[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both humans and their most important domestic animals harbor IgE and a similar IgE receptor repertoire and expression pattern. The same cell types are also involved in the triggering or regulation of allergies, such as mast cells, eosinophils or T-regulatory cells. Translational clinical studies in domestic animals could therefore help cure animal allergies and at the same time gather knowledge relevant to human patients. Dogs, cats and horses may spontaneously and to different extents develop immediate type symptoms to pollen allergens. The skin, nasal and bronchial reactions, as well as chronic skin lesions due to pollen are in principle comparable to human patients. Pollen of various species most often causes allergic rhinitis in human patients, whereas in dogs it elicits predominantly eczematous lesions (canine atopic dermatitis), in horses recurrent airway obstruction or hives as well as pruritic dermatitis, and in cats bronchial asthma and so-called cutaneous reactive patterns (eosinophilic granuloma complex, head and neck pruritus, symmetric self-induced alopecia). In human allergy-specific IgE detection, skin tests or other allergen provocation tests should be completed. In contrast, in animals IgE and dermal tests are regarded as equally important and may even replace each other. However, for practical and economic reasons intradermal tests are most commonly performed in a specialized practice. As in humans, in dogs, cats and horses allergen immunotherapy leads to significant improvement of the clinical symptoms. The collected evidence suggests that canines, felines and equines, with their spontaneous allergies, are attractive model patients for translational studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malignancies may affect the vitamin status, although the role of vitamins in neoplastic diseases is complex. Blood vitamin levels were investigated in dogs with malignancies before and after chemotherapy. High performance liquid chromatography was used to quantify the levels of retinol, retinyl esters, alphatocopherol, thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, ascorbic acid and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, while cobalamin, folate, biotin and pantothenic acid were measured by microbiological methods. Dogs with malignancies had reduced levels of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and biotin, while levels of retinyl palmitate, ascorbic acid, thiamine pyrophosphate and flavin mononucleotide were elevated compared to a healthy control group. Levels of retinol, retinyl stearate, alpha-tocopherol, riboflavin, flavin adenine dinucleotide, pyridoxal-5′-phosphate, cobalamin, folate and pantothenate did not differ between healthy and diseased dogs. Chemotherapy altered the levels of retinol and retinyl palmitate, while none of the other vitamins were affected. Whether the lower levels of vitamin D and biotin in dogs with malignancies justify supplementation should be evaluated in future studies.
Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift 01/2015; 102(7-8):144-154.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An increasing proportion of canine patients are presented with chronic thoracolumbar back pain and without compressive spinal lesions. In humans, spinal perineural infiltrations have been reported to have a favorable effect on pain control. The purpose of this prospective cadaver study was to describe the dispersal pattern of injectate following CT-guided spinal perineural infiltration in the canine thoracolumbar region. Seven fresh canine cadavers were first scanned using multislice CT and then CT-guided spinal perineural infiltration was performed at 42 sites from T13/L1 to L6/L7. The injectate for each site was a mixture of new methylene blue and iodinated contrast medium. Immediately following CT-guided injection, cadavers were frozen, cut, and dissected macro- and mesoscopically (using a magnifying glass) to identify anatomic structures that were infiltrated. In the majority of sites (64.3%), complete epidural and hypaxial staining of spinal nerve components (including the spinal ganglion, trunk, and ventral branch) was successfully achieved. However, no (11.9%) or unpredictable staining (9.5%) of nervous tissue occurred in some sites despite careful CT guidance and the application of relatively large volumes of injectate. Optimal results were achieved when the needle tip was positioned periforaminally ventral to the cranial contour of the cranial articular process. Findings from this ex vivo study indicated that CT-guided spinal perineural infiltration is feasible for testing in the canine thoracolumbar region and that successful nerve tissue infiltration would likely occur in the majority of sites. Future in vivo studies are needed to determine the safety and efficacy of this technique.