Attila Nakeeb

Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States

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Publications (107)517.14 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic body/tail and associated vascular thrombosis or adjacent organ invasion are suboptimal candidates for resection. We hypothesized that extended distal pancreatectomy (EDP) for locally advanced adenocarcinoma is associated with a survival benefit. We retrospectively reviewed a prospectively collected database of patients who underwent distal pancreatectomy (DP) for adenocarcinoma at a single academic institution (1996 to 2011) with greater than or equal to 2 years of follow-up. Among 680 DP patients, 93 were indicated for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Splenic vein thrombosis (n = 26) did not significantly affect morbidity, mortality, or survival. Standard DP was performed in 70 patients and 23 underwent EDP with no difference in morbidity/mortality. Patients with EDP had a survival comparable with patients with standard DP (disease-free survival 18 vs 12 months = .8; overall survival 23 vs 17 months, P =.6). There was no difference in survival between EDP patients with versus without pathologic invasion of adjacent organs, but a trend favored those without. EDP is safe and should be considered in fit patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The American Journal of Surgery 12/2014; · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As such, the natural history of MPD-involved IPMN is poorly understood.
    Annals of surgery. 10/2014; 260(4):680-690.
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Pancreatitis is associated with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). This association is in part due to inflammation from pancreatic ductal obstruction. Although the correlation between pancreatitis and the malignant potential of IPMN is unclear, the 2012 International Consensus Guidelines (ICG) consider pancreatitis a “worrisome feature.” We hypothesized that serum pancreatic enzymes, markers of inflammation, are a better predictor of malignancy than pancreatitis in patients with IPMN. Methods Between 1992 and 2012, 364 patients underwent resection for IPMN at a single university hospital. In the past decade, serum amylase and lipase were collected prospectively as an inflammatory marker in 203 patients with IPMN at initial surveillance and “cyst clinic” visits. The latest serum pancreatic enzyme values within 3 months preoperatively were studied. Pancreatitis was defined according to the 2012 revision of the Atlanta Consensus. Results Of the 203 eligible patients, there were 76 with pancreatitis. Pancreatitis was not associated with an increased rate of malignancy (P = .51) or invasiveness (P = .08). Serum pancreatic enzymes categorically outside of normal range (high or low) were also not associated with malignancy or invasiveness. In contrast, as a continuous variable, the higher the serum pancreatic enzymes were, the greater the rate of invasive IPMN. Of the 127 remaining patients without pancreatitis, serum pancreatic enzymes outside of normal range (low and high) were each associated with a greater rate of malignancy (P < .0001 and P = .0009, respectively). Serum pancreatic enzyme levels above normal range (high) were associated with a greater rate of invasiveness (P = .02). Conclusion In patients with IPMN without a history of pancreatitis, serum pancreatic enzymes outside of the normal range are associated with a greater risk of malignancy. In patients with a history of pancreatitis, there is a positive correlation between the levels of serum pancreatic enzymes and the presence of invasive IPMN. These data suggest serum pancreatic enzymes may be useful markers in stratification of pancreatic cancer risk in patients with IPMN.
    Surgery 10/2014; 156(4):923–930. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine if early recognition and treatment of delayed gastric emptying (DGE) can augment postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing pancreatectomy.
    Surgery 08/2014; · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adjuvant therapy after surgical resection is the current standard for pancreatic adenocarcinoma; however, the role of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) remains unclear. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy outcomes with adjuvant gemcitabine and gemcitabine-based CRT (CT-CRT) versus gemcitabine chemotherapy (CT) alone after pancreaticoduodenectomy.
    American Journal of Clinical Oncology 08/2014; · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the natural history of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) remains unclear, large surgical series have reported malignancy in 40% to 90% of main pancreatic duct (MPD)-involved IPMN. Accordingly, the 2012 International Consensus Guidelines recommend surgical resection in patients with suspected MPD involvement. We hypothesized that nonoperative management of select patients with suspected MPD-involved IPMN might be indicated.
