Hidemi Hatabayashi

National Food Research Institute, Ibaragi, Ōsaka, Japan

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Publications (7)22.77 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Aspergillus parasiticus produces the minor aflatoxins M(1) (AFM(1)), M(2) (AFM(2)), GM(1) (AFGM(1)), and GM(2) (AFGM(2)), as well as the major aflatoxins B(1) (AFB(1)), B(2) (AFB(2)), G(1) (AFG(1)), and G(2) (AFG(2)). Feeding of A. parasiticus with aspertoxin (12c-hydroxyOMST) caused AFM(1) and AFGM(1), and cell-free experiments using the microsomal fraction of A. parasiticus and aspertoxin caused production of AFM(1), indicating that aspertoxin is a precursor of AFM(1) and AFGM(1). Feeding of the same fungus with O-methylsterigmatocystin (OMST) caused AFM(1) and AFGM(1) together with AFB(1) and AFG(1); feeding with dihydroOMST (DHOMST) caused AFM(2) and AFGM(2) together with AFB(2) and AFG(2). Incubation of either the microsomal fraction or OrdA enzyme-expressing yeast with OMST caused production of aspertoxin together with AFM(1) and AFB(1). These results demonstrated that the OrdA enzyme catalyzes both 12c-hydroxylation reaction from OMST to aspertoxin and the successive reaction from aspertoxin to AFM(1). In contrast, feeding of the fungus with AFB(1) did not produce any AFM(1), demonstrating that M-/GM-aflatoxins are not produced from B-/G-aflatoxins. Furthermore, AFM(1) together with AFB(1) and AFG(1) was also produced from 11-hydroxyOMST (HOMST) in feeding experiment of A. parasiticus, whereas no aflatoxins were produced when used the ordA deletion mutant. These results demonstrated that OrdA enzyme can also catalyze 12c-hydroxylation of HOMST to produce 11-hydroxyaspertoxin, which serves as a precursor for the production of AFM(1) and AFGM(1). The same pathway may work for the production of AFM(2) and AFGM(2) from DHOMST and dihydroHOMST through the formation of dihydroaspertoxin and dihydro-11-hydroxyaspertoxin, respectively.
    Fungal Genetics and Biology 06/2012; 49(9):744-54. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Five carboxin-resistant mutants from Aspergillus oryzae were characterized by the sensitivities of their mycelial growth and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity to carboxin and three related fungicides. Despite a significant resistance to carboxin, exhibited by all the mutants, their patterns of sensitivity to the other fungicides was distinct. This provides clues to the molecular interaction between SDH and these fungicides.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 01/2011; 75(1):181-4. · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In aflatoxin biosynthesis, aflatoxins G(1) (AFG(1)) and B(1) (AFB(1)) are independently produced from a common precursor, O-methylsterigmatocystin (OMST). Recently, 11-hydroxy-O-methylsterigmatocystin (HOMST) was suggested to be a later precursor involved in the conversion of OMST to AFB(1), and conversion of HOMST to AFB(1) was catalyzed by OrdA enzyme. However, the involvement of HOMST in AFG(1) formation has not been determined. In this work, HOMST was prepared by incubating OrdA-expressing yeast with OMST. Feeding Aspergillus parasiticus with HOMST allowed production of AFG(1) as well as AFB(1). In cell-free systems, HOMST was converted to AFG(1) when the microsomal fraction, the cytosolic fraction from A. parasiticus, and yeast expressing A. parasiticus OrdA were added. These results demonstrated (1) HOMST is produced from OMST by OrdA, (2) HOMST is a precursor of AFG(1) as well as AFB(1), and (3) three enzymes, OrdA, CypA, and NadA, and possibly other unknown enzymes are involved in conversion of HOMST to AFG(1).
    Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 12/2010; 90(2):635-50. · 3.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutants exhibiting resistance to the fungicide, carboxin, were isolated from Aspergillus oryzae, and the mutations in the three gene loci, which encode succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) B, C, and D subunits, were identified to be independently responsible for the resistance. A structural model of the SDH revealed the different mechanisms that confer carboxin-resistance in different mutations. The mutant AosdhB gene (AosdhB(cxr)) was further examined for possible use as a transformant selection marker. After transformation with AosdhB(cxr), carboxin-resistant colonies appeared within 4 days of culture, and all of the examined colonies carried the transgene. Insertion analyses revealed that the AosdhB(cxr) gene was integrated into AosdhB locus via homologous recombination at high efficiency. Furthermore, AosdhB(cxr) functioned as a successful selection marker in a transformation experiment in Aspergillus parasiticus, suggesting that this transformation system can be used for Aspergillus species.