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Many dogs suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are presented to veterinary clinics. These patients are diagnosed based on a history of chronic gastrointestinal signs and biopsy-confirmed histopathologic intestinal inflammation. Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) are part of the first line of defense in the gastrointestinal immune system. Alterations in IEL subsets may play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD.HypothesisThe aim of this study was to characterize the phenotypes of IEL in dogs with IBD compared with healthy control dogs.AnimalsIntestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes subpopulations of control dogs (n = 5) obtained from endoscopic biopsies (EB) were compared to those obtained from full thickness biopsies (FTB) on the same day. In addition, the phenotypes of IEL from FTB of control dogs (n = 10) were compared with EB of IBD dogs (n = 10). Each participant was scored clinically using the canine inflammatory bowel disease activity index (CIBDAI), and all samples were graded histopathologically. Three-color flow cytometry of isolated IEL was performed using monoclonal antibodies against T- and B-lymphocyte subpopulations.ResultsNo significant differences in the composition of IEL subpopulations were found in control dogs based on method of biopsy. The IBD dogs had significantly higher CIBDAI and histopathologic scores compared with control dogs and their IEL contained a significantly higher frequency TCRγδ T-cells.Conclusions and Clinical ImportanceEndoscopic biopsies provide suitable samples for 3-color flow cytometry when studying canine intestinal IEL and IBD patients show significant changes of major T-cell subsets compared to healthy control dogs.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 09/2014; 28(6). DOI:10.1111/jvim.12456 · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic liver disease may affect the metabolism of vitamins. However, little is known about blood vitamin levels in dogs with chronic liver disease (CLD). The blood vitamin concentrations of 16 dogs with CLD were investigated. Retinol, retinyl esters, tocopherol, thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxal-5′- phosphate, ascorbic acid and 25-hyroxycholecalciferol were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Cobalamin, folate, biotin and pantothenic acid were measured by microbiological methods. Dogs with CLD showed increased blood concentrations of retinyl palmitate, ascorbic acid, vitamin B1 and B2 compared to healthy dogs. Retinol, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, folate, pantothenate and biotin levels were decreased. Levels of retinyl stearate, alpha-tocopherole, pyridoxale-5′-phosphate and cobalamin did not differ significantly between healthy dogs and dogs with CLD. It remains to be evaluated whether additional supplementation of vitamin D, folate, pantothenate and biotin might be beneficial in patients with CLD.
Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift 01/2013; 100(5-6):133-139.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment-resistant complex partial seizures (CPS) with orofacial involvement recently were reported in cats in association with hippocampal pathology. The features had some similarity to those described in humans with limbic encephalitis and voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibody.
The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate cats with CPS and orofacial involvement for the presence of VGKC-complex antibody.
Client-owned cats with acute orofacial CPS and control cats were investigated.
Prospective study. Serum was collected from 14 cats in the acute stage of the disease and compared with 19 controls. VGKC-complex antibodies were determined by routine immunoprecipitation and by binding to leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2), the 2 main targets of VGKC-complex antibodies in humans.
Five of the 14 affected cats, but none of the 19 controls, had VGKC-complex antibody concentrations above the cut-off concentration (>100 pmol/L) based on control samples and similar to those found in humans. Antibodies in 4 cats were directed against LGI1, and none were directed against CASPR2. Follow-up sera were available for 5 cats in remission and all antibody concentrations were within the reference range.
