A Belley

McGill University, Montréal, Quebec, Canada

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Publications (12)62.36 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The host response to mycobacterial infection depends on host and pathogen genetic factors. Recent studies in human populations suggest a strain specific genetic control of tuberculosis. To test for mycobacterial-strain specific genetic control of susceptibility to infection under highly controlled experimental conditions, we performed a comparative genetic analysis using the A/J- and C57BL/6J-derived recombinant congenic (RC) mouse panel infected with the Russia and Pasteur strains of Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG). Bacillary counts in the lung and spleen at weeks 1 and 6 post infection were used as a measure of susceptibility. By performing genome-wide linkage analyses of loci that impact on tissue-specific bacillary burden, we were able to show the importance of correcting for strain background effects in the RC panel. When linkage analysis was adjusted on strain background, we detected a single locus on chromosome 11 that impacted on pulmonary counts of BCG Russia but not Pasteur. The same locus also controlled the splenic counts of BCG Russia but not Pasteur. By contrast, a locus on chromosome 1 which was indistinguishable from Nramp1 impacted on splenic bacillary counts of both BCG Russia and Pasteur. Additionally, dependent upon BCG strain, tissue and time post infection, we detected 9 distinct loci associated with bacillary counts. Hence, the ensemble of genetic loci impacting on BCG infection revealed a highly dynamic picture of genetic control that reflected both the course of infection and the infecting strain. This high degree of adaptation of host genetics to strain-specific pathogenesis is expected to provide a suitable framework for the selection of specific host-mycobacteria combinations during co-evolution of mycobacteria with humans.
    PLoS Pathogens 01/2010; 6(10):e1001169. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BCG vaccines are a family of closely related daughter strains of an attenuated isolate of Mycobacterium bovis derived by in vitro passage from 1908 to 1921. During subsequent laboratory propagation of the vaccine strain until its lyophilization in 1961, BCG Pasteur underwent at least seven further genomic mutations. The impact of these mutations on the properties of the vaccine is currently unknown. One mutation, a glycine-to-aspartic acid substitution in the mmaA3 gene, occurred between 1927 and 1931 and impairs methoxymycolic acid synthesis in BCG strains obtained from the Pasteur Institute after this period. Mycolic acids of the cell wall are classified into three functional groups (alpha-, methoxy-, and ketomycolic acids), and together these lipids form a highly specialized permeability barrier around the bacterium. To explore the impact of methoxymycolic acid production by BCG strains, we complemented the functional gene of mmaA3 into BCG Denmark and tested a number of in vitro and in vivo phenotypes. Surprisingly, restoration of methoxymycolic acids alone had no effect on cell wall permeability, resistance to antibiotics, or growth in cultured macrophages and C57BL/6 mice. Our results demonstrate that the loss of methoxymycolic acid production did not apparently affect the virulence of BCG strains.
    Infection and Immunity 06/2004; 72(5):2803-9. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The intestinal protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, almost nothing is known about the molecules secreted by the parasite that modulate host immune responses or epithelial barrier function in the colon. Herein, we describe the isolation and characterization of a cyclooxygenase (COX)-like enzyme in E. histolytica that is responsible for the biosynthesis of prostaglandin (PG)E2. PGE2 produced by ameba was constitutive but highly dependent on exogenous arachidonic acid substrate. COX-like activity and the immunoreactive protein were localized to the nuclear fraction of E. histolytica. The COX-like protein (72 kDa) was microsequenced and cloned by reverse transcriptase PCR. Ameba COX showed little homology with COX-1/2 enzymes from different species at the nucleotide and amino acid levels. Surprisingly, the arachidonate-binding domain and heme-coordinating and catalytic sites, which are conserved in other species, were absent in ameba. Ameba COX expressed in Escherichia coli demonstrated COX-like enzyme activity in vitro by converting arachidonic acid into PGE2 but not into PGD2 or PGF2alpha. COX activity was inhibited with 1 mM aspirin but not with indomethacin or COX-1/2-specific inhibitors. Taken together, these studies reveal that E. histolytica produces PGE2, by means of a previously undescribed ancestral COX-like enzyme, which could play a major role in pathogenesis and immune evasion.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2003; 100(23):13561-6. · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • A Belley, K Chadee
    Archives of Medical Research 01/2000; 31(4 Suppl):S74-5. · 2.08 Impact Factor
  • A Belley, K Chadee
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    ABSTRACT: Mucins form an integral part of innate host defenses against intestinal pathogens and irritants. However, the mechanisms whereby mucin secretion is regulated during inflammation are poorly understood. Because prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) is prominent during intestinal inflammation, we investigated its receptor-signaling pathway coupled to mucin exocytosis in the colonic epithelial cell line LS174T and rat colon. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and [(3)H]PGE(2) binding assays were used to identify the PGE(2) receptors (EP). Intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate ([cAMP](i)) was quantified by enzyme immunoassay. Mucins were metabolically labeled with [(3)H]glucosamine, and mucin secretion was quantified by Sepharose 4B column chromatography, immunoblot analysis, and cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation. RT-PCR and DNA sequence analysis identified EP(2), EP(3), and EP(4) receptors. Mucin secretion and [cAMP](i) production by LS174T cells were stimulated dose-dependently by PGE(2), the EP(4)-receptor agonist 1-OH-PGE(1), and the EP(3)/EP(4) agonist M&B28767 and were inhibited with the adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536. The EP(1), EP(2), and EP(3)/EP(1)-receptor agonists iloprost, butaprost, and sulprostone, respectively, had no effect. Similar results were obtained in rat colonic loop studies confirming that the EP(4) receptor is linked to mucin exocytosis in vivo. [(3)H]PGE(2) binding to cell membranes identified a high-affinity binding site that was competitively inhibited by M&B28767 (EP(3)/EP(4)) > 1-OH-PGE(1) (EP(4)) > sulprostone (EP(3)/EP(1)) > butaprost (EP(2)). PGE(2) coupling to the EP(4) receptor stimulates [cAMP](i)-dependent mucin exocytosis.
    Gastroenterology 12/1999; 117(6):1352-62. · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intestinal mucins are key components of the first line of host defense against intestinal pathogens. These large glycoconjugates secreted by specialized exocrine goblet cells form viscous gels that trap microorganisms and irritants and limit their diffusion to the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, they allow for colonization by indigenous bacterial flora that prevents attachment of pathogenic microbes. The interaction between microbes and mucins involves mucin carbohydrate side chains and microbial adhesin molecules. Certain microorganisms and disease states may alter mucin biochemistry or expression. Although these alterations most likely contribute to disease processes, the full impact of these phenomena are still unclear. The development of mucin-secreting cell lines has facilitated the study of mucin biology and aided our understanding of mucin-microbial interactions.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 05/1999; 60(4 Suppl):10-5. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mucins secreted from the gastrointestinal epithelium from the basis of the adherent mucus layer which is the host's first line of defense against invasion by Entamoeba histolytica. Galactose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues of mucins specifically inhibit binding of the amebic 170 kDa heavy subunit Gal-lectin to target cells, an absolute prerequisite for pathogenesis. Herein we characterized the secretory mucins isolated from the human colon and from three human colonic adenocarcinoma cell lines: two with goblet cell-like (LS174T and T84) and one with absorptive cell-like morphology (Caco-2). By Northern blot analysis the intestinal mucin genes MUC2 and MUC3 were constitutively expressed by confluent LS174T and Caco-2 cells, whereas T84 cells only transcribed MUC2 and not MUC3 mRNA. 3H-glucosamine and 3H-threonine metabolically labeled proteins separated as high M, mucins in the void (Vo > 10(6) Da) of Sepharose-4B column chromatography and remained in the stacking gel of SDS-PAGE as depicted by fluorography. All mucin preparations contained high amounts of N-acetyl-glucosamine, galactose, N-acetyl-galactosamine, fucose and sialic acid, saccharides typical of the O-linked carbohydrate side chains. Mucin samples from the human colon and from LS174T and Caco-2 cells inhibited E. histolytica adherence to chinese hamster ovary cells, whereas mucins from T84 cells did not. These results suggest that genetic heterogeneity and/or posttranslational modification in glycosylation of colonic mucins can affect specific epithelial barrier function against intestinal pathogens.
    Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 01/1998; 45(2):17S-23S. · 2.16 Impact Factor
  • A Belley, K Keller, J Grove, K Chadee
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    ABSTRACT: Colonic mucins secreted by goblet cells protect the colon by preventing the attachment of enteric pathogens to the epithelium. Entamoeba histolytica overcomes this protective barrier and causes ulcerations, allowing the parasite to disseminate to the liver and form abscesses. An in vitro model is used to study the interaction between E. histolytica and colonic mucins. Secretory mucins from the colonic adenocarcinoma cell line LS174T were collected and their functions assessed by their ability to inhibit amebic adherence to target cells and killing. The cytoprotective effect of mucus against E. histolytica cytolysis of LS174T monolayers was studied at 37 degrees C. Sepharose 4B column chromatography, metabolic labeling with [3H]glucosamine, cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation, and amino acid and carbohydrate compositional analysis revealed that LS174T cell mucins were typical of native colonic mucins. Mucin O-linked oligosaccharides bound to and inhibited the adherence of amebae to Chinese hamster ovary cells. E. histolytica killing of Chinese hamster ovary cell monolayers occurred rapidly, whereas killing of LS174T monolayers with an intact mucus layer was significantly retarded. Our results show that colonic mucins serve as the first line of host defense against amebic invasion and provide a useful model to study pathogen-mucin interactions.
    Gastroenterology 12/1996; 111(6):1484-92. · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: At present it is unclear whether nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX) gene expression. In some cells that express COX-2, NSAIDs can inhibit enzymatic activity and gene expression. In this study we evaluated the effect of several NSAIDs on COX-1 and COX-2 mRNA, protein expression and PGE2 production in PMA-differentiated THP-1 and U937 human macrophages stimulated with LPS. Macrophages pre-treated with acetylsalicylic acid, indomethacin, naproxen or NS-398 and stimulated with LPS showed a marked inhibition on PGE2 production but not on COX-1 or COX-2 mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, COX-2 mRNA levels induced by LPS were transient (peak 3-4 h), suggesting that PGE2 was unable to regulate COX-2 expression in an autocrine manner. These results demonstrate that NSAID's action in human macrophages is not directed towards the transcription or translation of the COX genes but only to the enzymatic activity of the proteins.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/1996; 225(3):896-900. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    A Belley, K Chadee
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    ABSTRACT: In this review, Adam Belley and Kris Chadee discuss eicosanoid production by various parasites and propose roles they may play in pathogenesis and immunomodulation. The commonality between parasites is prostaglandin production and, therefore, special attention is given to the cyclooxygenase pathway, highlighting the enzymes and functions of prostaglandins.
    Parasitology Today 10/1995; 11(9):327-34. · 5.51 Impact Factor
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    A. Belley, K. Chadee
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    ABSTRACT: In this review, Adam Belley and Kris Chadee discuss eicosanoid production by various parasites and propose roles they may play in pathogenesis and immunomodulation. The commonality between parasites is prostaglandin production and, therefore, special attention is given to the cyclooxygenase pathway, highlighting the enzymes and functions of prostaglandins.
    Parasitology Today - PARASITOL TODAY. 01/1995; 11(9):327-334.
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