[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uropathogenic and invasive Escherichia coli O25:H4-ST131 isolates producing CTX-M-15 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes have recently been shown to be disseminated across the globe. In the UK, many CTX-M-15 ESBL-producing E. coli strains have been previously defined as belonging to the epidemic strains A-E, as determined by PFGE. The present study was carried out to define the relationship between these two groups of pathogenic E. coli.
Multilocus sequence typing and PFGE were used for molecular characterization of a collection of 61 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates from across the UK.
Strains A to E all belonged to the ST131 clone, further underscoring the epidemiological importance of this lineage.
The future spread of the ST131 clone, and its UK variants, should be monitored closely and the pathogenic mechanisms explaining their success should be investigated.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 10/2008; 62(6):1241-4. · 5.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 88 uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates, including 68 isolates from urine and 20 isolates from blood, were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). MLST has identified an important genetic lineage of E. coli, designated sequence type 131 (ST-131), represented by 52 of these isolates, 51 of which were resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. ST-131 appears to be a drug-resistant uropathogenic strain of E. coli responsible for causing urinary tract infections and bacteremia and is widely disseminated among both community and hospital patients from different geographical areas in the northwest of England. Application of MLST has helped to define the population biology which may underpin the epidemiology of pathogenic E. coli strains. The portability of MLST allows the accurate monitoring of this antibiotic-resistant uropathogenic strain of E. coli and will enhance surveillance for this important group of organisms.
Journal of clinical microbiology 04/2008; 46(3):1076-80. · 4.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the distribution of acquired AmpC beta-lactamases in 173 isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. submitted to the UK's national reference laboratory for antibiotic resistance.
MICs were determined and interpreted according to BSAC guidelines. Candidate isolates were those resistant to cefotaxime and/or ceftazidime, irrespective of addition of clavulanic acid. Genes encoding six phylogenetic groups of acquired AmpC enzymes were sought by PCR. Selected isolates were compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and one bla(AmpC) amplicon was sequenced.
Genes encoding acquired AmpC enzymes were detected in 67 (49%) candidate E. coli and 21 (55%) Klebsiella spp. Sixty isolates produced CIT-type enzymes, 14 had ACC types, 11 had FOX types and 3 had DHA enzymes. The low-level cephalosporin resistance of the remaining isolates (n = 85; 49%) was inferred to result from reduced permeability or, in E. coli, from hyperexpression of chromosomal ampC. Twenty-four E. coli isolates from one hospital produced a CIT-type enzyme, with 20 of these additionally producing a group 1 CTX-M extended-spectrum beta-lactamase. PFGE indicated that these isolates belonged to UK epidemic strain A, which normally produces CTX-M-15, but no acquired AmpC. Sequencing a representative bla(AmpC) amplicon indicated that in one centre this strain had acquired a novel CMY-2 variant, designated CMY-23.
Diverse acquired AmpC enzymes occur in E. coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates in the UK and Ireland, with CIT types the most common. Producers are geographically scattered, but with some local outbreaks. Acquisition of a CMY-2-like enzyme by E. coli epidemic strain A suggests that these enzymes may be poised to become an important public health issue.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 02/2007; 59(1):102-5. · 5.34 Impact Factor