(1) To identify risk factors (exclusion criteria) for live donation; (2) to determine the rate of recipients that benefit from a living donor.
Between May 1995 (first adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation in Spain) and November 2002, we evaluated 74 healthy volunteers and performed 12 living donor liver transplants (no donor mortality).
All actual donors and volunteers are alive and healthy. After a mean time of 3.2+/-0.5 weeks, 72% of potential donors were considered unsuitable for live donation. Exclusion criteria were grouped in three categories: (primary) donor safety reasons (68%); (secondary): ABO mismatch (17%) and (tertiary): cadaveric graft transplantation (15%). Consequently, just 43.7% of the recipients presenting to us with a potential living donor, did finally benefit from these organs. The mortality rate was 8.3% for 43 recipients presenting with a living donor in comparison to 15% for those who did not (321 recipients between May 1995 and November 2001).
ALDLT can benefit a significant number of recipients on the waiting list (43.7% of those presenting with a donor). The most frequent exclusion criteria concern donor safety, namely, unsuspected chronic liver diseases and unsuspected thrombophilic disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Currently liver transplantation is the treatment of choice for early hepatocellular carcinoma and end-stage liver disease. We analyzed our experience to identify factors that could be used to select patients who will benefit from liver transplantation.
From April 1986 to December 2001, 71 (8.7%) of 816 LT performed in our institution, were for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. In 25 patients the tumor was observed incidental by (35.2%). All patients had liver cirrhosis, most due to hepatitis C related (35) or alcoholic (14) diseases. Before liver transplantation, chemoembolization was performed in 18 patients (25.4%).
Bilateral involvement was present in seven patients. Eight patients showed macroscopic vascular invasion, and eight others showed satellite nodules. Most patients were stage TNM II (29) and IVa (16). Overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival were 79.3%, 61%, and 50.3% with recurrence-free survivals of 74.6%, 57.5%, and 49%, respectively. With a mean follow-up of 42 months, 12 patients (19%) developed recurrence and 29 patients died (only 11 due to recurrence). Stage TNM IVa, macroscopic vascular invasion, and the presence of satellite nodules significantly affected overall survival and recurrence-free survival rates and histologic differentiation and bilateral involvement only recurrence-free survival. Patients with solitary tumors less than 5 cm or no more than three nodules smaller than 3 cm showed better recurrence-free survival and lower recurrence rates.
In our experience, liver transplantation proffers good recurrence-free survival and low recurrence rates among patients with limited tumor extension. The most important prognostic factor was macroscopic vascular invasion.