Johann G Thalhammer

University of Veterinary Medicine in Vienna, Wien, Vienna, Austria

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Publications (34)80.43 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background Many dogs suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are presented to veterinary clinics. These patients are diagnosed based on a history of chronic gastrointestinal signs and biopsy-confirmed histopathologic intestinal inflammation. Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) are part of the first line of defense in the gastrointestinal immune system. Alterations in IEL subsets may play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD.HypothesisThe aim of this study was to characterize the phenotypes of IEL in dogs with IBD compared with healthy control dogs.AnimalsIntestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes subpopulations of control dogs (n = 5) obtained from endoscopic biopsies (EB) were compared to those obtained from full thickness biopsies (FTB) on the same day. In addition, the phenotypes of IEL from FTB of control dogs (n = 10) were compared with EB of IBD dogs (n = 10). Each participant was scored clinically using the canine inflammatory bowel disease activity index (CIBDAI), and all samples were graded histopathologically. Three-color flow cytometry of isolated IEL was performed using monoclonal antibodies against T- and B-lymphocyte subpopulations.ResultsNo significant differences in the composition of IEL subpopulations were found in control dogs based on method of biopsy. The IBD dogs had significantly higher CIBDAI and histopathologic scores compared with control dogs and their IEL contained a significantly higher frequency TCRγδ T-cells.Conclusions and Clinical ImportanceEndoscopic biopsies provide suitable samples for 3-color flow cytometry when studying canine intestinal IEL and IBD patients show significant changes of major T-cell subsets compared to healthy control dogs.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 09/2014; · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Treatment-resistant complex partial seizures (CPS) with orofacial involvement recently were reported in cats in association with hippocampal pathology. The features had some similarity to those described in humans with limbic encephalitis and voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibody. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate cats with CPS and orofacial involvement for the presence of VGKC-complex antibody. ANIMALS: Client-owned cats with acute orofacial CPS and control cats were investigated. METHODS: Prospective study. Serum was collected from 14 cats in the acute stage of the disease and compared with 19 controls. VGKC-complex antibodies were determined by routine immunoprecipitation and by binding to leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2), the 2 main targets of VGKC-complex antibodies in humans. RESULTS: Five of the 14 affected cats, but none of the 19 controls, had VGKC-complex antibody concentrations above the cut-off concentration (>100 pmol/L) based on control samples and similar to those found in humans. Antibodies in 4 cats were directed against LGI1, and none were directed against CASPR2. Follow-up sera were available for 5 cats in remission and all antibody concentrations were within the reference range. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Our study suggests that an autoimmune limbic encephalitis exists in cats and that VGKC-complex/LGI1 antibodies may play a role in this disorder, as they are thought to in humans.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 12/2012; · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report an evaluation of the treatment and outcome of cats with suspected primary epilepsy. Phenobarbital therapy was used alone or in combination with other anti-epileptic drugs. Outcome after treatment was evaluated mainly on the basis of number of seizures per year and categorised into four groups: seizure-free, good control (1-5 seizures per year), moderate control (6-10 seizures per year) and poor control (more than 10 seizures per year). About 40-50% of cases became seizure-free, 20-30% were considered good-to-moderately controlled and about 30% were poorly controlled depending on the year of treatment considered. The duration of seizure events after treatment decreased in 26/36 cats and was unchanged in eight cats. The subjective severity of seizure also decreased in 25 cats and was unchanged in nine cats. Twenty-six cats had a good quality of life, nine cats an impaired quality of life and one cat a bad quality of life. Despite being free of seizures for years, cessation of treatment may lead to recurrence of seizures in most cats.