    Fungal Genetics and Biology 11/2008; 46(1):67-76. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The nadA gene is present at the end of the aflatoxin gene cluster in the genome of Aspergillus parasiticus as well as in Aspergillus flavus. RT-PCR analyses showed that the nadA gene was expressed in an aflatoxin-inducible YES medium, but not in an aflatoxin-non-inducible YEP medium. The nadA gene was not expressed in the aflR gene-deletion mutant, irrespective of the culture medium used. To clarify the nadA gene's function, we disrupted the gene in aflatoxigenic A. parasiticus. The four nadA-deletion mutants that were isolated commonly accumulated a novel yellow-fluorescent pigment (named NADA) in mycelia as well as in culture medium. When the mutants and the wild-type strain were cultured for 3 days in YES medium, the mutants each produced about 50% of the amounts of G-group aflatoxins that the wild-type strain produced. In contrast, the amounts of B-group aflatoxins did not significantly differ between the mutants and the wild-type strain. The NADA pigment was so unstable that it could non-enzymatically change to aflatoxin G(1) (AFG(1)). LC-MS measurement showed that the molecular mass of NADA was 360, which is 32 higher than that of AFG(1). We previously reported that at least one cytosol enzyme, together with two other microsome enzymes, is necessary for the formation of AFG(1) from O-methylsterigmatocystin (OMST) in the cell-free system of A. parasiticus. The present study confirmed that the cytosol fraction of the wild-type A.parasiticus strain significantly enhanced the AFG(1) formation from OMST, whereas the cytosol fraction of the nadA-deletion mutant did not show the same activity. Furthermore, the cytosol fraction of the wild-type strain showed the enzyme activity catalyzing the reaction from NADA to AFG(1), which required NADPH or NADH, indicating that NADA is a precursor of AFG(1); in contrast, the cytosol fraction of the nadA-deletion mutant did not show the same enzyme activity. These results demonstrated that the NadA protein is the cytosol enzyme required for G-aflatoxin biosynthesis from OMST, and that it catalyzes the reaction from NADA to AFG(1), the last step in G-aflatoxin biosynthesis.
    Fungal Genetics and Biology 08/2008; 45(7):1081-93. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway, 5'-oxoaverantin (OAVN) cyclase, the cytosolic enzyme, catalyzes the reaction from OAVN to (2'S,5'S)-averufin (AVR) (E. Sakuno, K. Yabe, and H. Nakajima, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:6418-6426, 2003). Interestingly, the N-terminal 25-amino-acid sequence of OAVN cyclase completely matched an internal sequence of the versiconal (VHOH) cyclase that was deduced from its gene (vbs). The purified OAVN cyclase also catalyzed the reaction from VHOH to versicolorin B (VB). In a competition experiment using the cytosol fraction of Aspergillus parasiticus, a high concentration of VHOH inhibited the enzyme reaction from OAVN to AVR, and instead VB was newly formed. The recombinant Vbs protein, which was expressed in Pichia pastoris, showed OAVN cyclase activity, as well as VHOH cyclase activity. A mutant of A. parasiticus SYS-4 (= NRRL 2999) with vbs deleted accumulated large amounts of OAVN, 5'-hydroxyaverantin, averantin, AVR, and averufanin in the mycelium. These results indicated that the cyclase encoded by the vbs gene is also involved in the reaction from OAVN to AVR in aflatoxin biosynthesis. Small amounts of VHOH, VB, and aflatoxins also accumulated in the same mutant, and this accumulation may have been due to an unknown enzyme(s) not involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis. This is the first report of one enzyme catalyzing two different reactions in a pathway of secondary metabolism.
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 07/2005; 71(6):2999-3006. · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pathway oxoaverantin (OAVN) --> averufin (AVR) --> hydroxyversicolorone (HVN) --> versiconal hemiacetal acetate (VHA) is involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis, and the cypX and moxY genes, which are present in the aflatoxin gene cluster, have been previously suggested to be involved in this pathway. To clarify the function of these two genes in more detail, we disrupted the genes in aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999. The cypX-deleted mutant lost aflatoxin productivity and accumulated AVR in the mycelia. Although this mutant converted HVN, versicolorone (VONE), VHA, and versiconol acetate (VOAc) to aflatoxins in feeding experiments, it could not produce aflatoxins from either OAVN or AVR. The moxY-deleted mutant also lost aflatoxin productivity, whereas it newly accumulated HVN and VONE. In feeding experiments, this mutant converted either VHA or VOAc to aflatoxins but did not convert OAVN, AVR, HVN, or VONE to aflatoxins. These results demonstrated that cypX encodes AVR monooxygenase, catalyzing the reaction from AVR to HVN, and moxY encodes HVN monooxygenase, catalyzing a Baeyer-Villiger reaction from HVN to VHA as well as from VONE to VOAc. In this work, we devised a simple and rapid method to extract DNA from many fungi for PCR analyses in which cell disruption with a shaker and phenol extraction were combined.
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 06/2005; 71(6):3192-8. · 3.95 Impact Factor