[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A simple, sensitive optical analyzer for the rapid determination of cyanide in blood in point of care applications is described. HCN is liberated by the addition of 20% H(3)PO(4) and is absorbed by a paper filter impregnated with borate-buffered (pH 9.0) hydroxoaquocobinamide (hereinafter called cobinamide). Cobinamide on the filter changes color from orange (λ(max) = 510 nm) to violet (λ(max) = 583 nm) upon reaction with cyanide. This color change is monitored in the transmission mode by a light emitting diode (LED) with a 583 nm emission maximum and a photodiode detector. The observed rate of color change increases 10 times when the cobinamide solution for filter impregnation is prepared in borate-buffer rather than in water. The use of a second LED emitting at 653 nm and alternate pulsing of the LEDs improves the limit of detection by 4 times to ~0.5 μM for a 1 mL blood sample. Blood cyanide levels of imminent concern (≥10 μM) can be accurately measured in ~2 min. The response is proportional to the mass of cyanide in the sample: smaller sample volumes can be successfully used with proportionate change in the concentration LODs. Bubbling air through the blood-acid mixture was found effective for mixing of the acid with the sample and the liberation of HCN. A small amount of ethanol added to the top of the blood was found to be the most effective means to prevent frothing during aeration. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for repetitive determination of blood samples containing 9 μM CN was 1.09% (n = 5). The technique was compared blind with a standard microdiffusion-spectrophotometric method used for the determination of cyanide in rabbit blood. The results showed good correlation (slope 1.05, r(2) 0.9257); independent calibration standards were used.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment to reverse cyanide effects in a rabbit model as a potential treatment for mass casualty resulting from cyanide exposure. Cyanide poisoning is a serious chemical threat from accidental or intentional exposures. Current cyanide exposure treatments, including direct binding agents, methemoglobin donors, and sulfur donors, have several limitations. Non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways, including 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) catalyze the transfer of sulfur from 3-MP to cyanide, forming pyruvate and less toxic thiocyanate. We developed a water-soluble 3-MP prodrug, 3-mercaptopyruvatedithiane (sulfanegen sodium), with the potential to provide a continuous supply of substrate for CN detoxification. In addition to developing a mass casualty cyanide reversal agent, methods are needed to rapidly and reliably diagnose and monitor cyanide poisoning and reversal. We use non-invasive technology, diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS) to monitor physiologic changes associated with cyanide exposure and reversal. A total of 35 animals were studied. Sulfanegen sodium was shown to reverse the effects of cyanide exposure on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin rapidly, significantly faster than control animals when administered by intravenous or intramuscular routes. RBC cyanide levels also returned to normal faster following both intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment than controls. These studies demonstrate the clinical potential for the novel approach of supplying substrate for non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways for cyanide detoxification. DOS and CWNIRS demonstrated their usefulness in optimizing the dose of sulfanegen sodium treatment.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 11/2010; 248(3):269-76. · 3.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyanide is a rapidly acting cellular poison, primarily targeting cytochrome c oxidase, and is a common occupational and residential toxin, mostly via smoke inhalation. Cyanide is also a potential weapon of mass destruction, with recent credible threats of attacks focusing the need for better treatments, as current cyanide antidotes are limited and impractical for rapid deployment in mass casualty settings.
We have used mouse models of cyanide poisoning to compare the efficacy of cobinamide (Cbi), the precursor to cobalamin (vitamin B(12)), to currently approved cyanide antidotes. Cbi has extremely high affinity for cyanide and substantial solubility in water.
We studied Cbi in both an inhaled and intraperitoneal model of cyanide poisoning in mice.
We found Cbi more effective than hydroxocobalamin, sodium thiosulfate, sodium nitrite, and the combination of sodium thiosulfate-sodium nitrite in treating cyanide poisoning. Compared to hydroxocobalamin, Cbi was 3 and 11 times more potent in the intraperitoneal and inhalation models, respectively. Cobinamide sulfite (Cbi-SO(3)) was rapidly absorbed after intramuscular injection, and mice recovered from a lethal dose of cyanide even when given at a time when they had been apneic for over 2 min. In range-finding studies, Cbi-SO(3) at doses up to 2000 mg/kg exhibited no clinical toxicity.