    Journal of feline medicine and surgery. 10/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: The main aim of this study was to identify interictal epileptiform discharges in a group of dogs with seizures of known aetiology (symptomatic epilepsy, SE) and in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (IE). Propofol was used for chemical restraint in all dogs. We found electroencephalographic (EEG) changes that could be considered epileptiform discharges (EDs) in 5 out of 40 dogs (12.5%). The EEG changes identified were spikes in four cases and periodic epileptiform discharges in one case. All EDs were seen in the SE group. We conclude that the interictal electroencephalographic examinations of propofolanaesthetised dogs suffering from IE and SE rarely show epileptic discharges and that the diagnostic value of such EEGs in the work-up for epilepsy seems to be low as epileptic discharges were unlikely to be detected. However, positive findings are more likely to be connected with SE. We found frequent, transient EEG phenomena (spindles, K-complexes, vertex waves, positive occipital sharp transients of sleep, cyclic alternating patterns), which are non-epileptic but their differentiation from epileptic phenomena is challenging.
    Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 09/2012; 60(3):309-24. · 1.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To facilitate comparative oncology trials we compared the biological and molecular homologies of canine (dog; Canis lupus familiaris) and human tumor-associated antigens ErbB-1 and -2. Further, we investigated whether they could serve as targets for anti-ErbB-1 (cetuximab) and anti-ErbB-2 antibodies (trastuzumab), which are highly relevant in human clinical oncology. Immunohistochemistry of canine mammary cancer showed ErbB-1 overexpression in 3/10 patients and ErbB-2 in 4/10. We report 91% amino acid homology for ErbB-1 and 92% for ErbB-2 between canine and human molecules. Modeling of canine on human ErbB-1 revealed that the cetuximab epitope only differs by 4 amino acids: Lys443 is replaced by Arg, Ser468 by Asn, Gly471 by Asp, and Asn473 by Lys in canines. The trastuzumab binding site is identical in human and canine ErbB-2 apart from a single amino acid change (Pro557 to Ser). Binding of cetuximab and trastuzumab to canine mammary carcinoma cells CF33, CF41, Sh1b and P114 was confirmed by flow cytometry. Both antibodies significantly inhibited canine tumor cell proliferation partly due to growth arrest in G(0)/G(1) phase. We explain the lower efficiency on the tested canine than on human SKBR3 and A431 cells, by a 2-log lower expression level of the canine ErbB-1 and -2 molecules. Our results indicate significant homology of human and canine Erb-1 and -2 tumor associated antigens. The fact that the canine homologues express the cetuximab and trastuzumab epitopes may facilitate antibody-based immunotherapy in dogs. Importantly, the striking similarities of ErbB-1 and -2 molecules open up avenues towards comparative strategies for targeted drug development.
    Molecular Immunology 04/2012; 50(4):200-9. · 2.65 Impact Factor
  • N Affenzeller, J G Thalhammer, M Willmann
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    ABSTRACT: A subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring system (GlucoDay; Menarini Diagnostics) based on microdialysis was investigated for its clinical applicability in veterinary medicine. Ten diabetic dogs, referred as clinically stable, were equipped with this system and sent home for a maximum observation period of 48 hours. Time of insulin administration, feeding and other events were written in a diary and plotted afterwards in the glucose graph. Implantation of the microdialysis fibre, acceptance of the device and evaluation of individual canine glucose profiles were without complication. Based on the monitoring data, recommended treatment adjustments were given to the referring veterinarians in all 10 dogs; hypoglycaemic or prolonged hyperglycaemic episodes were detected in six dogs.
    The Veterinary record. 08/2011; 169(8):206.
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    ABSTRACT: Seventeen cats were presented with acute onset of complex partial seizures with orofacial involvement (salivation, facial twitching, lip smacking, chewing, licking or swallowing), motor arrest (motionless starring) and behavioural changes. In 11 cats hippocampal necrosis (HN) was confirmed by histopathology. In a further six cats hippocampal changes were suggested by magnetic resonance imaging. The mean monitoring time of eight cats which were not euthanased in the acute phase of the disease, was 408 days (60-908): four cats are still alive. In all surviving cases, the owners reported a good quality of life. We conclude that an acute cluster of complex partial seizures with orofacial involvement are often associated with HN and that HN is not necessarily a fatal condition. Supportive and antiepileptic therapy can result in remission. The long-term outcome can be good to excellent; therefore, euthanasia should be avoided in the acute phase of the signs.
