Thomas W Vahlenkamp

University of Leipzig , Leipzig, Saxony, Germany

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Publications (62)160.47 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Low pathogenic avian influenza virus of subtype H9N2 is panzootic in multiple avian species causing respiratory manifestations and severe economic losses. H9N2 co-circulate simultaneously with high pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in Egyptian chicken farms suggesting the possibility of reassortment. The aim of the present study was to isolate and characterize H9N2 from the recent outbreaks in chicken farms. Also the diversity of amantadine-resistant mutants among these isolates was tested by in situ ELISA and sequence analysis. Three influenza H9N2 viruses, designated A/chicken/Egypt/SCU8/2014, A/chicken/Egypt/SCU9/2014 and A/chicken/Egypt/SCU20/2014 were isolated from commercial broiler and broiler breeder chickens in specific pathogen free embryonated chicken eggs. The eight gene segments were amplified by RT-PCR, cloned, and subjected to full length sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of these viruses revealed a close relationship between Egyptian, Middle Eastern and Israel isolates with an average of 96-99 % nucleotide homology and identified an ancestor relationship to low pathogenic H9N2 Quail/HK/G1/1997 prototype. The internal segments of the currently isolated viruses were derived from the same sub-lineage with no new evidence of reassortment. The three isolates were sensitive to amantadine as suggested by absence of mutations of M2 and confirmed by a phenotypic assay. In conclusion, avian influenza H9N2 virus is circulating in Egyptian chicken farms causing respiratory manifestations. Continuous monitoring of the molecular epidemiology and its impact on the virulence as well as emergence of new strains are necessary.
    Virus Genes 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11262-015-1188-7 · 1.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rotaviruses of group A (RVA) are enteric pathogens with well documented zoonotic transmissions to humans. The segmented genome of the virus enables reassortment events which might alter host susceptibility and/or disease course. Genetic analysis of rotavirus in dogs so far only revealed RVAs with the VP7 and VP4 genome constellation G3P[3]. RVA G3P[3] have also been found in cats, humans, monkeys and bats. In the present study an unusual RVA of genotype G8P[1] is described which was isolated from an asymptomatically infected young dog. The dog did not show signs of diarrhoea. Analysis of full length segments of VP2, VP6 and VP7 as well as NSP1 to NSP5 revealed a typical bovine-like genotype constellation G8-P[1]-I2-Rx-C2-Mx-A3-N2-T6-E2-H3. Phylogenetic analysis supports the hypothesis of an interspecies transmission from a bovine/artiodactyl species or from humans to the young dog. The isolate is likely to represent a multiple reassortant virus.
    Journal of General Virology 10/2014; DOI:10.1099/vir.0.069120-0. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rotaviruses of group A (RVA) are enteric pathogens with well documented zoonotic transmissions to humans. The segmented genome of the virus enables reassortment events which might alter host susceptibility and/or disease course. Genetic analysis of rotavirus in dogs so far only revealed RVAs with the VP7 and VP4 genome constellation G3P[3]. RVA G3P[3] have also been found in cats, humans, monkeys and bats. In the present study an unusual RVA of genotype G8P[1] is described which was isolated from an asymptomatically infected young dog. The dog did not show signs of diarrhoea. Analysis of full length segments of VP2, VP6 and VP7 as well as NSP1 to NSP5 revealed a typical bovine-like genotype constellation G8-P[1]-I2-Rx-C2-Mx-A3-N2-T6-E2-H3. Phylogenetic analysis supports the hypothesis of an interspecies transmission from a bovine/artiodactyl species or from humans to the young dog. The isolate is likely to represent a multiple reassortant virus.
    Journal of General Virology 10/2014; DOI:10.1099/vir.0.069120-0 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since the first outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1 in Bangladesh in 2007, the virus has been circulating among domestic poultry causing severe economic losses. To investigate the presence of HPAIV H5N1 in migratory birds and their potential role in virus spread, 205 pools of fecal samples from live migratory birds were analyzed. Here, the first virus isolation and genome characterization of two HPAIV H5N1 isolates from migratory birds (A/migratory bird/Bangladesh/P18/2010 and A/migratory bird/Bangladesh/P29/2010)are described. Full-length amplification, sequencing, and a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis were performed for HA, NA, M, NS, NP, PA, PB1, and PB2 gene segments. The selected migratory bird isolates belong to clade 2.3.2.1 along with recent Bangladeshi isolates from chickens, ducks, and crows which grouped in the same cluster with contemporary South and South-East Asian isolates. The studied isolates were genetically similar to other H5N1 isolates from different species within the respective clade although some unique amino acid substitutions were observed among them. Migratory birds remain a real threat for spreading pathogenic avian influenza viruses across the continent and introduction of new strains into Bangladesh.