Our study suggests that an autoimmune limbic encephalitis exists in cats and that VGKC-complex/LGI1 antibodies may play a role in this disorder, as they are thought to in humans.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 12/2012; 27(1). DOI:10.1111/jvim.12026 · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In contrast to infections with enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), which are thought to be classical zoonosis, the zoonotic potential of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae is still widely unknown. The aim of our study was to determine the frequency of EHEC and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in domestic animals (dogs and cats) in the Tyrol. Among 228 fecal samples of dogs (n = 92) and cats (n = 136) three samples (1.3%) were positive in the EHEC-ELISA. In two of the three cases isolation of the organism was not possible, the third sample of a two-year-old crossbreed bitch yielded EHEC O103:H2. In twelve of 228 (5.3%) fecal samples 13 ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (in ten cats and two dogs) were found.These animals mainly derived from homes for animals (ten animals, 83%). 75% of the isolates belonged to the CTX-M-1-group, 8% to the CTX-M-2-group and 17% to the CTX-M-9-group. One isolate was positive for CTX-M-1 and CTX-M-9. Typing of the 13 ESBL-producing isolates by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed ten different sequence types, which points out the importance of the horizontal transfer of mainly plasmid-coded ESBL genes. Transmission of EHEC and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae from domestic animals to humans is possible, corroborated by the fact that the EHEC serotype found in one dog and the sequence types detected by MLST in several dogs and cats were previously reported to occur in severe human infection.
Berliner und Münchener tierärztliche Wochenschrift 12/2012; 125(11-12):469-75. · 0.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report an evaluation of the treatment and outcome of cats with suspected primary epilepsy. Phenobarbital therapy was used alone or in combination with other anti-epileptic drugs. Outcome after treatment was evaluated mainly on the basis of number of seizures per year and categorised into four groups: seizure-free, good control (1-5 seizures per year), moderate control (6-10 seizures per year) and poor control (more than 10 seizures per year). About 40-50% of cases became seizure-free, 20-30% were considered good-to-moderately controlled and about 30% were poorly controlled depending on the year of treatment considered. The duration of seizure events after treatment decreased in 26/36 cats and was unchanged in eight cats. The subjective severity of seizure also decreased in 25 cats and was unchanged in nine cats. Twenty-six cats had a good quality of life, nine cats an impaired quality of life and one cat a bad quality of life. Despite being free of seizures for years, cessation of treatment may lead to recurrence of seizures in most cats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main aim of this study was to identify interictal epileptiform discharges in a group of dogs with seizures of known aetiology (symptomatic epilepsy, SE) and in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (IE). Propofol was used for chemical restraint in all dogs. We found electroencephalographic (EEG) changes that could be considered epileptiform discharges (EDs) in 5 out of 40 dogs (12.5%). The EEG changes identified were spikes in four cases and periodic epileptiform discharges in one case. All EDs were seen in the SE group. We conclude that the interictal electroencephalographic examinations of propofolanaesthetised dogs suffering from IE and SE rarely show epileptic discharges and that the diagnostic value of such EEGs in the work-up for epilepsy seems to be low as epileptic discharges were unlikely to be detected. However, positive findings are more likely to be connected with SE. We found frequent, transient EEG phenomena (spindles, K-complexes, vertex waves, positive occipital sharp transients of sleep, cyclic alternating patterns), which are non-epileptic but their differentiation from epileptic phenomena is challenging.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To facilitate comparative oncology trials we compared the biological and molecular homologies of canine (dog; Canis lupus familiaris) and human tumor-associated antigens ErbB-1 and -2. Further, we investigated whether they could serve as targets for anti-ErbB-1 (cetuximab) and anti-ErbB-2 antibodies (trastuzumab), which are highly relevant in human clinical oncology.
Immunohistochemistry of canine mammary cancer showed ErbB-1 overexpression in 3/10 patients and ErbB-2 in 4/10. We report 91% amino acid homology for ErbB-1 and 92% for ErbB-2 between canine and human molecules. Modeling of canine on human ErbB-1 revealed that the cetuximab epitope only differs by 4 amino acids: Lys443 is replaced by Arg, Ser468 by Asn, Gly471 by Asp, and Asn473 by Lys in canines. The trastuzumab binding site is identical in human and canine ErbB-2 apart from a single amino acid change (Pro557 to Ser). Binding of cetuximab and trastuzumab to canine mammary carcinoma cells CF33, CF41, Sh1b and P114 was confirmed by flow cytometry. Both antibodies significantly inhibited canine tumor cell proliferation partly due to growth arrest in G0/G1 phase. We explain the lower efficiency on the tested canine than on human SKBR3 and A431 cells, by a 2-log lower expression level of the canine ErbB-1 and -2 molecules.