    Journal of feline medicine and surgery. 07/2011; 13(10):687-93.
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) may affect excretion and metabolism of vitamins but data for dogs are limited. In this study, blood vitamin levels were investigated in 19 dogs with chronic renal failure. High performance liquid chromatography was used to quantify retinol, retinyl esters, tocopherol, thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, ascorbic acid and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentrations, whereas cobalamin, folate, biotin and pantothenic acid were measured by microbiological methods. Levels of retinol, retinyl palmitate, ascorbic acid, and vitamins B1, B2 and B6 were increased compared to healthy dogs. Dogs with CKD showed decreased concentrations of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and folate. Alpha-tocopherol, biotin, pantothenate and cobalamin levels were not significantly different between controls and dogs with CKD. Whether lower vitamin D and folate concentrations in dogs with CKD justify supplementation has to be evaluated in future studies.
    The Veterinary Journal 07/2011; 192(2):226-31. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis, which is essential for malignancies to progress, depends on various signalling proteins including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2 (VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2). Microvessel density (MVD) is frequently used to evaluate angiogenesis. This study assessed the relationship between expression of VEGF, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, MVD and the survival time in dogs with lymphoma. VEGF, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 expression was evaluated immunohistochemically and microvessel profiles were counted in 34 lymphoma samples. Seventy-nine percent of the samples showed high VEGF expression and 62% were highly positive for VEGFR-1; VEGFR-2 immunoreactivity was mostly negative. Dogs treated with chemotherapy had a median survival time of 266days, but no significant relationships were found between overall survival time, MVD and expression of VEGF, VEGFR-1 or VEGFR-2. In this study, VEGF its receptors and the MVD were no prognostic factors in dogs with lymphoma.
    Research in Veterinary Science 05/2011; 92(3):444-50. · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Comparative oncology aims at speeding up developments for both, human and companion animal cancer patients. Following this line, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, CEACAM5) could be a therapeutic target not only for human but also for canine (Canis lupus familiaris; dog) patients. CEACAM5 interacts with CEA-receptor (CEAR) in the cytoplasm of human cancer cells. Our aim was, therefore, to phylogenetically verify the antigenic relationship of CEACAM molecules and CEAR in human and canine cancer.Anti-human CEACAM5 antibody Col-1, previously being applied for cancer diagnosis in dogs, immunohistochemically reacted to 23 out of 30 canine mammary cancer samples. In immunoblot analyses Col-1 specifically detected human CEACAM5 at 180 kDa in human colon cancer cells HT29, and the canine antigen at 60, 120, or 180 kDa in CF33 and CF41 mammary carcinoma cells as well as in spontaneous mammary tumors. While according to phylogenicity canine CEACAM1 molecules should be most closely related to human CEACAM5, Col-1 did not react with canine CEACAM1, -23, -24, -25, -28 or -30 transfected to canine TLM-1 cells. By flow cytometry the Col-1 target molecule was localized intracellularly in canine CF33 and CF41 cells, in contrast to membranous and cytoplasmic expression of human CEACAM5 in HT29. Col-1 incubation had neither effect on canine nor human cancer cell proliferation. Yet, Col-1 treatment decreased AKT-phosphorylation in canine CF33 cells possibly suggestive of anti-apoptotic function, whereas Col-1 increased AKT-phosphorylation in human HT29 cells. We report further a 99% amino acid similarity of human and canine CEA receptor (CEAR) within the phylogenetic tree. CEAR could be detected in four canine cancer cell lines by immunoblot and intracellularly in 10 out of 10 mammary cancer specimens from dog by immunohistochemistry. Whether the specific canine Col-1 target molecule may as functional analogue to human CEACAM5 act as ligand to canine CEAR, remains to be defined. This study demonstrates the limitations of comparative oncology due to the complex functional evolution of the different CEACAM molecules in humans versus dogs. In contrast, CEAR may be a comprehensive interspecies target for novel cancer therapeutics.