    Virus Genes 09/2014; DOI:10.1007/s11262-014-1118-0 · 1.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Between 2006 and 2011 a series of disease conditions characterized by raised mortality and liver disorders occurred in turkey breeder flocks and in meat turkey flocks in Germany. The flocks were between 12 and 23 wk of age, and mostly hens were affected. Clinical signs were nonspecific and accompanied by mortality varying between 1% and 7%. Affected birds displayed swollen livers that were marbled with black and red spots and yellowish areas. The pericardium was filled with an amber fluid, and the coronary groove was extensively filled with fat. Spleens were swollen, and a serous fluid that seemed to leak from the liver was present in the body cavity. Histopathological findings in all but one case included fatty degeneration of hepatocytes with parenchymal collapse and associated hemorrhages. Some animals showed cholangitis and hepatitis with intranuclear inclusion bodies. In three cases with breeders, electron microscopy detected virus particles that were between 23 and 30 nm and similar to parvo- or picornavirus. In addition, picornavirus RNA was detected in the livers of one meat turkey flock. Investigations by PCR for circovirus, polyomavirus parvovirus, and aviadenovirus yielded negative results in all cases, but an aviadenovirus was isolated from livers twice and a reovirus from the intestines once. Supplementation with vitamin E and selenium seemed to improve the situation. The most likely diagnosis is lipidosis, a metabolic disorder with complex etiology, which has rarely been described in turkeys.
    Avian Diseases 09/2014; 58(3):474-81. DOI:10.1637/10675-092413-Case.1 · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Circoviruses are known to infect pigs and birds and cause severe diseases with various clinical signs. Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV2), associated with severe economic losses, was detected in rodents, mosquitoes, cattle, and in calves affected with bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP). However, molecular and serological investigations on circovirus infections in cattle revealed inconsistent results. The aim of the study was to investigate the susceptibility and immune response of calves to experimental PCV2 inoculation. Animals were either intravenously inoculated with tissue-culture grown PCV2, with bone marrow from PCV2 positive and negative calves or immunized with a commercial inactivated PCV2 vaccine. The results showed that the animals inoculated with tissue-culture grown PCV2 and with PCV2 positive bone marrow displayed clinical signs including lymph node swelling, reddening of oral and ocular mucosa, and diarrhoea 7-18 days post inoculation (p.i.). PCV2-specific antibodies were detected in the tissue-culture grown PCV2-infected animals and in the PCV2-immunized animals from day 11 and 7 p.i. onwards, respectively, but were absent in both bone marrow inoculated groups. PCV2 was detected by real-time quantitative PCR only in blood samples of the tissue-culture grown PCV2-infected animals and in various tissues (e.g. spleen, lymph nodes, thymus), with high copy numbers in blood between day 4 (5.16log10 genomic copy number/ml) and 46 (5.33log10 genomic copy number/ml) p.i. In conclusion, the seroconversion and the detection of PCV2 in lymphoid tissues for more than five weeks p.i. revealed that host susceptibility of PCV2 is not solely restricted to pigs.
    Veterinary Microbiology 07/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.06.022 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) of subtype H9N2 have become widespread in poultry in many Asian countries with relevance to respiratory diseases of multifactorial origin. In Bangladesh, LPAIVs of subtype H9N2 co-circulate simultaneously with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of subtype H5N1 in commercial and backyard poultry. The aim of this study was to characterize LPAIVs of subtype H9N2 currently circulating in Bangladesh. The selected isolate A/Chicken/Bangladesh/VP01/2006 (H9N2) was propagated in chicken embryos. All eight gene segments were amplified by RT-PCR, cloned, and subjected to full-length sequencing. The sequence data obtained were compared with reference strains available in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of LPAIV H9N2 from Bangladesh revealed a close relationship to Indian, Pakistani and Middle Eastern isolates and identified an ancestor relationship to LPAIV H9N2 Quail/HK/G1/1997. The internal genes M and NP belong to lineage G1, whereas NS, PA, PB1 and PB2 belong to the prototype virus A/Chicken/Korea/38349-p96323/96. The internal genes showed high sequence homology to an HPAIV of subtype H7N3 from Pakistan, whereas the PB1 gene showed similarly high nucleotide homologies to recently circulating HPAIV H5N1 from Bangladesh, revealing two independent reassortment events. Examination of the hemagglutinin cleavage site of LPAIV H9N2 confirmed its low pathogenicity. The receptor-binding sites indicated a binding preference for human-type receptors. Several mutations in internal proteins are associated with increased virulence and altered host range, while other amino acids were found to be highly conserved among LPAIV H9N2 isolates.
    Archives of Virology 07/2014; 159(7):1651-1661. DOI:10.1007/s00705-014-1976-8 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) of subtype H9N2 have become widespread in poultry in many Asian countries with relevance to respiratory diseases of multifactorial origin. The selected H9N2 isolate A/chicken/Bangladesh/VP01/2006 from Bangladesh was characterized and all eight gene segments were compared with the other contemporary isolates of Bangladesh and as well as other reference isolates available in GenBank. The gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis of Bangladeshi LPAIV H9N2 revealed close relationship with Indian, Pakistani and Middle Eastern isolates and maintained ancestor relation with LPAIV H9N2 Quail/HK/G1/1997. The internal genes showed phylogenetic relations between two different prototypes within H9N2 along with some other highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV). Among the six internal genes all showed high sequence homology with a HPAIV of subtype H7N3 from Pakistan, whereas the PB1 gene showed similarly high nucleotide homologies with recently circulating HPAIV H5N1 from Bangladesh revealing two independent reassortment events between two distinct HPAIV of subtypes H7N3 and H5N1. The reported HPAIV H7N3 from Pakistan has all internal genes and a Bangladeshi HPAIV H5N1 has PB1 gene like LPAIV H9N2, therefore H9N2 has to be the donor of those genes.
    XIVth European Poultry Conference, Stavanger, Norway; 06/2014
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the prevalence of the recently described genogroup VI canine noroviruses (CNVs) in dogs in Europe, 510 serum samples from dogs in 14 European countries were tested for anti-IgG CNV antibodies.Seropositive dogs were found widespread throughout Europe. Dogs exclusively with antibodies against human noroviruses were also found.
    Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI 03/2014; 21(6). DOI:10.1128/CVI.00048-14 · 2.37 Impact Factor
  • Heenemann K, Halami MY, Nieper H, Vahlenkamp TW
    1. Jahrestagung der DVG-Fachgruppe für Zier-, Zoo- und Wildvögel, Reptilien und Amphibien, München, München; 03/2014
  • 1st Annual Meeting of the German Society for Veterinary Medicine (DVG) for the group pet, zoo and wild birds, reptiles and amphibians, Munich; 03/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Objective-To compare cytotoxic effects and antiviral efficacy of 9 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) against FIV in feline peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Sample-Peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from 3 specific pathogen-free cats. Procedures-3 of the 9 NRTIs had not been previously assessed in feline cell lines. Cytotoxic effects were determined by colorimetric quantification of a formazan product resulting from bioreduction of a tetrazolium reagent by viable peripheral blood mononuclear cells; uninfected cells from 1 cat were used in these assays. Cells from all 3 cats were infected with a pathogenic clone of FIV, and in vitro antiviral efficacy of each NRTI was assessed with an FIV p24 antigen capture ELISA. Results-Cytotoxic effects in feline peripheral blood mononuclear cells were observed only at concentrations > 10 μM for all 9 NRTIs. Comparison of the cytotoxic effect at the highest concentration investigated (500μM) revealed that didanosine and amdoxovir were significantly less toxic than abacavir. All drugs induced a dose-dependent reduction of FIV replication. At the highest concentration investigated (10μM), there was no significant difference in antiviral efficacy among the test compounds. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-The evaluated NRTIs had low cytotoxicity against feline peripheral blood mononuclear cells and appeared to be safe options for further in vivo evaluation for the treatment of FIV-infected cats. There was no evidence suggesting that the newly evaluated compounds would be superior to the existing NRTIs for reducing FIV burden of infected cats.
    American Journal of Veterinary Research 03/2014; 75(3):273-81. DOI:10.2460/ajvr.75.3.273 · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two new strains of porcine circovirus type 2 virus (PCV2), strains Ha09 and Ha10, were detected in calves in Germany, and the complete genome of each virus has been sequenced and analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that these strains belong to the PCV2b genotype cluster, a highly prevalent genotype found worldwide.
    Genome Announcements 01/2014; 2(1). DOI:10.1128/genomeA.01150-13
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    ABSTRACT: an apoptosis event. We also displayed that caspase activity and apoptosis are induced at late during CCHFV infection. Apoptosis is an important mechanism by which virus infected cells are eliminated from the host. Many viruses have evolved strategies to delay or suppress apoptosis in order to secure efficient virus replication, assembly and egress of infec-tious viral particles. In this study, we have been interested to investigate if CCHFV infection can regulate the apoptosis at early post infection. Our data displayed that caspase activation are suppressed/delayed early post infection both upstream and on executor caspase level, insitu. In addition, we suggest that the multifunctional virus structural protein, NP, is involved in regulation of apoptotic pathways in infected cells. In this study, we also suggest that both mitochondrial pathway and death receptors apoptotic pathways are regulated during infection at early and late post infection but in different manner. Since the first outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) of subtype H5N1 in Bangladesh in 2007 the virus continues to circulate among domestic poultry causing severe economic losses. To investigate migratory birds as possible source of virus introduction genome characte-rization of two HPAIV H5N1 isolates from migratory birds (A/migratory bird/Bangladesh/P18/2010 and A/migratory bird/Bangladesh/P29/2010) was performed. After full length amplification and sequence analysis of the gene segments encoding HA, NA, M and NS a comprehensive phyloge-netic analysis was performed by comparing the gene segments with other Bangladeshi isolates and representative isolates of all clades described in the H5 nomenclature. The Bangladeshi H5N1 isolates from different birds and poultry were broadly grouped into two clades. The majority of isolates from 2007 to 2010 belong to clade 2.2.2 whereas the recent isolates from chickens and crows of 2011 along with the selected migratory bird isolates described here are grouped into clade 2.3.2.1. The selected isolates revea-led multiple basic amino acids 338QRERRRKR*G346 at their HA clea-vage site similar to other isolates from clade 2.3.2.1. The receptor binding site of HA molecule contained avian like (SAa 2, 3 Gal) receptor specifi-city. The results verified the presence of HPAIV among migratory birds in Bangladesh. Further detailed analyses will reveal whether migratory birds may represent the source of the newly introduced clade 2.3.2.1 virus which was meanwhile diagnosed in Bangladesh from different avian species.
    5 th European Congress of Virology, Lyon, France; 09/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) continues to cause respiratory disease in Egypt in spite of vaccination. The currently available modified live ILTV vaccines provide good protection but may also induce latent infections and even clinical disease if they spread extensively from bird-to-bird in the field. Four field ILTV isolates, designated ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Giza2007, ILT-Behera2009, and ILT-Behera2010 were isolated from cross-bred broiler chickens. The pathogenicity based on intratracheal pathogenicity index, tracheal lesion score, and mortality index for chicken embryos revealed that ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Behera2009 and ILT-Behera2010 isolates were highly pathogenic whereas ILT-Giza2007 was non-pathogenic. To study the molecular epidemiology of these field isolates, the infected cell protein 4 gene was amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Behera2009, and ILT-Behera2010 are chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccine-related isolates while ILT-Giza2007 is a tissue culture origin vaccine-related isolate. These results suggest that CEO laryngotracheitis vaccine viruses could increase in virulence after bird-to-bird passages causing severe outbreaks in susceptible birds.
    Virus Genes 01/2013; 46(3). DOI:10.1007/s11262-012-0870-2 · 1.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In domestic pigs strict control measures and the use of gene-deleted marker vaccines resulted in the elimination of pseudorabies virus (PrV) infections in many parts of Europe and North America. In free-roaming feral pigs and wild boar populations, however, serological surveys and monitoring in The Americas, Europe and North Africa provided serological and virological evidence that PrV is more widely distributed than previously assumed. Thus, there is a constant risk of spillover of PrV infection from wild pig populations to domestic animals which could require intervention to limit the infection in wild pigs. To investigate whether oral immunization of wild boar by live-attenuated PrV could be an option, wild boar and domestic pigs were orally immunized with 2×10(6) TCID(50) of the attenuated live PrV vaccine strain Bartha supplied either with a syringe or within a blister, and subsequently intranasally challenged with 10(6) TCID(50) of the highly virulent PrV strain NIA-3. Oral immunization with live-attenuated PrV was able to confer protection against clinical signs in wild boar and against transmission of challenge virus to naïve contact animals. Only two vaccinated domestic pigs developed neurological signs after challenge infection. Our results demonstrate that oral immunization against PrV infection in wild boar is possible. In case increasing PrV infection rates in wild boar may enhance the risk for spillover into domestic pig populations, oral immunization of wild boar against PrV in endemic areas might be a feasible control strategy.
    Veterinary Microbiology 07/2012; 161(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.07.002 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) causes a persistent infection with provirus formation in B-lymphocytes. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on the conserved BLV polymerase (BLV pol) gene sequences was developed. Dually labeled probes were used to permit detection by the 5' exonuclease assay. The assay was validated with 350 samples of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells including 144 samples from BLV-seropositive animals worldwide (South America, Europe, Middle East, Australia) representing 5 of the recently described 7 BLV envelope-based genotypes. The BLV pol real-time PCR proved to be highly specific and sensitive with the detection of up to 1 copy of an internal control plasmid. The 95% confidence intervals for assay sensitivity and specificity were ≥ 98.27% and ≥ 98.33%, respectively. Restriction fragment length polymorphism and phylogenetic BLV pol-based sequence analysis of the investigated samples were performed and compared with the previous described BLV env-based genotypes. Grouping of the sequences based on the pol gene yielded similar results as the env gene-based assay.
    Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc 05/2012; 24(4):649-55. DOI:10.1177/1040638712447524 · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite considerable host species barriers, interspecies transmissions of influenza A viruses between wild birds, poultry and pigs have been demonstrated repeatedly. In particular, viruses of the subtypes H1 and H3 were transmitted between pigs and poultry, predominantly turkeys, in regions with a high population density of both species. The recovery of a swine influenza H1N1 virus from a turkey flock in Germany in 2009 prompted us to investigate molecularly the subtype H1 viruses recently detected in wild birds, pigs and poultry. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between H1N1 viruses originating from wild and domestic animals of Germany and to identify potential trans-species transmission or reassortment events. Hemagglutinin and neuraminidase gene or full-length genome sequences were generated from selected, current H1N1 viruses from wild birds, pigs and turkeys. Phylogenetic analyses were combined with genotyping and analyses of the deduced amino acid sequences with respect to biologically active sites. Antigenic relationships were assessed by hemagglutination inhibition reactions. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin sequences showed that viruses from distinct H1 subgroups co-circulate among domestic animals and wild birds. In addition, these viruses comprised different genotypes and were distinguishable antigenically. An H1N1 virus isolated from a turkey farm in northern Germany in 2009 showed the highest similarity with the avian-like porcine H1N1 influenza viruses circulating in Europe since the late 1970s. The data demonstrate the genetic and antigenic heterogeneity of H1 viruses currently circulating in domestic and wild animals in Germany and points to turkeys as a possible bridge between avian and mammalian hosts.
    Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 07/2011; 5(4):276-84. DOI:10.1111/j.1750-2659.2011.00201.x · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: From infection studies with cultured chicken cells and experimental mammalian hosts, it is well known that influenza viruses use the nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) to suppress the synthesis of interferon (IFN). However, our current knowledge regarding the in vivo role of virus-encoded NS1 in chickens is much more limited. Here, we report that highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of subtypes H5N1 and H7N7 lacking fully functional NS1 genes were attenuated in 5-week-old chickens. Surprisingly, in diseased birds infected with NS1 mutants, the IFN levels were not higher than in diseased birds infected with wild-type virus, suggesting that NS1 cannot suppress IFN gene expression in at least one cell population of infected chickens that produces large amounts of the cytokine in vivo. To address the question of why influenza viruses are highly pathogenic in chickens although they strongly activate the innate immune system, we determined whether recombinant chicken alpha interferon (IFN-α) can inhibit the growth of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in cultured chicken cells and whether it can ameliorate virus-induced disease in 5-week-old birds. We found that IFN treatment failed to confer substantial protection against challenge with highly pathogenic viruses, although it was effective against viruses with low pathogenic potential. Taken together, our data demonstrate that preventing the synthesis of IFN is not the primary role of the viral NS1 protein during infection of chickens. Our results further suggest that virus-induced IFN does not contribute substantially to resistance of chickens against highly pathogenic influenza viruses.
    Journal of Virology 05/2011; 85(15):7730-41. DOI:10.1128/JVI.00063-11 · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A natural reassortant influenza A virus consisting of seven genome segments from pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus and a neuraminidase segment from a Eurasian porcine H1N1 influenza A virus was detected in a pig herd in Germany. The obvious reassortment compatibility between the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and H1N1 viruses of porcine origin raises concern as to whether swine may become a reservoir for further reassortants of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viruses with unknown implications for human health and swine production.
    Journal of General Virology 02/2011; 92(Pt 5):1184-8. DOI:10.1099/vir.0.028662-0 · 3.53 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

925 Citations
160.47 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2014
    • University of Leipzig
      • Institut für Virologie
      Leipzig, Saxony, Germany
  • 2005–2012
    • Friedrich Loeffler Institute
      • Institute of Molecular Biology
      Griefswald, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany
  • 2011
    • International Max Planck Research School for Molecular and Cellular Life Sciences: From Biology to Medicine
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2002–2006
    • North Carolina State University
      • College of Veterinary Medicine
      Raleigh, North Carolina, United States
  • 1995–1999
    • Universiteit Utrecht
      • Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 1997
    • Biomedical primate research centre
      • Department of Virology
      Rijswijk, South Holland, Netherlands