These studies demonstrate that Cbi is a highly effective cyanide antidote in mouse models, and suggest it could be used in a mass casualty setting, because it can be given rapidly as an intramuscular injection when administered as Cbi-SO(3). Based on these animal data Cbi-SO(3) appears to be an antidote worthy of further testing as a therapy for mass casualties.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel cyanide analyzer based on sensitive cobinamide chemistry relies on simultaneous reagent and sample injection and detection in a 50 cm liquid core waveguide (LCW) flow cell illuminated by a white light emitting diode. The transmitted light is read by a fiber-optic charge coupled device (CCD) spectrometer. Alkaline cobinamide (orange, lambda(max) = 510 nm) changes to violet (lambda(max) = 583 nm) upon reaction with cyanide. Multiwavelength detection permits built-in correction for artifact responses intrinsic to a single-line flow injection system and corrects for drift. With optimum choice of the reaction medium, flow rate, and mixing coil length, the limit of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) is 30 nM and the linear dynamic range extends to 10 microM. The response base width for 1% carryover is <95 s, permitting a throughput of 38 samples/h. The relative standard deviations (rsd) for repetitive determinations at 0.15, 0.5, and 1 microM were 7.6% (n = 5), 3.2% (n = 7), and 1.7% (n = 6), respectively. Common ions at 250-80,000x concentrations do not interfere except for sulfide. For the determination of 2 microM CN(-), the presence of 2, 5, 10, 20, 100, and 1000 microM HS(-) results in 22, 27, 48, 58, 88, and 154% overestimation of cyanide. The sulfide product actually has a different characteristic absorption, and in those samples where significant presence is likely, this can be corrected for. We demonstrate applicability by analyzing the hydrolytic cyanide extract of apple and pear seeds with orange seeds as control and also measure HCN in breath air samples. Spike recoveries in these sample extracts ranged from 91 to 108%.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyanide, a well-known toxic substance that could be used as a weapon of mass destruction, is likely responsible for a substantial percentage of smoke inhalation deaths. The vitamin B(12) precursor cobinamide binds cyanide with high affinity, changing color and, correspondingly, its spectrophotometric spectrum in the ultraviolet/visible light range. Based on these spectral changes, we developed a new facile method to measure cyanide in blood using cobinamide. The limit of detection was 0.25 nmol, while the limit of quantitation was approximately 0.5 nmol. The method was reliable, requires minimal equipment, and correlated well with a previously established method. Moreover, we adapted it for rapid qualitative assessment of cyanide concentration, which could be used in the field to identify cyanide-poisoned subjects for immediate treatment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exposure to cyanide in fires and industrial exposures and intentional cyanide poisoning by terrorists leading to mass casualties is an ongoing threat. Current treatments for cyanide poisoning must be administered intravenously, and no rapid treatment methods are available for mass casualty cyanide exposures. Cobinamide is a cobalamin (vitamin B(12)) analog with an extraordinarily high affinity for cyanide that is more water-soluble than cobalamin. We investigate the use of intramuscular cobinamide sulfite to reverse cyanide toxicity-induced physiologic changes in a sublethal cyanide exposure animal model and determine the ability of an intramuscular cobinamide sulfite injection to rapidly reverse the physiologic effects of cyanide toxicity.
New Zealand white rabbits were given 10 mg sodium cyanide intravenously over 60 minutes. Quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy and continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring of tissue oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations were performed concurrently with blood cyanide level measurements and cobinamide levels. Immediately after completion of the cyanide infusion, the rabbits were injected intramuscularly with cobinamide sulfite (n=6) or inactive vehicle (controls, n=5).
Intramuscular administration led to rapid mobilization of cobinamide and was extremely effective at reversing the physiologic effects of cyanide on oxyhemoglobin and within deoxyhemoglobin extraction. Recovery time to 63% of their baseline values in the central nervous system occurred within a mean of 1,032 minutes in the control group and 9 minutes in the cobinamide group, with a difference of 1,023 minutes (95% confidence interval 116 to 1,874 minutes). In muscle tissue, recovery times were 76 and 24 minutes, with a difference of 52 minutes (95% confidence interval 7 to 98 minutes). RBC cyanide levels returned toward normal significantly faster in cobinamide sulfite-treated animals than in control animals.
