Yohey Terai

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Миура, Kanagawa, Japan

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Publications (30)275.97 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: When a population size is reduced, genetic drift may fix slightly deleterious mutations, and an increase in nonsynonymous substitution is expected. It has been suggested that past aridity has seriously affected and decreased the populations of cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria, while geographical studies have shown that the water levels in Lake Tanganyika and Lake Malawi have remained fairly constant. The comparably stable environments in the latter two lakes might have kept the populations of cichlid fishes large enough to remove slightly deleterious mutations. The difference in the stability of cichlid fish population sizes between Lake Victoria and the Lakes Tanganyika and Malawi is expected to have caused differences in the nonsynonymous/synonymous ratio, ω (=dN/dS), of the evolutionary rate. Here, we estimated ω and compared it between the cichlids of the three lakes for 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes using maximum likelihood methods. We found that the lineages of the cichlids in Lake Victoria had a significantly higher ω for several mitochondrial loci. Moreover, positive selection was indicated for several codons in the mtDNA of the Lake Victoria cichlid lineage. Our results indicate that both adaptive and slightly deleterious molecular evolution has taken place in the Lake Victoria cichlids' mtDNA genes, whose nonsynonymous sites are generally conserved.
    Gene 09/2014; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Speciation by sensory drive can occur if divergent adaptation of sensory systems causes rapid evolution of mating traits and the resulting development of assortative mating. Previous theoretical studies have shown that sensory drive can cause rapid divergent adaptive evolution from one to two phenotypes. In this study, we examined two topics: the possibility of adaptive radiation by sensory drive from one to more than two phenotypes and the relationships of patterns of variation at selectively neutral genes to levels of viability selection, habitat and mating preferences and migration. We conducted individual-based simulations assuming a sensory trait and a mating trait controlled by a small number of loci. We found that adaptive radiation is possible when the number of loci controlling the sensory trait is small; the levels of viability selection, habitat and mating preferences are intermediate; and the emigration rate is high. We also found that emigration rates as well as the levels of habitat and mating preferences are related to F ST values at neutral loci, but F ST proved to be insensitive to a small change in the number of loci controlling the mating trait. This suggests that an estimation of the past population history is possible without an accurate genetic model.
    Evolutionary Ecology 04/2014; · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cichlid fishes in the African Great Lakes are known as a spectacular example of adaptive radiation in vertebrates. Four linkage maps have been constructed to identify the genes responsible for adaptation and speciation, and the genetic linkages of those genes are assumed to play an important role during adaptive evolution. However, it is difficult to analyze such linkages because the linkage groups of one species do not match well with those of the other species. Chromosome markers are a powerful tool for the direct identification of linkage homology between different species. We used information about the linkage map of the Lake Malawi cichlid (Labeotropheus fuelleborni/Metriaclima zebra) to isolate bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from the BAC library of Paralabidochromis chilotes, Lake Victoria. We identified 18 of 22 P. chilotes chromosomes by single- and multi-color BAC fluorescence in situ hybridization using 19 BAC clones. Comparative mapping with the chromosome markers of P. chilotes in Astatotilapia burtoni (2n = 40) from Lake Tanganyika revealed the chromosome rearrangements that have occurred in this lineage. These chromosome markers will be useful for delineating the process of genome and chromosome evolution in African species. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Cytogenetic and Genome Research 11/2013; · 1.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The approximately 700 species of cichlids found in Lake Victoria in East Africa are thought to have evolved over a short period of time, and they represent one of the largest known examples of adaptive radiation. To understand the processes that are driving this spectacular radiation, we must determine the present genetic structure of these species and elucidate how this structure relates to the ecological conditions that caused their adaptation. We analyzed the genetic structure of two pelagic and seven littoral species sampled from the southeast area of Lake Victoria using sequences from the mtDNA control region and 12 microsatellite loci as markers. Using a Bayesian model-based clustering method to analyze the microsatellite data, we separated these nine species into four groups: one group composed of pelagic species and another three groups composed mainly of rocky-shore species. Furthermore, we found significant levels of genetic variation between species within each group at both marker loci using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), although the nine species often shared mtDNA haplotypes. We also found significant levels of genetic variation between populations within species. These results suggest that initial groupings, some of which appear to have been related to habitat differences, as well as divergence between species within groups took place among the cichlid species of Lake Victoria.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e74088. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Ryutaro Miyagi, Yohey Terai
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    ABSTRACT: The amazing coloration shown by diverse cichlid fish not only fascinates aquarium keepers, but also receives great attention from biologists interested in speciation because of its recently-revealed role in their adaptive radiation in an African lake. We review the important role of coloration in the speciation and adaptive evolution of Lake Victoria cichlids, which have experienced adaptive radiation during a very short evolutionary period. Mature male cichlids display their colors during mate choice. The color of their skin reflects light, and the reflected light forms a color signal that is received by the visual system of females. The adaptive divergence of visual perceptions shapes and diverges colorations, to match the adapted visual perceptions. The divergence of visual perception and coloration indicates that the divergence of color signals causes reproductive isolation between species, and this process leads to speciation. Differences in color signals among coexisting species act to maintain reproductive isolation by preventing hybridization. Thus, the diversity of coloration has caused speciation and has maintained species diversity in Lake Victoria cichlids.
    Genes & Genetic Systems 01/2013; 88(3):145-53. · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reproductive isolation that prevents interspecific hybridization between closely related coexisting species maintains sympatric species diversity. One of the reproductive isolations is mate choice based on color signals (breeding color perceived by color vision). This is well known in several animal taxa, yet little is known about its genetic and molecular mechanism. Lake Victoria cichlid fishes are thought to be an example of sympatric species diversity. In the species inhabiting different light environments in rocky shore, speciation by sensory drive through color signals has been proposed by analyses of the long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsin gene and the male nuptial coloration. However, the genetic and molecular mechanism of how diversity of sympatric species occurring in the same habitat is maintained remains unknown. To address this issue, we determined nucleotide sequences of eight opsins of six sympatric species collected from a sandy-muddy shore-an ideal model system for studying sympatric species. Among eight opsins, the LWS and RH1 alleles were diversified and one particular allele is dominant or fixed in each species, and we propose that this is due to natural selection. The functions of their LWS alleles were also diversified as shown by absorption measurements of reconstituted visual pigments. To analyze the relationship between nuptial coloration and the absorption of LWS pigments, we systematically evaluated and defined nuptial coloration. We showed that the coloration was species specific with respect to hue and significantly differentiated by the index values of hue (dominant wavelength: λ(d)). The λ(d) value of the male nuptial coloration correlated with the absorption of LWS pigments from all the species, suggesting that reproductive isolation through mate choice using color signals may prevent sympatric interspecific hybridization, thereby maintaining the species diversity in sympatric species in Lake Victoria.
    Molecular Biology and Evolution 05/2012; 29(11):3281-96. · 14.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The endemic cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria are a model system for speciation through adaptive radiation. Although the evolution of the sex-determination system may also play a role in speciation, little is known about the sex-determination system of Lake Victoria cichlids. To understand the evolution of the sex-determination system in these fish, we performed cytogenetic analysis in 11 cichlid species from Lake Victoria. B chromosomes, which are present in addition to standard chromosomes, were found at a high prevalence rate (85%) in these cichlids. In one species, B chromosomes were female-specific. Cross-breeding using females with and without the B chromosomes demonstrated that the presence of the B chromosomes leads to a female-biased sex ratio in this species. Although B chromosomes were believed to be selfish genetic elements with little effect on phenotype and to lack protein-coding genes, the present study provides evidence that B chromosomes have a functional effect on female sex determination. FISH analysis using a BAC clone containing B chromosome DNA suggested that the B chromosomes are derived from sex chromosomes. Determination of the nucleotide sequences of this clone (104.5 kb) revealed the presence of several protein-coding genes in the B chromosome, suggesting that B chromosomes have the potential to contain functional genes. Because some sex chromosomes in amphibians and arthropods are thought to be derived from B chromosomes, the B chromosomes in Lake Victoria cichlids may represent an evolutionary transition toward the generation of sex chromosomes.