    Journal of the American College of Surgeons 03/2014; · 4.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) remains a challenging operation with a 40 % postoperative complication rate. Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is an uncommon complication following PD with little information on its incidence or treatment. This study was done to examine the incidence, risk factors, treatment, and long-term outcome of PLA after PD. We retrospectively reviewed 1,189 patients undergoing PD (N = 839) or distal pancreatectomy (DP) (N = 350) at a single institution over a 14-year period (January 1, 1994-January 1, 2008). Pancreatic databases (PD and DP) were queried for postoperative complications and cross-checked through a hospital-wide database using ICD-9 codes 572.0 (PLA) and 006.3 (amebic liver abscess) as primary or secondary diagnoses. No PLA occurred following DP. Twenty-two patients (2.6 %) developed PLA following PD. These 22 patients were matched (1:3) for age, gender, year of operation, and indication for surgery with 66 patients without PLA following PD. PLA occurred in 2.6 % (22/839) of patients following PD, with 13 patients (59.1 %) having a solitary abscess and 9 (40.9 %) multiple abscesses. Treatment involved antibiotics and percutaneous drainage (N = 15, 68.2 %) or antibiotics alone (N = 7, 31.8 %) with a mean hospital stay of 12 days. No patient required surgical drainage, two abscesses recurred, and all subsequently resolved. Three patients (14 %) died related to PLA. Postoperatively, patients with biliary fistula (13.6 vs. 0 %, p = 0.014) or who required reoperation (18.2 vs. 1.5 %, p = 0.013) had a significantly higher rate of PLA than matched controls. Long-term follow-up showed equivalent 1-year (79 vs.74 %), 2-year (50 vs. 57 %), and 3-year (38 vs. 33 %) survival rates and hepatic function between patients with PLA and matched controls. Postoperative biliary fistula and need for reoperation are risk factors for PLA following PD. Antibiotics and selective percutaneous drainage was effective in 86 % of patients with no adverse effects on long-term hepatic function or survival.
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 02/2014; · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Main pancreatic duct (MPD) involvement is a well-demonstrated risk factor for malignancy in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). Preoperative radiographic determination of IPMN type is heavily relied upon in oncologic risk stratification. We hypothesized that radiographic assessment of MPD involvement in IPMN is an accurate predictor of pathological MPD involvement. Data regarding all patients undergoing resection for IPMN at a single academic institution between 1992 and 2012 were gathered prospectively. Retrospective analysis of imaging and pathologic data was undertaken. Preoperative classification of IPMN type was based on cross-sectional imaging (MRI/magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and/or CT). Three hundred sixty-two patients underwent resection for IPMN. Of these, 334 had complete data for analysis. Of 164 suspected branch duct (BD) IPMN, 34 (20.7 %) demonstrated MPD involvement on final pathology. Of 170 patients with suspicion of MPD involvement, 50 (29.4 %) demonstrated no MPD involvement. Of 34 patients with suspected BD-IPMN who were found to have MPD involvement on pathology, 10 (29.4 %) had invasive carcinoma. Alternatively, 2/50 (4 %) of the patients with suspected MPD involvement who ultimately had isolated BD-IPMN demonstrated invasive carcinoma. Preoperative radiographic IPMN type did not correlate with final pathology in 25 % of the patients. In addition, risk of invasive carcinoma correlates with pathologic presence of MPD involvement.
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 01/2014; · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Although the natural history of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) remains unclear, large surgical series have reported malignancy in 40% to 90% of main pancreatic duct (MPD)–involved IPMN. Accordingly, the 2012 International Consensus Guidelines recommend surgical resection in patients with suspected MPD involvement. We hypothesized that nonoperative management of select patients with suspected MPD-involved IPMN might be indicated. Study Design From 1992 to 2012, 362 patients underwent surgical resection for pathologically confirmed IPMN at a single academic center. A retrospective review of prospectively collected data was performed. Main pancreatic duct involvement was suspected with an MPD diameter ≥5 mm on preoperative imaging. A multivariate analysis was conducted to assess predictors of malignancy. Results Of 362 patients, 334 had complete data for analysis. Main pancreatic duct involvement was suspected preoperatively in 171 patients. Final pathology revealed 20% high-grade dysplastic and 27% invasive IPMN (47% malignant). Preoperative cytopathology and serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 independently predicted malignancy (p = 0.003 and p = 0.002, respectively) and invasiveness (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.001, respectively). Patients with both negative preoperative cytopathology and normal serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (ie, double negatives) had a lower rate of malignancy and invasiveness (28% and 8% vs 58% and 38%; p < 0.0001). The MPD diameter did not predict malignancy or invasiveness (p = 0.36 and p = 0.46, respectively). Conclusions Patients with suspected MPD-involved IPMN have a highly variable rate of malignancy. Despite recent International Consensus Guidelines recommendations, these data suggest that MPD diameter is not an optimal gauge of malignant risk. Nonoperative management of suspected MPD-involved IPMN in select patients, particularly double negatives, might be indicated. Depending on age and comorbidity, operative risk might outweigh the risk of malignant progression in these patients.
    Journal of the American College of Surgeons 01/2014; 219(1):122–129. · 4.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To test by randomized prospective multicenter trial the hypothesis that pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) without the use of intraperitoneal drainage does not increase the frequency or severity of complications. Some surgeons have abandoned the use of drains placed during pancreas resection. We randomized 137 patients to PD with (n = 68, drain group) and without (n = 69, no-drain group) the use of intraperitoneal drainage and compared the safety of this approach and spectrum of complications between the 2 groups. There were no differences between drain and no-drain cohorts in demographics, comorbidities, pathology, pancreatic duct size, pancreas texture, baseline quality of life, or operative technique. PD without intraperitoneal drainage was associated with an increase in the number of complications per patient [1 (0-2) vs 2 (1-4), P = 0.029]; an increase in the number of patients who had at least 1 ≥grade 2 complication [35 (52%) vs 47 (68%), P = 0.047]; and a higher average complication severity [2 (0-2) vs 2 (1-3), P = 0.027]. PD without intraperitoneal drainage was associated with a higher incidence of gastroparesis, intra-abdominal fluid collection, intra-abdominal abscess (10% vs 25%, P = 0.027), severe (≥grade 2) diarrhea, need for a postoperative percutaneous drain, and a prolonged length of stay. The Data Safety Monitoring Board stopped the study early because of an increase in mortality from 3% to 12% in the patients undergoing PD without intraperitoneal drainage. This study provides level 1 data, suggesting that elimination of intraperitoneal drainage in all cases of PD increases the frequency and severity of complications.
    Annals of surgery 12/2013; · 7.19 Impact Factor
  • Attila Nakeeb
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 07/2013; · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients undergoing complex hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) operations are at high risk for surgical site infection (SSI). Factors such as biliary obstruction, operative time and pancreatic or biliary fistulae contribute to the high SSI rate. The purpose of this study was to analyse whether a multifactorial approach would reduce the incidence and cost of SSI after HPB surgery. From January 2007 to December 2009, 895 complex HPB operations were monitored for SSI through the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP). In 2008, surgeon-specific SSI rates were provided to HPB surgeons, and guidelines for the management of perioperative factors were established. Observed SSI rates were monitored before and after these interventions. Hospital cost data were analysed and cost savings were calculated. Observed SSI for hepatic, pancreatic and complex biliary operations decreased by 9.6% over a 2-year period (P < 0.03). The excess cost per SSI was US$11 462 and was driven by increased length of stay and hospital readmission for infection. Surgeons rated surgeon-specific feedback on SSI rate as the most important factor in improvement. High SSI rates following complex HPB operations can be improved by a multifactorial approach that features process improvements, individual surgeon feedback and reduced variation in patient management.
    HPB 05/2013; 15(5):384-91. · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 05/2013; 144(5):S-1083. · 13.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinomas are deadly and require complex decisions as well as major surgery. A few referral centers have reported good results, but no robust, risk-adjusted outcomes data are available. The aims of this study were to analyze the surgical outcomes of a very large cohort of patients undergoing operations for cholangiocarcinoma in North America. STUDY DESIGN: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Participant Use File was queried for patients with bile duct cancers. Patients (n = 839) were classified as having intrahepatic (36.5%), perihilar (34.4%), or distal (29.1%) cholangiocarcinomas by the type of procedure performed. Observed and expected (O/E) morbidity and mortality rates, O/E indices, and regression-adjusted risk factors were determined. RESULTS: Mortality was highest for perihilar tumors that were managed with hepatectomy and biliary-enteric anastomosis (11.9%) and lowest for distal cholangiocarcinomas (1.2%). After risk adjustment, mortality was considerable greater than expected for patients undergoing hepatectomy with biliary-enteric anastomosis (O/E = 3.0) or hepatectomy alone (O/E = 2.4). CONCLUSIONS: This analysis suggests that postoperative outcomes are best for distal and worst for perihilar cholangiocarcinomas, and hepatectomy for bile duct cancers is associated with a 2- to 3-fold mortality risk. We conclude that North American surgical outcomes can be improved for patients with proximal cholangiocarcinomas.
    Journal of the American College of Surgeons 12/2012; · 4.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has been mostly performed with the animal under general and inhalational anesthesia (IA-NOTES). To date, NOTES using propofol sedation (PS-NOTES) has not been investigated. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and safety of PS-NOTES for transgastric oophorectomy with carbon dioxide insufflation and to compare its success rates with those of conventional IA-NOTES. In this prospective randomized study, NOTES oophorectomy was performed for 19 female dogs randomized to two conditions: PS (study group) and IA (control group). Sedation success rates (ability to visualize and resect ovaries without converting to IA), operative success rates (ability to resect and retrieve both ovaries in full using only NOTES), and vital parameters including hemodynamic and respiratory changes were documented. In the PS-NOTES group (n = 9), the sedation success rate was 100 %. The operative success rate was 67 % (6 of 9 animals) compared with 80 % (8 of 10 animals) in the IA-NOTES group. No purposeful movement occurred during surgical manipulation and no respiratory or cardiovascular complications in occured the PS group. Heart rate (HR) and end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO(2)) were significantly higher in the PS group than in the IA group. Blood pressure (BP) was significantly higher in the PS group only during the middle part of the procedure. Only mild respiratory depression was noted in the PS group, as indicated by elevated but acceptable ETCO(2). Elevations in BP and HR are thought to be related to elevated CO(2) but did not appear to have an adverse impact on the course of the procedure. Recovery was uneventful for all the animals. The use of PS-NOTES appears to be feasible, resulting in outcomes comparable with those for IA in dogs. Further studies are needed to determine the applicability of this concept in human NOTES.
    Surgical Endoscopy 05/2012; 26(11):3163-73. · 3.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic enucleation is associated with a low operative mortality and preserved pancreatic parenchyma. However, enucleation is an uncommon operation, and good comparative data with resection are lacking. Therefore, the aim of this analysis was to compare the outcomes of pancreatic enucleation and resection. From 1998 through 2010, 45 consecutive patients with small (mean, 2.3 cm) pancreatic lesions underwent enucleation. These patients were matched with 90 patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy (n = 38) or distal pancreatectomy (n = 52). Serious morbidity was defined in accordance with the American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Outcomes were compared with standard statistical analyses. Operative time was shorter (183 vs. 271 min, p < 0.01), and operative blood loss was significantly lower (160 vs. 691 ml, p < 0.01) with enucleation. Fewer patients undergoing enucleation required monitoring in an intensive care unit (20% vs. 41%, p < 0.02). Serious morbidity was less common among patients who underwent enucleation compared to those who had a resection (13% vs. 29%, p = 0.05). Pancreatic endocrine (4% vs. 17%, p = 0.05) and exocrine (2% vs. 17%, p < 0.05) insufficiency were less common with enucleation. Ten-year survival was no different between enucleation and resection. Compared to resection, pancreatic enucleation is associated with improved operative as well as short- and long-term postoperative outcomes. For small benign and premalignant pancreatic lesions, enucleation should be considered the procedure of choice when technically appropriate.
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 04/2012; 16(7):1347-53. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    Gastroenterology and Hepatology 12/2011; 7(12):834-8.
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    ABSTRACT: This retrospective cohort study analyzes the potential risks associated with preoperative fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy guided by endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in patients undergoing distal pancreatectomy. Excluding 204 patients with acute or chronic pancreatitis and those with previous pancreatic resections, 230 consecutive patients with primary pancreatic neoplasms underwent elective distal pancreatectomy between 2002 and 2009. The most common indications were adenocarcinoma (28%), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN; 20%), and endocrine neoplasms (17%). Two-way statistical comparisons were performed between patients who did (EUS(+)) or did not (EUS(-)) undergo preoperative EUS-FNA. Distal pancreatectomy was performed open in 118 patients (56%) and laparoscopically in 102 patients (44%). No differences were observed in age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists class, operative time, or blood loss between the EUS(+) (n = 179) and EUS(-) (n = 51) groups. Splenectomy was performed in 162 patients (70%) and was more common in the EUS(+) group. With the exception of adenocarcinoma (n = 57 [32%] EUS(+) vs n = 6 [12%] EUS(-); P < .01), the final pathologic diagnosis did not differ significantly between the EUS groups. Postoperative complications were more common in the EUS(+) patients with cystic neoplasms (43% vs 16% EUS(-); P = .04). EUS-FNA caused pancreatitis in 2 patients preoperatively. No differences in overall or recurrence-free survival were noted between cancer patients in the EUS groups. Patterns of tumor recurrence were not associated with EUS-FNA. Preoperative EUS-FNA is not associated with adverse perioperative or long-term outcomes in patients undergoing distal pancreatectomy for solid neoplasms of the pancreas. The potentially detrimental long-term impact of preoperative EUS-FNA in patients with resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma was not observed, but will require additional study.
    Surgery 10/2011; 150(4):844-53. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Splenic preserving distal pancreatectomy (SPDP) can be accomplished with splenic artery and vein preservation or ligation. However, no data are available on the relative merits of these techniques. The aim of this analysis was to compare the outcomes of splenic preserving distal pancreatectomy with and without splenic vessel preservation. From 2002 through 2009, 434 patients underwent distal pancreatectomy and 86 (20%) had splenic preservation. Vessel preservation (VP) was accomplished in 45 and ligation (VL) was performed in 41. These patients were similar with respect to age, American Society of Anesthesiologists class, pathology, surgeons, and minimally invasive approach (79%). For comparison, a matched group of 86 patients undergoing distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy (DP+S) was analyzed. The VP-SPDP procedure was associated with less blood loss than VL-SPDP or DP+S (224 vs 508 vs 646 mL, respectively; p < 0.05). The VP-SPDP procedure also resulted in fewer grade B or C pancreatic fistulas (2% vs 12% vs 14%; p = NS) and splenic infarctions (5% vs 39%; p < 0.01), less overall morbidity (18% vs 39% vs 38%, respectively; p < 0.05) and need for drainage procedure (2% vs 15% vs 16%; p < 0.05), and shorter post-operative length of stay (4.5 vs 6.2 vs 6.6 days; p < 0.05). This analysis suggests that outcomes are (1) best for VP-SPDP and (2) VL-SPDP provides no short-term advantage over distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy. We conclude that splenic VP is preferred when SPDP is performed.
    Journal of the American College of Surgeons 04/2011; 212(4):651-7; discussion 657-8. · 4.45 Impact Factor
  • Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 04/2011; 73(4). · 4.90 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
517.14 Total Impact Points


  • 2004–2014
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
      • Department of Surgery
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
  • 2010
    • Emory University
      • Department of Surgery
      Atlanta, GA, United States
  • 1999–2009
    • Medical College of Wisconsin
      • Department of Surgery
      Milwaukee, WI, United States
    • University of Amsterdam
      • Faculty of Medicine AMC
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2006
    • The Ohio State University
      • Department of Surgery
      Columbus, OH, United States
  • 2001
    • University of Rochester
      • Department of Surgery
      Rochester, NY, United States
  • 1995–2001
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • Department of Surgery
      Baltimore, MD, United States