Intramuscular cobinamide sulfite rapidly and effectively reverses the physiologic effects of cyanide poisoning, suggesting that a compact cyanide antidote kit can be developed for mass casualty cyanide exposures.
Annals of emergency medicine 04/2010; 55(4):352-63. · 4.23 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary data for the temperature dependent solubility of HCN in water do not presently exist for low concentrations of HCN at environmentally or physiologically relevant temperatures. Henry's Law constant (K(H), M/atm) for the vapor-solution equilibrium of HCN was determined in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer (adjusted to pH 9.00 +/- 0.03 at 296.6 +/- 0.1 K) from 287-311 K. Stable gas phase concentrations of HCN are generated by established techniques, via air equilibration of aqueous cyanide partitioned by a microporous membrane. The effluent gaseous HCN, in equilibrium with the constant temperature aqueous cyanide, was collected in dilute NaOH and determined by a spectrophotometrically using cobinamide. The K(H) of HCN may be expressed as ln K(H) (M/atm) = (8205.7 +/- 341.9)/T - (25.323 +/- 1.144); r(2) = 0.9914) where T is the absolute temperature in K. This corresponds to 9.02 and 3.00 M/atm at 25 and 37.4 degrees C, respectively, compared to actual measurements of 9.86 and 3.22 at 25.0 and 37.8 degrees C, respectively. The technique also allows for convenient generation of trace levels of HCN at ppbv-ppmv levels that can be further diluted.
Environmental Science and Technology 03/2010; 44(8):3028-34. · 5.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our purpose is to compare cobinamide to hydroxocobalamin in reversing cyanide (CN)-induced physiologic effects in an animal model using diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS). Cyanide poisoning is a major threat worldwide. Cobinamide is a novel molecule that can bind two molecules of cyanide, has a much higher binding affinity than hydroxocobalamin, and is more water soluble. We investigated the ability of equimolar doses of cobinamide and hydroxocobalamin to reverse the effects of cyanide exposure in an animal model monitored continuously by DOS. Cyanide toxicity was induced in 16 New Zealand white rabbits by intravenous infusion. Animals were divided into three groups: controls (n=5) received saline following cyanide, hydroxocobalamin (N=6) following cyanide, and cobinamide (N=5) following cyanide. Cobinamide caused significantly faster and more complete recovery of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations in cyanide-exposed animals than hydroxocobalamin- or saline-treated animals, with a recovery time constant of 13.8+/-7.1 min compared to 75.4+/-25.1 and 76.4+/-42.7 min, for hydroxocobalamin- and saline-treated animals, respectively (p<0.0001). This study indicates that cobinamide more rapidly and completely reverses the physiologic effects of cyanide than equimolar doses of cobalamin at the dose used in this study, and CN effects and response can be followed noninvasively using DOS.
Journal of Biomedical Optics 01/2010; 15(1):017001. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway is highly conserved throughout evolution and regulates cell size and survival and cell cycle progression. It regulates the latter by stimulating procession through G(1) and the G(1)/S phase transition. Entry into S phase requires an abundant supply of purine nucleotides, but the effect of the PI3K/Akt pathway on purine synthesis has not been studied. We now show that the PI3K/Akt cassette regulates both de novo and salvage purine nucleotide synthesis in insulin-responsive mouse mesenchymal cells. We found that serum and insulin stimulated de novo purine synthesis in serum-starved cells largely through PI3K/Akt signaling, and pharmacologic and genetic inhibition of PI3K/Akt reduced de novo synthesis by 75% in logarithmically growing cells. PI3K/Akt regulated early steps of de novo synthesis by modulating phosphoribosylpyrophosphate production by the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and late steps by modulating activity of the bifunctional enzyme aminoimidazole-carboxamide ribonucleotide transformylase IMP cyclohydrolase, an enzyme not previously known to be regulated. The effects of PI3K/Akt on purine nucleotide salvage were likely through regulating phosphoribosylpyrophosphate availability. These studies define a new mechanism whereby the PI3K/Akt cassette functions as a master regulator of cellular metabolism and a key player in oncogenesis.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2009; 284(6):3521-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor