Jun Soo Kwon

University of Seoul, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (219)828.23 Total impact

  • Article: d
    01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Symptoms of schizophrenia are related to deficits in self-monitoring function, which may be a consequence of irregularity in aspects of the default mode network (DMN). Schizophrenia can also be characterized by a functional abnormality of the brain activity that is reflected in the resting state. Oscillatory analysis provides an important understanding of resting brain activity. However, conventional methods using electroencephalography are restricted because of low spatial resolution, despite their excellent temporal resolution.The aim of this study was to investigate resting brain oscillation and the default mode network based on a source space in various frequency bands such as theta, alpha, beta, and gamma using magnetoencephalography. In addition, we investigated whether these resting and DMN activities could distinguish schizophrenia patients from normal controls. To do this, the power spectral density of each frequency band at rest was imaged and compared on a spatially normalized brain template in 20 patients and 20 controls.
    BMC Neuroscience 09/2014; 15(1):104. · 3.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The term schizophrenia, which comes from the Greek roots “skhizein” and “phren,” was translated as “Jungshinbunyeolbyung” in East Asian Countries, including Japan, Korea, and China. The term literally means “mind-splitting disease.” This term has generated a misconception of the disorder as an untreatable chaotic personality, thus instilling stigma and causing suffering in patients and their families. This socio-cultural connotation has impeded medical treatment of schizophrenia. Recent neuroscience research has suggested neural network dysfunction in schizophrenia. Accordingly, a new term, “Johyeonbyung (attunement disorder)”, was coined in South Korea. This term literally refers to tuning a string instrument, and metaphorically it describes schizophrenia as a disorder caused by mistuning of the brain’s neural network. We expect that the term Johyeonbyung will incite less prejudice and that its metaphoric description of the disorder may help patients to access medical treatment in the early phase. The name of a psychiatric disorder can influence others’ attitudes toward patients; thus, discretion is crucial in naming psychiatric disorders.
    Asian Journal of Psychiatry 04/2014; 8:118-120.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Previous studies have reported promising results regarding the effect of repeated virtual cue exposure therapy on nicotine dependence. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of virtual cue exposure therapy (CET) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for nicotine dependence. Thirty subjects with nicotine dependence participated in 4 weeks of treatment with either virtual CET (n=15) or CBT (n=15). All patients were male, and none received nicotine replacement treatment during the study period. The main setting of the CET used in this study was a virtual bar. The primary foci of the CBT offered were (a) smoking cessation education, (b) withdrawal symptoms, (c) coping with high-risk situations, (d) cognitive reconstruction, and (e) stress management. Daily smoking count, level of expiratory carbon monoxide (CO), level of nicotine dependence, withdrawal symptoms, and subjective craving were examined on three occasions: week 0 (baseline), week 4 (end of treatment), and week 12 (follow-up assessment). After treatment, the daily smoking count, the expiratory CO, and nicotine dependence levels had significantly decreased. These effects continued during the entire study period. Similar changes were observed in both virtual CET and CBT groups. We found no interaction between type of therapy and time of measurement. Although the current findings are preliminary, the present study provided evidence that virtual CET is effective for the treatment of nicotine dependence at a level comparable to CBT.
    Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking 02/2014; · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to apply the virtual radial arm maze (VRAM) task to find spatial working memory and reference memory impairments in patients of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Spatial memory functions between aMCI converters and nonconverters are also compared using VRAM results. We assessed the spatial memory in 20 normal controls, 20 aMCI, and 20 mild AD subjects using VRAM. The Mini-Mental State Examination, Clinical Dementia Rating scale, and other neuropsychological tests were given to the subjects in conjunction with the VRAM test. Scores in working memory errors and reference memory errors were compared among the three groups using repeated measures analysis of variance. In addition, aMCI patients were followed-up after 5 years and surveyed for AD conversion rate. In AD patients, both spatial working and reference memory were impaired. However, in aMCI subjects, only spatial reference memory was impaired. Significant spatial reference memory impairment was found in the aMCI converter group when compared to the nonconverter group. Spatial working memory is less impaired in aMCI while reference memory is similarly damaged in AD. In aMCI patients, more severe spatial reference memory deficit is a neuropsychological marker for AD conversion. VRAM may be well utilized in humans to assess spatial memory in normal aging, in aMCI, and in AD.
    Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 01/2014; 10:653-660. · 2.00 Impact Factor
  • Schizophrenia Research 01/2014; · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and predictors of symptomatic and functional remission in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis at 1–2 years of follow-up. Methods Help-seeking CHR individuals with symptomatic (Scale of Prodromal Symptoms (SOPS) positive scores < 3) and functional (Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score > 60) (CHR-R) remission at 12–24 months were compared to non-remitted individuals (CHR-NR) regarding baseline and treatment characteristics, symptom changes and predictors. Time to full remission was compared with that of symptomatic remission only. Results Of 73 individuals, 29 (39.7%) achieved full remission; 44 (60.3%) did not. Compared to CHR-NR individuals, CHR-R individuals had lower baseline SOPS positive symptoms (p = 0.017), antipsychotic use (p = 0.004), antipsychotic chlorpromazine dose equivalents (p = 0.001) and anxiolytic use (p = 0.004). In survival analyses, the estimated full remission rate was 48.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 36.2–61.9) and symptomatic remission rate was 67.5% (CI95 = 55.4–79.2). Time to full remission was longer than time to symptomatic remission (p = 0.017). Linear mixed-effect models revealed significantly greater improvements from 6 months onward in CHR-R subjects compared to CHR-NR subjects regarding SOPS positive symptoms (p = 0.003), highest SOPS positive symptom (p < 0.001) and GAF scores (p = 0.004). Examining baseline predictors, time to full remission was significantly longer in patients with higher SOPS positive scores (p = 0.017). Conclusions More stringent remission criteria that include functional status in addition to attenuated positive symptom severity should be applied to CHR subjects. Furthermore, more attention should be given to CHR individuals with highly positive prodromal symptoms at baseline.
    Schizophrenia Research 01/2014; · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intrusive musical imagery (IMI) consists of involuntarily recalled, short, looping fragments of melodies. Musical obsessions are distressing, impairing forms of IMI that merit investigation in their own right and, more generally, research into these phenomena may broaden our understanding of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), which is phenomenologically and etiologically heterogeneous. We present the first comprehensive review of musical obsessions, based on the largest set of case descriptions ever assembled (N = 96). Characteristics of musical obsessions are described and compared with normal IMI, musical hallucinations, and visual obsessional imagery. Assessment, differential diagnosis, comorbidity, etiologic hypotheses, and treatments are described. Musical obsessions may be under-diagnosed because they are not adequately assessed by current measures of OCD. Musical obsessions have been misdiagnosed as psychotic phenomena, which has led to ineffective treatment. Accurate diagnosis is important for appropriate treatment. Musical obsessions may respond to treatments that are not recommended for prototypic OCD symptoms.
    Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: As the main input hub of the basal ganglia, the striatum receives projections from the cerebral cortex. Many studies have provided evidence for multiple parallel corticostriatal loops based on the structural and functional connectivity profiles of the human striatum. A recent resting-state fMRI study revealed the topography of striatum by assigning each voxel in the striatum to its most strongly correlated cortical network among the cognitive, affective, and motor networks. However, it remains unclear what patterns of striatal parcellation would result from performing the clustering without subsequent assignment to cortical networks. Thus, we applied unsupervised clustering algorithms to parcellate the human striatum based on its functional connectivity patterns to other brain regions without any anatomically or functionally defined cortical targets. Functional connectivity maps of striatal subdivisions, identified through clustering analyses, were also computed. Our findings were consistent with recent accounts of the functional distinctions of the striatum as well as with recent studies about its functional and anatomical connectivity. For example, we found functional connections between dorsal and ventral striatal clusters and the areas involved in cognitive and affective processes, respectively, and between rostral and caudal putamen clusters and the areas involved in cognitive and motor processes, respectively. This study confirms prior findings, showing similar striatal parcellation patterns between the present and prior studies. Given such striking similarity, it is suggested that striatal subregions are functionally linked to cortical networks involving specific functions rather than discrete portions of cortical regions. Our findings also demonstrate that the clustering of functional connectivity patterns is a reliable feature in parcellating the striatum into anatomically and functionally meaningful subdivisions. The striatal subdivisions identified here may have important implications for understanding the relationship between corticostriatal dysfunction and various neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(9):e106768. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Recent studies revealed that nonconverters at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis comprise those who later remit from initial CHR state and those who do not remit and continue to have attenuated positive symptoms. CHR subjects who remit symptomatically are comparable to healthy controls for both baseline and longitudinal symptoms. However, the neurocognitive characteristics of this population are still obscure. Methods Seventy-five CHR subjects and 61 healthy controls were recruited, and their neurocognitive functions were assessed. CHR subjects were divided into converter, remitter, and non-remitter groups according to their clinical state during a 12 to 24 month follow-up. Results Only the remitter group was comparable to healthy controls in terms of baseline neurocognitive functions. We observed that remitters showed better performance at baseline on tasks of attention, immediate/delayed verbal memory, verbal fluency, and immediate visual memory compared with converters. Moreover, we found that performance on semantic fluency was significantly improved in remitters but declined in non-remitters over the 2-year follow-up; however, there was no significant difference between these two groups at baseline. Conclusion CHR nonconverters who later remit from an initial prodromal state do not show reduced neurocognitive functioning compared with healthy controls at baseline. Therefore, an advanced research diagnostic criterion for a CHR state that considers neurocognitive functions is needed to more precisely predict which patients will develop psychosis.
    Schizophrenia Research 01/2014; · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to investigate whether mismatch negativity (MMN) is associated with functional status or is a state-independent trait for schizophrenia. We assessed MMN in 26 patients with schizophrenia, 20 healthy subjects with high genetic loading, and 48 healthy controls. A repeated measures analysis of variance and Pearson's correlations were used to test the hypothesis that MMN is not state-independent. We found a significant main effect of group, indicating differences in the peak amplitudes of the MMN among the three groups. Post hoc analyses revealed that schizophrenia patients showed a significant reduction in the peak amplitude of MMN, but subjects at high genetic risk and healthy controls did not. Additionally, significant correlations between Global Assessment of Functioning scores and MMN peak amplitude at Fz and Cz were found in patients with schizophrenia. These findings suggest that MMN may reflect current functional status rather than a genetic risk for schizophrenia.
    Psychiatry Research Neuroimaging 01/2014; · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE Results from structural neuroimaging studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been only partially consistent. The authors sought to assess regional gray and white matter volume differences between large samples of OCD patients and healthy comparison subjects and their relation with demographic and clinical variables. METHOD A multicenter voxel-based morphometry mega-analysis was performed on 1.5-T structural T1-weighted MRI scans derived from the International OCD Brain Imaging Consortium. Regional gray and white matter brain volumes were compared between 412 adult OCD patients and 368 healthy subjects. RESULTS Relative to healthy comparison subjects, OCD patients had significantly smaller volumes of frontal gray and white matter bilaterally, including the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the inferior frontal gyrus extending to the anterior insula. Patients also showed greater cerebellar gray matter volume bilaterally compared with healthy subjects. Group differences in frontal gray and white matter volume were significant after correction for multiple comparisons. Additionally, group-by-age interactions were observed in the putamen, insula, and orbitofrontal cortex (indicating relative preservation of volume in patients compared with healthy subjects with increasing age) and in the temporal cortex bilaterally (indicating a relative loss of volume in patients compared with healthy subjects with increasing age). CONCLUSIONS These findings partially support the prevailing fronto-striatal models of OCD and offer additional insights into the neuroanatomy of the disorder that were not apparent from previous smaller studies. The group-by-age interaction effects in orbitofrontal-striatal and (para)limbic brain regions may be the result of altered neuroplasticity associated with chronic compulsive behaviors, anxiety, or compensatory processes related to cognitive dysfunction.
    American Journal of Psychiatry 11/2013; · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous neuroimaging studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have reported both baseline functional alterations and pharmacological changes in localized brain regions and connections; however, the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment on the whole-brain functional network have not yet been elucidated. Twenty-five drug-free OCD patients underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. After 16-weeks, seventeen patients who received SSRI treatment were rescanned. Twenty-three matched healthy control subjects were examined at baseline for comparison, and 21 of them were rescanned after 16 weeks. Topological properties of brain networks (including small-world, efficiency, modularity, and connectivity degree) were analyzed cross-sectionally and longitudinally with graph-theory approach. At baseline, OCD patients relative to healthy control subjects showed decreased small-world efficiency (including local clustering coefficient, local efficiency, and small-worldness) and functional association between default-mode and frontoparietal modules as well as widespread altered connectivity degrees in many brain areas. We observed clinical improvement in OCD patients after 16 weeks of SSRI treatment, which was accompanied by significantly elevated small-world efficiency, modular organization, and connectivity degree. Improvement of obsessive-compulsive symptoms was significantly correlated with changes in connectivity degree in right ventral frontal cortex in OCD patients after treatment. This is first study to use graph-theory approach for investigating valuable biomarkers for the effects of SSRI on neuronal circuitries of OCD patients. Our findings suggest that OCD phenomenology might be the outcome of disrupted optimal balance in the brain networks and that reinstating this balance after SSRI treatment accompanies significant symptom improvement.
    Biological psychiatry 10/2013; · 8.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Disturbances of the minimal self, characterized by abnormal sense of the body, body ownership and agency have been proposed as the phenomenological phenotype of schizophrenia. However, self-disturbances have not been extensively investigated, in part, due to the subjective nature of such processes, and the associated difficulty of studying these phenomena using empirical methodology. Of 115 potential studies on self-awareness in schizophrenia, a total of 25 studies met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis comprising 690 patients with schizophrenia and 979 healthy controls. We calculated Hedge's g to obtain a better estimate for the standardized mean difference in small samples. We identified significant basic self-disturbance in schizophrenia, as compared with healthy controls (25 studies, effect size=0.51). Additional comparison of three sub-categories of the sense of body ownership (4 studies, effect size=0.91), the sense of agency (15 studies, effect size=0.49), and self-reported subjective experiences (6 studies, effect size=0.57) also confirmed group differences. The complete set of 25 studies, and the studies in the sub-categories showed the statistical homogeneity of the characteristics. After a correction for potential publication bias using the trim-and-fill method, the main findings for all studies combined remained significant. Overall, patients with schizophrenia showed deficits in the sense of the minimal self, driven by abnormal sense of body ownership and sense of agency. Interestingly, the disturbed sense of agency in schizophrenia suggests an exaggerated self-consciousness rather than a diminished sense of self. Further research that utilizes sophisticated study designs is needed to examine the nature of self-disturbances in schizophrenia.
    Schizophrenia Research 09/2013; · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Symptom dimensions of schizophrenia are likely to be the intermediate phenotypes under the control of disease-susceptibility genes, or separate traits related to disease-modifier genes. This study aimed to identify chromosomal loci linked to symptom dimensions of schizophrenia through genome-wide quantitative trait locus (QTL) linkage analysis. The study subjects consisted of 56 families with 183 members including 123 affected individuals. Symptom evaluations were performed on lifetime basis. Through principal component factor analysis, eight quantitative phenotypes representing symptom dimensions were identified. Genotyping was done for 6008 SNP markers, and genome-wide QTL linkage analysis was performed. No symptom dimension showed a significant linkage attaining genome-wide empirical thresholds. We observed seven regions yielding linkage signals attaining genome-wide empirical thresholds for suggestive linkage (NPL Z score=2.78-3.49); chromosome 15q26.1 for 'non-paranoid delusion factor', 2p24.3 and 7q31.1 for 'prodromal impairment factor', 1q32.1, 9p21.3, and 9q31.2 for 'negative symptom factor', and 10p13 for 'disorganization factor'. Among these loci, chromosome 2p24.3 and 1q32.1 overlap with susceptibility loci of schizophrenia identified in our previous linkage studies. This study suggests the existence of genetic loci related to various clinical features of schizophrenia. Further genetic analyses for these dimensional phenotypes are warranted.
    Psychiatry research. 09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Many studies have reported that patients with schizophrenia often have structural abnormalities of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and that some of these seem to be of genetic origin, therefore predating the onset of illness. The present study aimed to investigate whether these alterations in the ACC are genetic in origin by comparing the morphological patterns of three groups: normal controls, subjects at genetic high risk (GHR) for psychosis, and patients with schizophrenia. The relationships between morphological variations and executive function were also investigated. This study examined the magnetic resonance images of cingulate sulcus/paracingulate sulcus (CS/PCS) folding patterns in 222 subjects (103 normal subjects, 30 individuals at GHR, and 89 patients with schizophrenia) and evaluated differences in the morphological and asymmetrical patterns of the ACC among groups. Neurocognitive tests were then performed and differences in cognitive performance were analyzed according to morphological variation. Differences in PCS folding were detected; the control group was significantly more likely than were other groups to show a well-developed left PCS (p=0.009) and leftward asymmetry of the PCS (p<0.001). However, neither GHR subjects (p=0.346) nor patients (p=0.784) showed this leftward asymmetry. No statistically significant differences in CS continuity were observed. A more prominent left PCS (p=0.031) and leftward PCS asymmetry (p=0.030) were both associated with higher scores on the working memory task. The results suggest that GHR subjects have distinct neurodevelopmental anomalies that resemble those of patients with schizophrenia even though they do not display any psychotic symptoms. Certain developmental alterations in the ACC, such as the loss of leftward sulcal asymmetry in patients with schizophrenia, might be related to genetic factors. Additionally, this morphological alteration might partly account for the impaired executive function in schizophrenia.
    Schizophrenia Research 09/2013; · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to evaluate consistencies and discrepancies between clinician-administered and self-report versions of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and to examine relationships between these scales and personality traits. A total of 106 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) participated in this study. All participants were assessed with both clinician-administered and self-report versions of the Y-BOCS. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders Personality Questionnaire (SCID-II-PQ) was used to evaluate relationships between personality traits and scores on the Y-BOCS. Scores on the clinician-administered Y-BOCS and its obsession subscale were significantly higher than were those on the self-report version. However, we found no significant differences in compulsion subscale scores. We also found that the discrepancies in the scores on the two versions of the Y-BOCS and its compulsion subscale were significantly positively correlated with scores for narcissistic personality traits on the SCID-II-PQ. Additionally, narcissistic personality traits had a significant effect on the discrepancy in the scores on the two versions of the Y-BOCS and its compulsion subscale in the multiple linear regression analysis. This is the first study to elucidate relationships between personality traits and discrepancies between scores on the two versions of the Y-BOCS. Although clinicians tend to rate obsessive symptoms as being more severe than do patients, clinicians may underestimate the degree to which individuals with narcissistic personality traits suffer more from subjective discomfort due to compulsive symptoms. Therefore, the effect of personality traits on symptom severity should be considered in the treatment of OCD.
    Psychiatry investigation 09/2013; 10(3):259-265. · 1.06 Impact Factor
  • Yu Sang Lee, Jae-Jin Kim, Jun Soo Kwon
    The Lancet 08/2013; 382(9893):683-4. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anomalous sense of self is central to schizophrenia yet difficult to demonstrate empirically. The present study examined the effective neural network connectivity underlying self-face recognition in patients with schizophrenia (SZ) using [(15)O]H2O Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Structural Equation Modeling. Eight SZ and eight age-matched healthy controls (CO) underwent six consecutive [(15)O]H2O PET scans during self-face (SF) and famous face (FF) recognition blocks, each of which was repeated three times. There were no behavioral performance differences between the SF and FF blocks in SZ. Moreover, voxel-based analyses of data from SZ revealed no significant differences in the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) levels between the SF and FF recognition conditions. Further effective connectivity analyses for SZ also showed a similar pattern of effective connectivity network across the SF and FF recognition. On the other hand, comparison of SF recognition effective connectivity network between SZ and CO demonstrated significantly attenuated effective connectivity strength not only between the right supramarginal gyrus and left inferior temporal gyrus, but also between the cuneus and right medial prefrontal cortex in SZ. These findings support a conceptual model that posits a causal relationship between disrupted self-other discrimination and attenuated effective connectivity among the right supramarginal gyrus, cuneus, and prefronto-temporal brain areas involved in the SF recognition network of SZ.
    Schizophrenia Research 07/2013; · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The influence of neurocognition, including general intelligence, on theory of mind (ToM) among patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder is controversial. The purpose of the present study was to identify the influences of the non-ToM cognition and general intelligence on ToM performance in individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis. Fifty-five UHR subjects and 58 healthy controls (HCs) completed neurocognitive, verbal, and nonverbal ToM tasks. UHR individuals showed poorer performance in the two verbal ToM tasks, the false-belief task and the strange-story tasks. Moreover, the UHR subjects displayed poorer recall on the interference list of the verbal learning test. Linear regression analysis revealed that neurocognitive functioning, including executive functioning, working memory, and general intelligence, accounted for significant amounts of the variance in the results for UHR individuals: 20.4% in the false-belief task, 44.0% in the strange-story task, and 49.0% in the nonverbal cartoon task. Neurocognition, including general intelligence, was not a significant contributor to performance on ToM tasks in HCs. ToM deficits were not noted in UHR individuals with above-average IQ scores (≥110) compared with UHR subjects with IQ scores less than 110, who displayed significant differences on all ToM tasks compared with HCs. The present results suggest that ToM deficits in UHR individuals are complex and may be influenced by non-ToM cognition. Our findings are discussed in relation to the role of neurocognitive abilities in ToM-related impairments in UHR individuals.
    Schizophrenia Research 06/2013; · 4.59 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
828.23 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • University of Seoul
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2003–2014
    • Seoul National University Hospital
      • Department of Neuropsychiatry
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2002–2014
    • Seoul National University
      • • College of Natural Sciences
      • • Department of Neuropsychiatry
      • • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      • • College of Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2013
    • Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences
      Leipzig, Saxony, Germany
  • 2010–2013
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2008–2013
    • Rowe Neuroscience Institute
      Lenexa, Kansas, United States
  • 2005–2011
    • Yonsei University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2004–2011
    • Asan Medical Center
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2009
    • Seoul Medical Center
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2003–2008
    • Hanyang University
      • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2006–2007
    • Vanderbilt University
      • Department of Psychology
      Nashville, MI, United States
    • Sungshin Women's University
      • Department of Psychology
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital
      New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States
    • Kangbuk Samsung Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea