Jessica Ingersoll

Brown University, Providence, RI, United States

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Publications (26)110.76 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: To longitudinally assess the association between plasma viral load (PVL) and genital tract human immunodeficiency virus (GT HIV) RNA among HIV-1 infected women changing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) because of detectable PVL on current treatment. Methods: Women were eligible for the study if they had detectable PVL (defined as two consecutive samples with PVL>1000 copies/mL) and intended to change their current HAART regimen at the time of enrollment. Paired plasma and GT HIV-1 RNA were measured prospectively over 3 years. Longitudinal analyses examined rates of GT HIV-1 RNA shedding and the association with PVL. Results: Sixteen women were followed for a median of 11 visits contributing a total of 205 study visits. At study enrollment, all had detectable PVL and 69% had detectable GT HIV-1 RNA. Half of the women changed to a new HAART regimen with ≥3 active antiretroviral drugs. The probability of having detectable PVL ≥30 days after changing HAART was 0.56 (95% CI: 0.37 to 0.74). Fourteen women (88%) had detectable PVL on a follow-up visit ≥30 or 60 days after changing HAART; and 12 women (75%) had detectable GT HIV-1 RNA on a follow-up visit ≥30 or 60 days after changing HAART. When PVL was undetectable, GT shedding occurred at 11% of visits, and when PVL was detectable, GT shedding occurred at 47% of visits. Conclusions: Some treatment-experienced HIV-infected women continue to have detectable virus in both the plasma and GT following a change in HAART, highlighting the difficulty of viral suppression in this patient population.
    Journal of Women s Health 03/2013; · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Quantitative real-time PCR has been widely implemented for clinical viral load testing, but a lack of standardization and relatively poor precision has hindered its usefulness. Digital PCR offers highly precise, direct quantification without requiring a calibration curve. Performance characteristics of real-time PCR were compared to those of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) for cytomegalovirus (CMV) viral load testing. Ten-fold serial dilutions of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) CMV quantitative standards were tested, together with the AcroMetrix® CMV tc Panel (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA) and 50 human plasma specimens. Each method was evaluated using all three standards for quantitative linearity, lower limit of detection (LOD), and accuracy. Quantitative correlation, mean viral load, and variability were compared. Real-time PCR showed somewhat higher sensitivity than ddPCR (LOD of 3 log(10)versus 4 log(10)copies and IU/mL for NIST and WHO standards). Both methods showed a high degree of linearity and quantitative correlation, for standards (R(2)≥ 0.98 in each of 6 regression models) and clinical samples (R(2)=0.93) across their detectable ranges. For higher concentrations, ddPCR showed less variability than RT-PCR for the WHO standards and Acrometrix standards (p< 0.05). RT-PCR showed less variability and greater sensitivity than did ddPCR in clinical samples. Both digital and real-time PCR provide accurate CMV viral load data over a wide linear dynamic range. Digital PCR may provide an opportunity to reduce quantitative variability currently seen using real-time PCR, but methods need to be further optimized to match the sensitivity of real-time PCR.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 12/2012; · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our objective was to test the hypothesis that treatment for trichomoniasis among HIV-infected women not taking antiretrovirals in South Africa would be associated with decreased HIV genital shedding. HIV-infected women presenting for routine HIV care were screened for trichomoniasis using self-collected vaginal swabs with a rapid point-of-care immunochromatographic antigen test. Women testing positive were offered enrollment into a prospective cohort study, if they had documented HIV infection, were aged 18 to 50 years, and were not receiving antiretroviral therapy. Recent use of postexposure prophylaxis or antibiotic therapy, active genital ulcers, or systemic illness were exclusion criteria. Cervical swabs were collected for gonococcal and chlamydial testing, and those testing positive were excluded. Women were treated with directly observed oral therapy with 2 g of oral metronidazole. A follow-up visit was scheduled 1 month after therapy, and partner letters were provided. Paired cervical wicks and plasma were collected for viral load measurement. In all, 557 women were screened. Sixty tested positive for trichomoniasis, 10 subsequently met exclusion criteria, and 4 were lost to follow-up. Of 46 women evaluated at follow-up, 37 (80.4%) were cured. Plasma viral load was not significantly different after therapy (P = 0.93). Genital tract viral load decreased by 0.5 log10 (P < 0.01). The mean genital tract viral load (log10) decreased from 4.66 (<3.52-6.46) to 4.18 (<3.52-6.48) (P < 0.01) after therapy. Screening and treatment of vaginal trichomoniasis decrease genital shedding of HIV among South African women not receiving antiretrovirals at 1 month after therapy.
    Sexually transmitted diseases 08/2012; 39(8):638-42. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of suppressive HSV therapy in women coinfected with HSV-2 and HIV-1 taking highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is unclear. 60 women with HIV-1/HSV-2 coinfection on HAART with plasma HIV-1 viral load (PVL) ≤75 copies/mL were randomized to receive acyclovir (N = 30) or no acyclovir (N = 30). PVL, genital tract (GT) HIV-1, and GT HSV were measured every 4 weeks for one year. Detection of GT HIV-1 was not significantly different in the two arms (OR 1.23, P = 0.67), although this pilot study was underpowered to detect this difference. When PVL was undetectable, the odds of detecting GT HIV were 0.4 times smaller in the acyclovir arm than in the control arm, though this was not statistically significant (P = 0.07). The odds of detecting GT HSV DNA in women receiving acyclovir were significantly lower than in women in the control group, OR 0.38, P < 0.05. Chronic suppressive therapy with acyclovir in HIV-1/HSV-2-positive women on HAART significantly reduces asymptomatic GT HSV shedding, though not GT HIV shedding or PVL. PVL was strongly associated with GT HIV shedding, reinforcing the importance of HAART in decreasing HIV sexual transmission.
    Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology 01/2012; 2012:868526.
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    ABSTRACT: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA viral load testing is routinely performed in centers that serve patients that are immunosuppressed from organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Clinical laboratories that offer this testing often face practical concerns about the storage of these specimens to ensure accurate measurement for patient care. The published studies that assess CMV DNA stability at 4°C have done so only up to 72 h. Our objective was to determine the stability of CMV DNA in whole blood and plasma for clinical viral load testing over a 14 day period. Twenty-one plasma samples that were CMV-positive and twenty whole blood samples (including eleven CMV-negative whole blood samples spiked with CMV-positive plasma) were stored at 4°C and underwent extraction and amplification at 3 time points: Day 0, Day 7, and Day 14. Log(10) values were calculated and t-test was performed on the values comparing Day 0 to Day 14 for plasma and whole blood. There was no statistically significant difference between Day 0 and Day 14 for both specimen types, including the CMV-negative whole blood specimens that were spiked with CMV-positive plasma. CMV DNA in plasma and whole blood is stable for 14 days at a temperature of 4°C.
    Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 09/2011; 52(3):222-4. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This retrospective review analyzed Luminex xTAG respiratory viral panel (RVP) results for 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus specimens. Comparing median fluorescence intensity (MFI) signals for the influenza A virus and hemagglutinin 1 (H1) reactions for specimens with very low positive (MFI < 1,000) or "no-call" H1 results reliably distinguished 2009 H1N1 from seasonal virus.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 02/2011; 49(4):1657-8. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research 12/2010; 1(4). · 6.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have assessed longitudinal genital tract HIV-1 shedding. We determined patterns of genital tract HIV-1 RNA shedding over time among women with suppressed plasma viral load (PVL) on antiretroviral treatment. Paired plasma and genital tract HIV-1 RNA were measured every 4 weeks. Participants were classified as persistent, intermittent, or nonshedders. Longitudinal analysis examined rates of genital tract shedding and the association with PVL, CD4 cell count, and genital tract infections. Markov transition models were used to describe the dynamics of HIV-1 RNA in plasma and genital tract using visit-to-visit transitions from and to detectable and undetectable PVL or genital tract HIV-1 RNA. Fifty-nine women contributed 582 study visits of whom 95 and 98% had below-detectable PVL and genital tract viral load, respectively, at baseline. Thirty-two of 59 women (54%) had detectable HIV-1 RNA at least once in the genital tract. Twenty-two of 59 (37%) women had detectable genital tract HIV-1 RNA during a study visit when PVL was undetectable; 6.8% of the women were persistent shedders, 31% were intermittent shedders, and 45.8% were nonshedders. Sampling three subcompartments increased detection of HIV-1 genital tract viral load compared to sampling a single subcompartment. Overall, genital tract HIV-1 RNA shedding in any subcompartment occurred at about 13% of visits. Shedding in at least one of the three subcompartments occurred at 9% of visits when PVL was undetectable (95% confidence interval 6-14%). Women with below-detectable PVL may have less risk of HIV sexual transmission on a population level, but may continue to be infectious on an individual level.
    AIDS (London, England) 10/2010; 24(16):2489-97. · 4.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Viral load testing for hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA has become a key parameter in the diagnosis of infection and treatment monitoring. This study evaluated the performance characteristics of the MultiCode-RTx HCV assay (MultiCode; EraGen Biosciences, Inc., Madison, WI), a real-time PCR test targeting the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the HCV genome, compared to the TaqMan HCV load ASR assay (TaqMan; Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN) that targets the 5' UTR. For plasma specimens, the MultiCode assay had a limit of detection of 2.3 log10 IU/ml and a linear range of at least 6.7 log10 IU/ml. Comparison of plasma viral loads obtained by the MultiCode and TaqMan tests showed that they were in very close agreement (mean difference, -0.1 log10 IU/ml). No genotype bias was observed for genotypes 1, 2, and 3. When the MultiCode assay was evaluated with the MagNA Pure and easyMAG extraction methods, the viral loads for the easyMAG extraction were consistently higher for all specimens tested (mean difference, 0.45 log10 IU/ml). Aside from the limit of detection, the performance characteristics of the MultiCode assay were similar to the TaqMan assay for the clinical application of HCV load testing.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 03/2010; 48(5):1771-4. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    Clinical Infectious Diseases 10/2009; 49(6):991-2. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Viral load testing for cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important diagnostic tool for the management of transplant recipients and immunocompromised individuals; however, inconsistency among laboratories in quantitative measurements of viral load limits interinstitutional comparisons. These inconsistencies stem from the lack of assays cleared by the US Food and Drug Administration, the absence of international standards, the wide variety of CMV-extraction and -detection methods, and differences in materials used for calibration. A critical component of standardization is the use of calibrators that are traceable and commutable. Bland-Altman plots and prediction ellipses were used to test the commutability of 2 CMV calibrators for 2 different quantification methods. Tests with 2 methods showed 1 calibrator to be commutable and the other to be noncommutable. The results for the commutable calibrator were within the 95% prediction interval of the clinical samples in the Bland-Altman plot and within the 95% prediction ellipse for a simulated commutable calibrator, whereas the results for the noncommutable calibrator were not within these prediction intervals. When used to calibrate patient results, only the commutable calibrator, the OptiQuant CMV(tc) Calibration Panel, significantly improved the comparability of viral loads for the 2 different measurement methods. This study demonstrates that an important goal in the effort to improve healthcare for patients with CMV-related disease is the establishment of traceable and commutable reference materials, including both calibrators and controls. .
    Clinical Chemistry 08/2009; 55(9):1701-10. · 7.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fastidious bacteria have been associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) using PCR methods. We assessed the prevalence of these bacteria in HIV-1 infected women and their relationship with vaginal pH and shedding of HIV-1 RNA. 64 cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) samples were collected from 51 women. Vaginal microbiota were characterized using 8 bacterium-specific quantitative PCR assays. Women with the fastidious bacteria Bacterial Vaginosis Associated Bacterium (BVAB) 1, 2, and 3 showed a trend to increased HIV-1 shedding (OR 2.59-3.07, P = .14-.17). Absence of Lactobacillus crispatus (P < .005) and presence of BVAB2 (P < .001) were associated with elevated vaginal pH. BVAB1, 2, and 3 were highly specific indicators of BV in HIV-infected women, with specificities of 89%-93%. Fastidious bacteria (BVAB 1, 2, and 3) remain specific indicators of BV in HIV-infected women, and BVAB2 may contribute to the elevated vaginal pH that is a hallmark of this syndrome.
    Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology 01/2009; 2009:236919.
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanism of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission via heterosexual intercourse is unknown. We sought to determine whether the presence of inflammatory cells in the vagina is associated with the presence of genital tract HIV type 1 (HIV-1) RNA. Analysis of a longitudinal prospective cohort was performed. Women with HIV-1 infection were assessed with use of paired plasma and cervicovaginal lavage specimens. Viral load measurements were performed using nucleic acid sequence-based amplification. White blood cells found in the genital tract (GT WBCs) were quantified using a hemacytometer. Common lower genital tract infections assessed for association with viral shedding (i.e., genital tract viral load [GTVL]) included bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, and trichomoniasis. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the prevalence and odds of detectable GTVL by GT WBC. The association was examined both in the presence and in the absence of lower genital tract infections. A total of 97 women and 642 visits were included in the analysis. Median duration of follow-up was 30.4 months. Thirty women (31%) had detectable GTVL at any visit. The median CD4 cell count at baseline was 525 cells/muL. Most women were antiretroviral therapy naive at baseline. After adjustment for plasma viral load, the odds of detectable GTVL increased as GT WBC increased, with an odds ratio of 1.36 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.7) per 1000-cell increase in GT WBC among women without lower genital tract infections. After adjustment for plasma viral load and lower genital tract infections by incorporating them in a regression model, GT WBC remained significantly associated with GTVL, with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.22 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.37). The presence of GT WBC is associated with an increased risk of detectable GTVL.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 10/2008; 47(9):1216-21. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Trichomonas vaginalis is an important pathogen in both men and women. Culture is considered the diagnostic gold standard, although studies have shown that PCR is more sensitive than either culture or wet mount for the diagnosis of T. vaginalis infections. We sought to identify a simple method for stabilizing T. vaginalis DNA in urine samples that could be easily applied to molecular testing. The stability of T. vaginalis DNA in 40 urine samples was assessed by storage for various times at either 4 degrees C or room temperature with or without the Becton Dickinson urine preservative transport (UPT) kit. Overall, there was better stability of T. vaginalis DNA when specimens were stored at 4 degrees C than when they were stored at 20 to 22 degrees C and when the UPT system was used. T. vaginalis DNA was stable in specimens stored without using the UPT at 4 degrees C for about 3 days and at room temperature for only 1 day. For specimens placed in the UPT within 24 h (times of 1, 6, and 24 h) of collection, the DNA was stable for up to 30 days when stored at 4 degrees C. For specimens stored at room temperature, the urine should be added to the UPT ideally within 1 hour of collection, and in this case the DNA remained stable for up to 30 days. When storing specimens at room temperature, a delay of 24 h prior to adding to UPT led to an unacceptably high loss of assay sensitivity.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 06/2008; 46(5):1628-30. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our objective was to determine antiretroviral drug concentrations and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA rebound in cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) in relation to blood plasma (BP) in women receiving suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Thirty-four HIV-infected women who had plasma HIV RNA levels < or =80 copies/mL for at least 6 months were enrolled. Sixty-eight paired CVF and BP drug concentrations and HIV RNA levels were determined before and 3-4 h after drug administration. For each woman and antiretroviral drug, the CVF:BP drug concentration ratios before and after drug administration were calculated. The nonparametric Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to determine if these ratios were different from 1.0. Lamivudine (administered to 20 patients) and tenofovir (administered to 16) had significantly higher concentrations in CVF than in BP before drug administration, with mean CVF:BP concentration ratios of 3.19 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-8.5) and 5.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-22.6), respectively. Efavirenz (administered to 13 patients) and lopinavir (administered to 6) had significantly lower concentrations in CVF, with mean CVF:BP concentration ratios of 0.01 (95% confidence interval, 0.00-0.03) and 0.03 (0.01-0.11), respectively. During the study visit (median time after enrollment, 6 months), BP and CVF detectable HIV RNA levels were observed 7 patients (20.6%) and 1 patient (2.9%), respectively. Despite lower CVF concentrations of key HAART components, such as efavirenz and lopinavir, virologic rebound was rare. The high concentrations of tenofovir and lamivudine in CVF may have implications for the prevention of sexual transmission during HAART and for pre-exposure or postexposure prophylaxis.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 04/2008; 46(5):719-25. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Viral load testing for cytomegalovirus (CMV) has become the standard for the diagnosis of infection and monitoring of therapy at many transplant centers. However, no viral load test has been approved by the FDA. Therefore, many laboratories rely on laboratory-developed assays. This study evaluated the performance characteristics of two real-time PCR tests developed using the artus CMV analyte-specific reagents (ASRs). One version is distributed by Abbott Molecular and the other by QIAGEN. For plasma specimens, the Abbott test had a limit of detection of 2.3 log10 copies/ml and a linear range up to at least 6.0 log10 copies/ml. Comparison of plasma viral loads using the Abbott test and the Roche Amplicor Monitor test showed a mean difference of -0.012 log10 copies/ml. In addition, the Abbott test viral loads correlated with the Digene Hybrid Capture assay ratios. Viral loads obtained from plasma specimens tested by the Abbott and QIAGEN tests were in very close agreement (mean difference, 0.144 log10 copies/ml). When the QIAGEN test was evaluated with the QIAGEN, MagNA Pure, and easyMAG extraction methods, the viral loads for all three methods were within 0.370 log10 copies/ml. Thus, there is good agreement between viral loads obtained by the different tests using the same extraction method or by the same test using different extraction methods. The availability of real-time PCR ASRs provides additional reagents that can be used for CMV viral load testing.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 07/2007; 45(6):1723-7. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the patterns and predictors of genital tract HIV-1 RNA levels during a 36-month period. HIV-1 RNA levels were measured blood in plasma and the genital tract (by cervicovaginal lavage [CVL]) at baseline before highly, active antiretroviral therapy, at 2 and 4 weeks and every 6 months. Viral loads were measured using nucleic acid sequence-based amplification assay with a lower limit of detection of 2.6 log10 copies/mL. Ninety-seven women had a median of 30.4 months' follow-up, with 530 paired PVL and CVL specimens. The strongest predictor of CVL fluid HIV-1 RNA detection was PVL of more than 2.6 log10 copies/mL, with an odds ratio of 13.7 (P < 0.0001). Each log10 unit increase in PVL increased the odds of detecting HIV-1 RNA in CVL fluid by 2.6 folds (P = 0.0002). Cervicovaginal lavage fluid HIV-1 RNA exceeded PVL on 5% of visits. When patients achieved undetectable levels of HIV-1 RNA in both plasma and CVL fluid, rebound of HIV-1 RNA occurred in plasma first or concurrently with CVL fluid HIV-1 RNA. Plasma viral load is the strongest predictor of CVL fluid HIV-1 RNA detection. Cervicovaginal lavage fluid HIV-1 RNA levels are generally lower than PVL. Plasma viral load is more likely to rebound first or at the same time as CVL fluid viral load.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 08/2006; 42(5):584-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with broth culture for the detection of Trichomonas vaginalis using self-collected vaginal swabs. Self-collected vaginal swabs were obtained from adolescent and young adult African-American women participating in HIV-1 prevention programs. T. vaginalis culture was performed using the InPouch TV System. Samples for the real-time PCR assay were collected using the BDProbeTec ET Culturette Direct Dry Swab system and tested in a laboratory-developed assay which targeted a repeated sequence of the genome. Discrepant samples that were culture negative and positive in the real-time PCR assay were tested in a confirmatory PCR which targeted a different region of the T. vaginalis genome, the18S ribosomal DNA gene. Of the 524 specimens tested by both culture and real-time PCR, 36 were culture positive and 54 were positive in the real-time PCR assay; 16 of the 18 discrepant specimens were also positive in the confirmatory PCR assay. Using a modified gold standard of positive by culture or positive in both PCR assays, the sensitivity of the real-time PCR assay was 100% and the specificity was 99.6%, whereas culture had a sensitivity of 69.2% and a specificity of 100%. The real-time PCR assay was sensitive and specific for the detection of T. vaginalis DNA from self-collected vaginal swab specimens. The ability to use the BDProbeTec dry swab system for the real-time PCR testing allowed for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and T. vaginalis from a single specimen.
    Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology 10/2005; 13(3):145-50.
  • JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 04/2005; 38(3):364-6. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An abstract is unavailable. This article is available as HTML full text and PDF.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 02/2005; 38(3):364-366. · 4.65 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

296 Citations
110.76 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2013
    • Brown University
      • • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      • • Division of Infectious Diseases
      Providence, RI, United States
  • 2012
    • Alpert Medical School - Brown University
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Providence, RI, United States
  • 2008–2012
    • Emory University
      • Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
    • Georgia Department of Public Health
      Marietta, Georgia, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 2006–2008
    • Lifespan
      Providence, Rhode Island, United States