    PLoS currents. 01/2011; 3:RRN1223.
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study 125 cats with recurrent seizures were analysed. The main goal was to investigate the aetiology and compare primary epilepsy (PE) with secondary epilepsy (SE) regarding signalment, history, ictal pattern, clinical and neurological findings. Seizure aetiology was classified as PE in 47 (38%) and SE in 78 (62%) cats. SE was caused mainly by intracranial neoplasia (16), hippocampal necrosis (14), toxicosis (eight), and encephalitis (seven). A significant difference between PE and SE was found in: age, body weight, duration of seizure, occurrence of status epilepticus and neurological deficits. Status epilepticus, altered interictal neurological status and seizure onset over the age of 7 years indicated SE more frequently than PE. If the seizures occurred during resting conditions and rapid running occurred the aetiology was more likely to be PE than SE.
    Journal of feline medicine and surgery. 12/2010; 12(12):910-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Lyme arthritis in dogs can be induced under experimental and natural conditions. However, the veterinary relevance of canine borreliosis is still under extensive investigation. The prevalence of symptoms is clearly low, although the risk of tick exposure is high. Current research focuses on case definitions, methods for diagnosing clinical disease in dogs, and discrimination between an immune response to a natural infection and an immune response to vaccination. In this experimental study, 23 dogs raised under tick-free conditions were allocated to two groups. The 11 dogs in the first group were vaccinated with a commercial borrelia vaccine and subsequently developed detectable antibody titers. The 12 dogs in the second group were walked on two consecutive days in an area where ticks were endemic. On day 5 after exposure, engorged ticks were removed from the 12 dogs and were analyzed for Borrelia DNA by a real-time PCR assay. Blood samples were taken before exposure/vaccination and at defined time points thereafter. Antibody responses were evaluated using an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and Western blotting. Seven dogs from which Borrelia-positive ticks were removed seroconverted and developed individual immune responses. Blood and urine samples taken from the tick-exposed group at weeks 1 and 3 for real-time PCR analysis and culture were always negative for bacterial DNA. In conclusion, despite serological evidence of infection/immunization, no clinical signs of disease were observed. The antibody patterns in a single Western blot did not permit differentiation between the different antigen sources (vaccine versus natural infection). However, repeated Western blot analyses may be useful for the confirmation of infection or vaccination status, since the time courses of the levels of specific antibodies seem to be different.
    Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI 03/2010; 17(5):828-35. · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To establish the radiosensitivity and effect of irradiation on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor (VEGFR) expression in the canine mastocytoma cell line C2. Sample Canine mastocytoma cell line C2. C2 cells were irradiated with single doses of 2, 4, 6, and 8 Gy. The 3-(4, 5-di-methyl-2-thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay and proliferation assays with (methyl-hydrogen 3) thymidine were used for radiosensitivity experiments. Expression of VEGFR was determined via flow cytometry and apoptotic rate via annexin assay. Human and canine VEGF ELISA kits were evaluated in crossover assay experiments, and the canine kit was used thereafter. C2 cells secreted VEGF constitutively. Radiation did not induce a significant increase in VEGF secretion, regardless of radiation dose. Consistently, radiation did not up-regulate VEGFR. Cell survival rates decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The apoptotic cell fraction had a dose-dependent increase that reached its maximum 24 to 48 hours after radiation. The C2 cell line was radiosensitive, and a fraction (up to 40%) of cells died via apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. In response to radiation, C2 cells did not upregulate VEGF production or VEGFR. Further studies are needed to determine whether tumor control could be improved by combining radiotherapy with VEGFR inhibitors or apoptosis-modulating agents.