    PLoS Genetics 08/2011; 7(8):e1002203. · 8.52 Impact Factor
  • Yohey Terai, Norihiro Okada
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    ABSTRACT: What is the mechanism that drives speciation? This question is a major issue for Darwinian evolution and remains to be solved. Recently, a small teleost fish has provided an opportunity to study speciation. The lakes of East Africa harbor more than 1,000 closely related cichlid fishes. These populations are an ideal model system for understanding vertebrate speciation. In particular, the cichlid fish of Lake Victoria provide a unique opportunity to understand the molecular basis of speciation. Studies on these cichlids have led researchers to propose that the long-wavelength-sensitive opsin (LWS) gene was a strong candidate gene that has been responsible for speciation. Further analyses of the LWS gene and breeding coloration showed speciation by sensory drive in which adaptation of the sensory system for a particular environment drives the divergence of mating signals and leads to reproductive isolation. Therefore, sensory drive speciation may be one of the key mechanisms underlying the diversification of African cichlids. Moreover, we discuss the possibility of reproductive isolation by other sensors.
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    ABSTRACT: Reverse evolution is a widespread phenomenon in biology, but the genetic mechanism for the reversal of a genetic change for adaptation to the ancestral state is not known. Here, we report the first case of complete reverse evolution of two amino acids, serine and alanine, at a single position in RH1 opsin pigment for adaptation to water depth. We determined RH1 sequences of cichlid fishes from four tribes of Lake Tanganyika with different habitat depths. Most of the species were divided into two types: RH1 with 292A for species in shallow water or 292S for species in deep water. Both types were adapted to their ambient light environments as indicated by the absorption spectra of the RH1 pigments. Based on the RH1 locus tree and ecological data, we inferred the ancestral amino acids at position 292 and the distribution of the depth ranges (shallow or deep) of ancestral species of each tribe. According to these estimates, we identified two distinct parallel adaptive evolutions: The replacement A292S occurred at least four times for adaptation from shallow to deep water, and the opposite replacement S292A occurred three times for adaptation from deep to shallow water. The latter parallelism represents the complete reverse evolution from the derived to the ancestral state, following back adaptive mutation with reversal of the RH1 pigment function accompanied by reversal of the species habitat shift.
    Molecular Biology and Evolution 12/2010; 28(6):1769-76. · 14.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria show spectacular diversification that is thought to be recent. Therefore, by investigating those fishes, we may be able to elucidate recently completed or ongoing speciation processes. We studied the population structures of two closely related pelagic cichlid species, Haplochromis pyrrhocephalus and H. laparogramma, using a mitochondrial DNA locus and 12 nuclear microsatellite loci as putative neutral markers. Ten and two populations of H. pyrrhocephalus and H. laparogramma, respectively, were sampled from the southern part of Lake Victoria. We grouped those 12 populations into four mutually differentiated regional populations, one of which consisted of the two H. laparogramma populations. The levels of differentiation were substantial at the mitochondrial locus (F(ST) = 0.03-0.54), but very low at microsatellite loci (R(ST) = 0.008-0.116). The data from both types of loci indicated that the regional population of H. laparogramma was first separated from those of H. pyrrhocephalus if we set aside one erratic population of H. pyrrhocephalus. The data also suggested recent population expansions of the two species, the time scales for which were estimated to be on the order of 10(4)-10(5) years. These data suggested that dynamic speciation processes accompanied occasional spawning of new species and population size changes in this lake.
    Gene 12/2008; 441(1-2):67-73. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Theoretically, divergent selection on sensory systems can cause speciation through sensory drive. However, empirical evidence is rare and incomplete. Here we demonstrate sensory drive speciation within island populations of cichlid fish. We identify the ecological and molecular basis of divergent evolution in the cichlid visual system, demonstrate associated divergence in male colouration and female preferences, and show subsequent differentiation at neutral loci, indicating reproductive isolation. Evidence is replicated in several pairs of sympatric populations and species. Variation in the slope of the environmental gradients explains variation in the progress towards speciation: speciation occurs on all but the steepest gradients. This is the most complete demonstration so far of speciation through sensory drive without geographical isolation. Our results also provide a mechanistic explanation for the collapse of cichlid fish species diversity during the anthropogenic eutrophication of Lake Victoria.
    Nature 11/2008; 455(7213):620-6. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heterotypy is now recognized as a generative force in the formation of new proteins through modification of existing proteins. We report that heterotypy in the N-terminal region of the mature growth/differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) protein occurred during evolution of teleosts. N-terminal length variation of GDF5 was found among teleost interfamilies and interorders but not within teleost families or among tetrapods. We further show that increase of proline and glutamine to the N-terminal region of mature GDF5 occurred in Eurypterygii, the higher lineage of teleosts. Because the basic amino acids, believed to control diffusion, are conserved in this region across all species examined, we suggest that the N-terminal elongation of the mature GDF5 protein during evolution has altered the protein diffusion in Eurypterygii, leading to high concentrations of the protein in the joint of the pharyngeal skeleton, the location of cartilage formation during development.
    Molecular Biology and Evolution 05/2008; 25(5):797-800. · 14.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Divergent natural selection acting on ecological traits, which also affect mate choice, is a key element of ecological speciation theory, but has not previously been demonstrated at the molecular gene level to our knowledge. Here we demonstrate parallel evolution in two cichlid genera under strong divergent selection in a gene that affects both. Strong divergent natural selection fixed opsin proteins with different predicted light absorbance properties at opposite ends of an environmental gradient. By expressing them and measuring absorbance, we show that the reciprocal fixation adapts populations to divergent light environments. The divergent evolution of the visual system coincides with divergence in male breeding coloration, consistent with incipient ecological by-product speciation.
    PLoS Biology 01/2007; 4(12):e433. · 12.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We constructed a second-generation linkage map of tilapia from the F(2) progeny of an interspecific cross between Oreochromis niloticus and Oreochromis aureus. The map reported here contains 525 microsatellite and 21 gene-based markers. It spans 1311 cM in 24 linkage groups, for an average marker spacing of 2.4 cM. We detected associations of sex and red color with markers on linkage group 3. This map will enable mapping and selective breeding of quantitative traits important to the economic culture of tilapia as a food fish and will contribute to the study of closely related cichlids that have undergone explosive adaptive radiation in the lakes of East Africa.
    Genetics 06/2005; 170(1):237-44. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many examples of the appearance of similar traits in different lineages are known during the evolution of organisms. However, the underlying genetic mechanisms have been elucidated in very few cases. Here, we provide a clear example of evolutionary parallelism, involving changes in the same genetic pathway, providing functional adaptation of RH1 pigments to deep-water habitats during the adaptive radiation of East African cichlid fishes. We determined the RH1 sequences from 233 individual cichlids. The reconstruction of cichlid RH1 pigments with 11-cis-retinal from 28 sequences showed that the absorption spectra of the pigments of nine species were shifted toward blue, tuned by two particular amino acid replacements. These blue-shifted RH1 pigments might have evolved as adaptations to the deep-water photic environment. Phylogenetic evidence indicates that one of the replacements, A292S, has evolved several times independently, inducing similar functional change. The parallel evolution of the same mutation at the same amino acid position suggests that the number of genetic changes underlying the appearance of similar traits in cichlid diversification may be fewer than previously expected.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2005; 102(15):5448-53. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cichlid fishes in the East African Great Lakes exhibit a great diversity of color patterns, presumably as adaptations to species-specific habitats and/or due to the action of sexual selection on color for species discrimination or female mate choice. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying such pigment pattern diversity, we cloned the cichlid homologs of tyrosinase, endothelin receptor b1, mitf, and Aim1 that previously had been cloned and characterized from pigmentation mutants of zebrafish and medaka fish. Gene sequence analysis among five cichlid species from the Great Lakes shows that the evolutionary rate of amino acid replacement in mitf is the highest of these four genes. We then compared the mitf amino acid replacement rates between species from the lacustrine and tilapiine/steatocranus lineages, and between Lake Malawi- and Victoria-haplochromine cichlids and Lake Tanganyika Lamprologini. We show that the evolutionary rate within the lacustrine lineage is twice that of the tilapiine/steatocranus lineage, but that rates for the Malawi-Victoria haplochromine and Lamprologini lineages are almost the same. These results suggest that the accelerated evolution of mitf might have occurred concomitantly with pigment pattern diversification in Great Lakes species, but not necessarily correlated with species under intense sexual selection on male mating color via female mate choice. Finally, we characterized a novel alternatively spliced variant of cichlid mitf that is similar to a mammalian mitf splice variant generated using alternate splice sites. We suggest that this new variant in cichlids, like that in mammals, encodes an MITF transcriptional factor having higher relative DNA binding affinity. These data provide a novel example of functional convergence in which a particular splice variant is independently generated via alternative splicing of a specific gene in different lineages.
