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Publications (5)4.3 Total impact

  • J Hellwig, C Gembardt, S R Murphy
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    ABSTRACT: In a two-generation reproduction toxicity study, groups of 25 male and 25 female Wistar rats (for both F0 and F1 generations) received acrylic acid (AA) in the drinking water at concentrations of 0 (control), 500, 2500 and 5000 ppm for at least 70 days prior to mating, through mating, gestation, lactation and to weaning. The study continued through to weaning of the F2 offspring at 21 days of age. Achieved intakes of AA for the F0 and F1 parents during premating ranged from 46 (500 ppm) to 502 (5000 ppm) mg/kg/day. AA had no adverse effects on fertility and reproductive performance of the parent rats at doses up to 5000 ppm. General systemic toxicity was apparent with reduced body weights, food and water consumption in F0 parents at 5000 ppm and in F1 parents at 2500 and 5000 ppm; the only treatment-related pathological finding was a minimal hyperkeratosis of the limiting ridge of the forestomach with a minimal oedema of the submucosa of the glandular stomach in both parental generations at 5000 ppm. Dose-related signs of developmental toxicity were detected in F1 and F2 pups at 2500 and 5000 ppm in the form of retarded growth and some delay in the eye/auditory canal opening in F2 pups, but there was no evidence that AA had an adverse influence on pup morphology. Thus, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) is 5000 ppm for fertility and reproductive performance of the parents, 2500 ppm (F0 parents) or 500 ppm (F1 parents) for general systemic toxicity and 500 ppm for developmental toxicity.
    Food and Chemical Toxicology 10/1997; 35(9):859-68. · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty-eight day feeding studies were conducted to evaluate the repeated dose toxicity of NMP, a widely used industrial solvent, in Crl:CD BR rats and B6C3F1 mice. Groups of 5 male and 5 female rats each were fed either 0, 2,000, 6,000, 18,000, or 30,000 ppm NMP; similar groups of mice were fed either 0, 500, 2,500, 7,500, or 10,000 ppm. In vivo parameters, hematology and clinical chemistry parameters, and complete pathology evaluations were conducted after approximately 28 days. Decrements in mean body weight gains, reflecting decreases in food consumption and efficiency, were seen in male rats fed 18,000 ppm and in both sexes fed 30,000 ppm. In rats, clinical chemical changes, indicating possible compound-related alterations in lipid, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism, occurred at 18,000 ppm in males and 30,000 ppm in both sexes. No histopathological changes in rats were judged to be directly related to NMP exposure. Hematological (mild to moderate leukopenia) and histopathological alterations (hypocellular bone marrow, testicular degeneration and atrophy, and thymic atrophy) were judged to be secondary to nutritional and body weight effects in male and/or female rats at 30,000 ppm. In mice, cloudy swelling of the epithelia of the distal parts of the renal tubuli was observed in 4 males and 3 females at 10,000 ppm and in 2 male mice at 7,500 ppm. For both rats and mice, abnormal urine coloration was observed (in mice at 2,500 ppm and above, and in rats at 18,000 ppm and above). The discoloration was interpreted as a sign of systemic availability of the test substance, but not as an adverse effect. The NOAEL was 6,000 ppm for male rats and 18,000 ppm for female rats. In mice, the NOAEL was 2,500 ppm based on the kidney histopathology.
    Drug and Chemical Toxicology 01/1997; 20(1-2):63-77. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 2-Ethylhexanol (2EH) is a weak nongenotoxic hepatic peroxisome proliferator in the rat. It is a high-volume chemical intermediate in the preparation of the plasticizers bis-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and tris-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP), which are weak hepatocellular tumorigens in female mice. In consequence, the oncogenic potential of 2EH was evaluated in male (M) and female (F) rats and mice (50 animals/sex/group). Oral gavage doses of 2EH in 0.005% aqueous Cremophor EL (polyoxyl-35 castor oil) were given five times a week to rats: 0 (water), 0 (vehicle), 50, 150, and 500 mg/kg for 24 months, and to mice: 0 (water), 0 (vehicle), 50, 200, and 750 mg/kg for 18 months. Statistical comparisons of data were made between vehicle controls and treatment groups. There were no differences of biological significance between data from vehicle and water control groups. In rats, there were no dose-related changes at 50 mg/kg. There was reduced body weight gain at 150 mg/kg (M, 16; F, 12%) and 500 mg/kg (M, 33; F, 31%) and an increased incidence of lethargy and unkemptness. There were dose-related increases in relative liver, stomach, brain, kidney, and testis weights at sacrifice. Female rat mortality was markedly increased at 500 mg/kg. There was marked aspiration-induced bronchopneumonia in rats at 500 mg/kg; hematologic, gross, and microscopic changes, including tumors, were otherwise comparable among all rat groups. In mice at 50 and 200 mg/kg there were no dose-related changes and essentially no time-dependent or time-independent adverse trends in liver tumor incidence at the 5% significance level. At 750 mg/kg mouse body weight gain was reduced (M, 26; F, 24%), and mortality increased (M and F, 30%) versus vehicle controls. At 750 mg/kg there was a slight increase in nonneoplastic focal hyperplasia in the forestomach of mice (M 5/50, F 4/50) versus vehicle controls (M 1/50, F 1/50). There were increases in mouse relative liver (F, 21%) and stomach (M, 13%; F, 19%) weights at 750 mg/kg. There was a 12% incidence of hepatic basophilic foci and an 18% incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas in male mice at 750 mg/kg, not statistically significant compared with either control by Fisher's exact test. There was a 12% incidence of hepatic basophilic foci and a 10% incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas in female mice at 750 mg/kg, statistically significant (p < 0.05) compared with vehicle but not with water controls by Fisher's exact test. There were no metastases. Time-dependent and -independent statistical analyses showed an adverse trend in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas in male and female mice, correlated with toxicity (expressed as mortality) at 750 mg/kg. The time-adjusted incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas in male mice (18.8%) was within the historical normal range at the testing facility (0-22%), but that in females (13.1%) lay outside the normal range (0-2%). Under the conditions of these studies 2EH was not oncogenic in rats, but there were weak adverse trends in hepatocellular carcinoma incidence in mice at high dose levels which may have been associated with toxicity. The major effects of chronic dosing were mortality in female rats at 500 mg/kg and in male and female mice at 750 mg/kg, accompanied by reductions in body weight gain in rats at 150 and 500 mg/kg and in mice at 750 mg/kg. Direct comparison of any tumorogenic effects of 2EH given alone to female mice with those due to 2EH formed in vivo from DEHA, DEHP, or TEHP is limited by the high mortality caused by 2ER in female mice at equivalent doses of 2EH. While 2EH may be a contributing factor in the hepatocellular carcinogenesis in female mice associated with the chronic administration of DEHA and DEHP, it is unlikely to be the entire proximate carcinogen.
    Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 06/1996; 31(1):29-41.
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    ABSTRACT: Data on the subchronic toxicity of 2-ethylhexanol (2EH) were required to establish the dose vehicle and dose levels for oncogenicity studies. In preliminary studies 2EH was given subacutely (11 days) to male and female Fischer 344 rats and B6C3F1 mice as an aqueous emulsion by oral gavage (0, 100, 330, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg/day). Clinical observations were made, body weights, food consumption, clinical chemistries, hematologies, and selected organ weights were measured, and gross and micropathologies were performed. Target organs were the central nervous system, liver, forestomach, spleen, thymus, and kidney in rats and the central nervous system, liver, and forestomach in mice. 2EH was then administered by oral gavage to male and female F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice as an aqueous emulsion (0, 25, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg/day) for 13 weeks. At 500 mg/kg/day in the rat there was reduced body weight gain (6% male, 7% female), increased relative liver (29% male, 15% female), kidney (16% male, 6% female), stomach (11% male, 16% female), and testes (6%) weights, and moderate gross and microscopic changes in the liver and forestomach. There were no behavioral effects or effects on the spleen or thymus. A no-effect level for target organ effects in the rat was 125 mg of 2EH/kg/day. At 500 mg of 2EH/kg/day in the mouse the only effects were increased relative stomach weights in males (13%) and a low incidence of gross and microscopic findings in the forestomach (male and female) and liver (female). A no-effect level for target organ effects in the mouse was 125 mg of 2EH/kg/day. 2EH was a peroxisome proliferator in the rat but not in the mouse at subchronic dose levels of 500 mg/kg/day. Dose levels in oncogenicity studies were set at 50 mg/kg/day for the absence of treatment-related effects in rats and mice, and 500 and 750 mg/kg/day, respectively, in rats and mice as high doses producing minimal toxicity without altering the life span.
    Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 02/1996; 29(1):31-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Undiluted 2-ethylhexanol (2-EH) was administered by occluded dermal application for 6 hr per day on Gestation Days 6 through 15 to pregnant Fischer 344 rats, in range-finding (R) and main (M) studies. The dermal route is considered to be the most relevant for human exposure. Treatment levels were (R) 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 ml/kg/day (equivalent to 0, 420, 840, 1680, and 2520 mg/kg/day) and (M) 0.0, 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 ml/kg/day (equivalent to 0, 252, 840, and 2520 mg/kg/day). Controls (0.0 ml/kg/day, sham controls) received deionized water at 3.0 ml/kg/day. Dermal-positive control groups received undiluted 2-methoxyethanol (2-ME) at (R) 0.5 and 1.5 ml/kg/day and (M) 1.0 ml/kg/day as a reference compound in a similar regimen. An oral reference compound, valproic acid, was administered by gavage in the range-finding study on Gestation Days 6 through 15 at 400 mg/kg/day. The range-finding study employed an untreated (naive) control group. Numbers of plug-positive females per group were (R) 8 and (M) 25. Maternal weight gain was reduced for 2-EH at 1680 (R) and 2520 (R and M studies) mg/kg/day. Exfoliation and encrustation were seen at the application site in both studies at 840, 1680, and 2520 mg/kg. Maternal liver, kidney, thymus, spleen, adrenal, and uterine weights, and gestational and fetal parameters were unaffected by treatment with 2-EH. There were no treatment-related increases in the incidence of individual or pooled external, visceral, and skeletal malformations or variations following the application of 2-EH. The NOAELs for the maternal toxicity of 2-EH were 252 mg/kg/day based on skin irritation and 840 mg/kg/day based on systemic toxicity. The developmental toxicity NOAEL was at least 2520 mg/kg/day, with no teratogenicity. Administration of 2-ME at 840 mg/kg/day resulted in reduced maternal weight gain and food consumption, increased postimplantation loss, reduced numbers of live fetuses per litter, and reduced fetal body weights per litter. The incidence of fetal malformations and variations was increased. Oral administration of VPA produced maternal toxicity, developmental toxicity, and teratogenicity. The Fischer 344 rat is thus susceptible to known rodent teratogens by both the dermal and oral routes. It is concluded that 2-EH is not developmentally toxic by the dermal route in the Fischer 344 rat at and below treatment levels which produce maternal toxicity.
    Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 09/1992; 19(2):176-85.