    American Journal of Veterinary Research 10/2009; 70(9):1141-50. · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Canine osteosarcoma, an aggressive cancer with early distant metastasis, shows still despite good chemotherapy protocols poor long term survival. The aim of our study was to determine whether sorafenib, a novel multikinase inhibitor, has any effect on D-17 canine osteosarcoma cells. A cell proliferation kit was used for detecting surviving cells after treatment for 72 h with sorafenib or carboplatin or their combination. A significant decrease of neoplastic cells was observed after incubation with 0.5-16 microM sorafenib or with 80-640 microM carboplatin. Using immunocytochemistry for activated caspase 3 to evaluate apoptosis, we found significantly more positive cells in the sorafenib treated groups. Paradoxically, expression of the nuclear proliferation marker Ki-67 was also significantly higher in sorafenib treated cells. The drug sorafenib showed potent antitumour activity against D-17 canine osteosarcoma cells in vitro, suggesting a potential as a therapeutic tool in the treatment of bone cancer in dogs.
    Research in Veterinary Science 09/2009; 88(1):94-100. · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the activity pattern of the vastus lateralis muscle in dogs at walk measured by surface electromyography (EMG) in relation to kinematics and kinetics of the pelvic limb. Experimental. Malinois dogs (n=11). Dogs (mean +/- SD age, 5.5 +/- 2.9 years; weight, 27.3 +/- 3.8 kg; shoulder height, 62.7 +/- 3.3 cm) walked on a treadmill system with integrated force plates, which allowed simultaneous analysis of kinematics, kinetics, and EMG data from all limbs. The maxima, minima, and their time of occurrence in the motion cycle of the EMG and the pelvic limb kinematics and kinetics were calculated; correlations between joint movement patterns, ground reaction forces (GRF), and activity pattern of the muscle group were investigated. The vastus lateralis muscle had an activity pattern with 2 peaks and a close positive correlation with GRF. The 1st peak occurred in early stance, followed by a decrease in activity during mid-stance. The 2nd peak occurred directly before the quick activity decrease in late stance phase, reaching its minimum early in swing phase. These results suggest that the vastus lateralis muscle supports the vertical position and elevation of the pelvis during stance and push-off. During early stance, the muscle acts as a coantagonist to the hamstring muscle group and the gastrocnemius muscle, and restrains flexion during the late stance. Results of this study could enhance diagnosis of locomotor system disorders and facilitate monitoring effects of treatments (e.g., therapeutic exercises) on gait ability and muscle function.
    Veterinary Surgery 09/2009; 38(6):754-61. · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cytolinker proteins stabilize cells mechanically, regulate cytoskeleton dynamics, and provide scaffolds for signaling molecules. For plectin, the prototype of these proteins, an unusual diversity of isoforms has been reported, which show distinct expression patterns, subcellular localizations, and functions. Plectin has been shown to have important functions in skin and muscle, but little is known about its role in neural cells. To address this issue, we generated two knock-out mouse lines, one which was selectively lacking plectin 1c (P1c), the major isoform expressed in neural cells, and another in which plectin was conditionally deleted in neuronal precursor cells. Using isoform-specific antibodies, we found P1c to be expressed late in development and to associate with postsynaptic dendrites of central nervous system neurons, motorneurons of spinal cord, sciatic nerve axons, and Schwann cells. Motor nerve conduction velocity was found significantly reduced in sciatic nerve from P1c-deficient as well as from conditional knock-out mice. This defect was traceable to an increased number of motor nerve fibers with small cross-sectional areas; the thicknesses of axons and of myelin sheaths were unaffected. This is the first report demonstrating an important role of plectin in a major nerve function.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2009; 284(39):26502-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Development of betulinic acid derivatives for clinical use has been hampered by adverse pharmacological and physico-chemical characteristics of this class of compounds. We here present a novel semi-synthetic betulinic acid-derived drug candidate well suited for further clinical development. In vitro activity and mode of action of NVX-207 were determined using normal as well as cancer cell lines. Gene expression profiling was performed with Affymetrix U133 microarrays. NVX-207 binding partners were identified using a heterobifunctional chemical crosslinker system. Potential binding proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis. Clinical studies were conducted in canine cancer patients suffering from spontaneously arising pre-treated tumours. NVX-207 showed anti-tumour activity (mean IC(50) = 3.5 microM) against various human and canine cell lines. NVX-207-induced apoptosis was associated with activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway via cleavage of caspases -9, -3, -7 and of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Global gene expression profiling demonstrated regulation of genes associated with lipid metabolism, most notably an upregulation of genes coding for insulin-induced gene 1 (Insig-1), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) and of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA). NVX-207 bound to apolipoprotein A-I, a major regulator of lipid metabolism and cholesterol transport. A phase I/II study in dogs suffering from naturally occurring cancer receiving local treatment of NVX-207 (10 mg mL(-1)) showed excellent clinical responses including a complete remission in so far 5/5 treated animals. NVX-207 is well tolerated and has significant anti-cancer activity in vitro and in vivo in dogs with treatment-resistant malignancies.
    European Journal of Clinical Investigation 04/2009; 39(5):384-94. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serial blood glucose measurements are currently regarded as the 'gold standard' for evaluating glycaemic control of canine diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to investigate a subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring system based on microdialysis. Analyses were performed by taking interstitial glucose samples from two different anatomical regions (interscapular region [IR], thoracic region [TR]) in six healthy Beagle dogs during induced hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia, the feeding period and a period of stable glucose values. For comparison, plasma glucose concentration was measured simultaneously by a hexokinase-based automated chemistry analyser. The mean absolute differences ranged from 11.7 mg/dL (SD 23.5 mg/dL, TR) to 5.3 mg/dL (SD 19.2 mg/dL, IR) with a correlation of r=0.43-0.92 (P<0.01). Sensitivity for the detection of hypoglycaemia was 85.0% TR and 93.3% IR, and the specificity was 99.5% TR and 99.7% IR, respectively. In a modified Clarke error grid analysis, 99.3% TR and 99.7% IR of the values fell into zone A and B. Collapse of the microdialysis fibre was a recurrent problem although this was easily detectable by fluctuations in system pressure. The microdialysis system reflects physiological as well as induced variations in blood glucose in a valid manner.
    The Veterinary Journal 03/2009; 184(1):105-10. · 2.42 Impact Factor
  • The Veterinary record 02/2009; 164(3):89-90. · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, 240 cases of dogs with seizures were analysed retrospectively. The aim was to examine the underlying aetiology and to compare primary or idiopathic epilepsy (IE) with symptomatic epilepsy (SE) concerning signalment, history, ictal pattern, clinical and neurological findings. The diagnosis of symptomatic epilepsy was based on confirmed pathological changes in haematology, serum biochemistry, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and morphological changes of the brain by CT/MRI or histopathological examination. Seizure aetiologies were classified as idiopathic epilepsy (IE, n = 115) and symptomatic epilepsy (SE, n = 125). Symptomatic epilepsy was mainly caused by intracranial neoplasia (39) and encephalitis (23). The following variables showed significant difference between the IE and SE group: age, body weight, presence of partial seizures, cluster seizures, status epilepticus, ictal vocalisation and neurological deficits. In 48% of the cases, seizures were found to be due to IE, while 16% were due to intracranial neoplasia and 10% to encephalitis. Status epilepticus, cluster seizures, partial seizures, vocalisation during seizure and impaired neurological status were more readily seen with symptomatic epilepsy. If the first seizure occurred between one and five years of age or the seizures occurred during resting condition, the diagnosis was more likely IE than SE.
    Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 01/2009; 56(4):471-83. · 1.17 Impact Factor