    Gene 01/2005; 343(2):337-46. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genomic DNA libraries were prepared from two endemic species of Lake Victoria haplochromine (cichlid) fish and used to isolate and characterize a set of short interspersed elements (SINEs). The distribution and sequences of the SINEs were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among East African haplochromines. The SINE-based classification divides the fish into four groups, which, in order of their divergence from a stem lineage, are the endemic Lake Tanganyika flock (group 1); fish of the nonendemic, monotypic, widely distributed genus Astatoreochromis (group 2); the endemic Lake Malawi flock (group 3); and group 4, which contains fish from widely dispersed East African localities including Lakes Victoria, Edward, George, Albert, and Rukwa, as well as many rivers. The group 4 haplochromines are characterized by a subset of polymorphic SINEs, each of which is present in some individuals and absent in others of the same population at a given locality, the same morphologically defined species, and the same mtDNA-defined haplogroup. SINE-defined group 4 contains six of the seven previously described mtDNA haplogroups. One of the polymorphic SINEs appears to be fixed in the endemic Lake Victoria flock; four others display the presence-or-absence polymorphism within the species of this flock. These findings have implications for the origin of Lake Victoria cichlids and for their founding population sizes.
    Journal of Molecular Evolution 02/2004; 58(1):64-78. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The adaptive radiation of cichlid fishes in the lakes of East Africa is a prime example of speciation. The choice of cichlid mates on the basis of a variety of coloration represents a potential basis for speciation that led to adaptive radiation. Here, we characterize the cichlid homolog of the zebrafish hagoromo (hag) gene that was recently cloned and characterized from a pigmentation mutant. Although only one hag mRNA was reported in zebrafish, cichlids express nine different hag mRNAs resulting from alternative splicing. The hag mRNAs are expressed between the myotome and the epidermis where pigment cells are located, suggesting the cichlid hag gene is involved in pigmentation. The hag mRNA splicing pattern does not fluctuate among individuals from each of two species, suggesting that alternative splice site choice is fixed within species. Furthermore, cichlids in lineages that underwent explosive speciation expressed a greater variety of hag mRNAs than those in lineages that did not undergo such a degree of speciation, suggesting that species in the explosively speciated lineage acquired a complex regulatory mechanism of alternative splicing over a very short evolutionary period. Here, we provide an example in which alternative splicing may play a role in mate choice, leading to cichlid speciation through diversification of gene function by production of multiple mRNAs from a single gene.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2003; 100(22):12798-803. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cichlid fishes of the east African Great Lakes represent a paradigm of adaptive radiation. We conducted a phylogenetic analysis of cichlids including pan-African and west African species by using insertion patterns of short interspersed elements (SINEs) at orthologous loci. The monophyly of the east African cichlids was consistently supported by seven independent insertions of SINE sequences that are uniquely shared by these species. In addition, data from four other loci indicated that the genera Tilapia (pan-African) and Steatocranus (west African) are the closest relatives to east African cichlids. However, relationships among Tilapia, Steatocranus, and the east African clade were ambiguous because of incongruencies among topologies suggested by insertion patterns of SINEs at six other loci. One plausible explanation for this phenomenon is incomplete lineage sorting of alleles containing or missing a SINE insertion at these loci during ancestral speciation. Such incomplete sorting may have taken place earlier than 14 MYA, followed by random and stochastic fixation of the alleles in subsequent lineages. These observations prompted us to consider the possibility that cichlid speciation occurred at an accelerated rate during this period when the African Great Lakes did not exist. The SINE method could be useful for detecting ancient exclusive speciation events that tend to remain hidden during conventional sequence analyses because of accumulated point mutations.
    Molecular Biology and Evolution 07/2003; 20(6):924-30. · 14.31 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
275.97 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • The Graduate University for Advanced Studies
      Миура, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 2013
    • Hokkaido University
      • Faculty of Science
      Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan
    • Tokyo Metropolitan University
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2008–2013
    • Kyushu University
      • • Department of Biology
      • • Faculty of Sciences
      Fukuoka-shi, Fukuoka-ken, Japan
    • Universität Bern
      • Institut für Parasitologie
      Bern, BE, Switzerland
  • 1996–2012
    • Tokyo Institute of Technology
      • Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 1997
    • Iwate University
      • Faculty of Agriculture
      Morioka-shi, Iwate-ken, Japan