Our results indicate significant homology of human and canine Erb-1 and -2 tumor associated antigens. The fact that the canine homologues express the cetuximab and trastuzumab epitopes may facilitate antibody-based immunotherapy in dogs. Importantly, the striking similarities of ErbB-1 and -2 molecules open up avenues towards comparative strategies for targeted drug development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring system (GlucoDay; Menarini Diagnostics) based on microdialysis was investigated for its clinical applicability in veterinary medicine. Ten diabetic dogs, referred as clinically stable, were equipped with this system and sent home for a maximum observation period of 48 hours. Time of insulin administration, feeding and other events were written in a diary and plotted afterwards in the glucose graph. Implantation of the microdialysis fibre, acceptance of the device and evaluation of individual canine glucose profiles were without complication. Based on the monitoring data, recommended treatment adjustments were given to the referring veterinarians in all 10 dogs; hypoglycaemic or prolonged hyperglycaemic episodes were detected in six dogs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seventeen cats were presented with acute onset of complex partial seizures with orofacial involvement (salivation, facial twitching, lip smacking, chewing, licking or swallowing), motor arrest (motionless starring) and behavioural changes. In 11 cats hippocampal necrosis (HN) was confirmed by histopathology. In a further six cats hippocampal changes were suggested by magnetic resonance imaging. The mean monitoring time of eight cats which were not euthanased in the acute phase of the disease, was 408 days (60-908): four cats are still alive. In all surviving cases, the owners reported a good quality of life. We conclude that an acute cluster of complex partial seizures with orofacial involvement are often associated with HN and that HN is not necessarily a fatal condition. Supportive and antiepileptic therapy can result in remission. The long-term outcome can be good to excellent; therefore, euthanasia should be avoided in the acute phase of the signs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) may affect excretion and metabolism of vitamins but data for dogs are limited. In this study, blood vitamin levels were investigated in 19 dogs with chronic renal failure. High performance liquid chromatography was used to quantify retinol, retinyl esters, tocopherol, thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, ascorbic acid and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentrations, whereas cobalamin, folate, biotin and pantothenic acid were measured by microbiological methods. Levels of retinol, retinyl palmitate, ascorbic acid, and vitamins B1, B2 and B6 were increased compared to healthy dogs. Dogs with CKD showed decreased concentrations of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and folate. Alpha-tocopherol, biotin, pantothenate and cobalamin levels were not significantly different between controls and dogs with CKD. Whether lower vitamin D and folate concentrations in dogs with CKD justify supplementation has to be evaluated in future studies.
The Veterinary Journal 07/2011; 192(2):226-31. DOI:10.1016/j.tvjl.2011.06.026 · 1.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis, which is essential for malignancies to progress, depends on various signalling proteins including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2 (VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2). Microvessel density (MVD) is frequently used to evaluate angiogenesis. This study assessed the relationship between expression of VEGF, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, MVD and the survival time in dogs with lymphoma. VEGF, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 expression was evaluated immunohistochemically and microvessel profiles were counted in 34 lymphoma samples. Seventy-nine percent of the samples showed high VEGF expression and 62% were highly positive for VEGFR-1; VEGFR-2 immunoreactivity was mostly negative. Dogs treated with chemotherapy had a median survival time of 266days, but no significant relationships were found between overall survival time, MVD and expression of VEGF, VEGFR-1 or VEGFR-2. In this study, VEGF its receptors and the MVD were no prognostic factors in dogs with lymphoma.
Research in Veterinary Science 05/2011; 92(3):444-50. DOI:10.1016/j.rvsc.2011.04.018 · 1.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Comparative oncology aims at speeding up developments for both, human and companion animal cancer patients. Following this line, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, CEACAM5) could be a therapeutic target not only for human but also for canine (Canis lupus familiaris; dog) patients. CEACAM5 interacts with CEA-receptor (CEAR) in the cytoplasm of human cancer cells. Our aim was, therefore, to phylogenetically verify the antigenic relationship of CEACAM molecules and CEAR in human and canine cancer.
Anti-human CEACAM5 antibody Col-1, previously being applied for cancer diagnosis in dogs, immunohistochemically reacted to 23 out of 30 canine mammary cancer samples. In immunoblot analyses Col-1 specifically detected human CEACAM5 at 180 kDa in human colon cancer cells HT29, and the canine antigen at 60, 120, or 180 kDa in CF33 and CF41 mammary carcinoma cells as well as in spontaneous mammary tumors. While according to phylogenicity canine CEACAM1 molecules should be most closely related to human CEACAM5, Col-1 did not react with canine CEACAM1, -23, -24, -25, -28 or -30 transfected to canine TLM-1 cells. By flow cytometry the Col-1 target molecule was localized intracellularly in canine CF33 and CF41 cells, in contrast to membranous and cytoplasmic expression of human CEACAM5 in HT29. Col-1 incubation had neither effect on canine nor human cancer cell proliferation. Yet, Col-1 treatment decreased AKT-phosphorylation in canine CF33 cells possibly suggestive of anti-apoptotic function, whereas Col-1 increased AKT-phosphorylation in human HT29 cells. We report further a 99% amino acid similarity of human and canine CEA receptor (CEAR) within the phylogenetic tree. CEAR could be detected in four canine cancer cell lines by immunoblot and intracellularly in 10 out of 10 mammary cancer specimens from dog by immunohistochemistry. Whether the specific canine Col-1 target molecule may as functional analogue to human CEACAM5 act as ligand to canine CEAR, remains to be defined. This study demonstrates the limitations of comparative oncology due to the complex functional evolution of the different CEACAM molecules in humans versus dogs. In contrast, CEAR may be a comprehensive interspecies target for novel cancer therapeutics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study 125 cats with recurrent seizures were analysed. The main goal was to investigate the aetiology and compare primary epilepsy (PE) with secondary epilepsy (SE) regarding signalment, history, ictal pattern, clinical and neurological findings. Seizure aetiology was classified as PE in 47 (38%) and SE in 78 (62%) cats. SE was caused mainly by intracranial neoplasia (16), hippocampal necrosis (14), toxicosis (eight), and encephalitis (seven). A significant difference between PE and SE was found in: age, body weight, duration of seizure, occurrence of status epilepticus and neurological deficits. Status epilepticus, altered interictal neurological status and seizure onset over the age of 7 years indicated SE more frequently than PE. If the seizures occurred during resting conditions and rapid running occurred the aetiology was more likely to be PE than SE.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lyme arthritis in dogs can be induced under experimental and natural conditions. However, the veterinary relevance of canine borreliosis is still under extensive investigation. The prevalence of symptoms is clearly low, although the risk of tick exposure is high. Current research focuses on case definitions, methods for diagnosing clinical disease in dogs, and discrimination between an immune response to a natural infection and an immune response to vaccination. In this experimental study, 23 dogs raised under tick-free conditions were allocated to two groups. The 11 dogs in the first group were vaccinated with a commercial borrelia vaccine and subsequently developed detectable antibody titers. The 12 dogs in the second group were walked on two consecutive days in an area where ticks were endemic. On day 5 after exposure, engorged ticks were removed from the 12 dogs and were analyzed for Borrelia DNA by a real-time PCR assay. Blood samples were taken before exposure/vaccination and at defined time points thereafter. Antibody responses were evaluated using an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and Western blotting. Seven dogs from which Borrelia-positive ticks were removed seroconverted and developed individual immune responses. Blood and urine samples taken from the tick-exposed group at weeks 1 and 3 for real-time PCR analysis and culture were always negative for bacterial DNA. In conclusion, despite serological evidence of infection/immunization, no clinical signs of disease were observed. The antibody patterns in a single Western blot did not permit differentiation between the different antigen sources (vaccine versus natural infection). However, repeated Western blot analyses may be useful for the confirmation of infection or vaccination status, since the time courses of the levels of specific antibodies seem to be different.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate the level of reactivity of "Shu" and "Mu" points ascertained during a TCM examination, and to evaluate the findings with respect to Western internal organ function. In a blinded study, 40 animals (23 dogs and 17 cats) with different diseases were included. The animals were presented at the Clinic for Internal Medicine, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna. In all animals the Back Transporting points ("Shu Points") and the Front Collecting points ("Mu Points") were examined by an IVAS certified veterinarian acupuncturist without knowledge of the complaint, history or physical exam and before any treatment was started. The Western diagnosis was made by veterinarians of the Clinic for Internal Medicine and compared to the Shu- and Mu-point diagnosis. Being aware of missing important information by making a TCM diagnosis only by palpating these points, we decided to do so for a better comparability. We hypothesized that the relative chance to confirm an Eastern Diagnosis by means of the Western Medicine would be over 0.9. The heart/pericardium, and the stomach represented the most frequent correlations of TCM pattern and Western disease.
In this study preliminary results of the comparability of TCM based diagnosis and Western diagnosis are presented. This study is a step on the way to put the ancient knowledge of traditional Chinese medicine on an evidence based level.
Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift 01/2010; 97(7-7-8):166-170.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility and the diagnostic value of conventional Doppler parameters of transmitral inflows and Doppler tissue echocardiography parameters of septal annulus motion for the assessment of diastolic dysfunction in dogs with cardiac failure. The LV diastolic mitral flow patterns were divided into normal diastolic flow pattern (group 1), delayed relaxation pattern (group 2), pseudonormal flow pattern (group 3), and restrictive pattern (group 4). In our study population, 17 patients had normal mitral inflow variables (E/A ratio > 1 and Dt < 109 m). The other 7 patients were classified as having abnormal mitral inflow pattern (E' > 8 cm/s, E'/A' > 1). In conclusion, the combination of Doppler tissue echocardiography of the mitral septal annulus and mitral inflow patterns by conventional Doppler indices provides better estimates of diastolic dysfunction in dogs. Köpeklerde diyastolik disfonksiyonun konvansiyonel ve doku Doppler ekokardiyografi tekniği ile belirlenmesi Özet: Bu çalışmanın amacı, kalp yetmezliği bulunan köpeklerde septal mitral kapağın doku Doppler ekokardiyografi parametrelerinin ve mitral kapak düzeyindeki kan akımı konvansiyonel Doppler parametrelerinin kulanılabilirliği ve tanıdaki değerinin araştırılmasıdır. Sol ventrikül diastolik akım örnekleri, normal diastolik mitral akım örneği (grup 1), gecikmiş relakzasyon örneği (grup 2), yanlış-normal akım örneği (grup 3) ve sınırlanmış akım örneği (grup 4) şeklinde bölümlendirildi. Çalışmamızdaki olgulardan 17 hastada normal mitral akım örneği (E/A oranı > 1 and Dt < 109 ms) vardı. Diğer 7 hasta ise anormal mitral akım örneği olarak (E' > 8 cm/s, E'/A' > 1) sınıflandırıldı. Sonuç olarak, mitral septal kapağın doku Doppler ekokardiyografik muayenesi ile mitral kan akımının konvensiyonel Doppler verilerinin birlikte kullanılması ile köpeklerde diyastolik disfonksiyonun yüksek güvenilirlikte değerlendirileceği kanısına varıldı.
Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 12/2009; 33(6):501-507. DOI:10.3906/vet-0808-25 · 0.24 Impact Factor