[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To develop a system that documents the location of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsies by fusing them to MRI scans obtained prior to biopsy, as the actual location of prostate biopsies is rarely known. PATIENTS AND METHODS Fifty patients (median age 61) with a median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of 5.8 ng/ml underwent 3T endorectal coil MRI prior to biopsy. 3D TRUS images were obtained just prior to standard TRUS-guided 12-core sextant biopsies wherein an electromagnetic positioning device was attached to the needle guide and TRUS probe in order to track the position of each needle pass. The 3D-TRUS image documenting the location of each biopsy was fused electronically to the T2-weighted MRI. Each biopsy needle track was marked on the TRUS images and these were then transposed onto the MRI. Each biopsy site was classified pathologically as positive or negative for cancer and the Gleason score was determined. RESULTS The location of all (n= 605) needle biopsy tracks was successfully documented on the T2-weighted (T2W) MRI. Among 50 patients, 20 had 56 positive cores. At the sites of biopsy, T2W signal was considered 'positive' for cancer (i.e. low in signal intensity) in 34 of 56 sites. CONCLUSION It is feasible to document the location of TRUS-guided prostate biopsies on pre-procedure MRI by fusing the pre-procedure TRUS to an endorectal coil MRI using electromagnetic needle tracking. This procedure may be useful in documenting the location of prior biopsies, improving quality control and thereby avoiding under-sampling of the prostate as well as directing subsequent biopsies to regions of the prostate not previously sampled.
BJU International 01/2011; 107(1):53-7. · 3.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple myeloma (MM) is consistently preceded by its pre-malignant states, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and/or smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM). By definition, precursor conditions do not exhibit end-organ disease (anemia, hypercalcemia, renal failure, skeletal lytic lesions, or a combination of these). However, new imaging methods are demonstrating that some patients in the MGUS or SMM category are exhibiting early signs of MM. Although MGUS/SMM patients are currently defined as low-risk versus high-risk based on clinical markers, we currently lack the ability to predict the individual patient's risk of progression from MGUS/SMM to MM. Given that the presence of gross lytic bone lesions is a hallmark of MM, it is reasonable to believe that less severe bone changes defined by more sensitive imaging may be predictive of MM progression. Indeed, since bone disease is such an essential aspect of MM, imaging techniques directed at the detection of early bone lesions, have the potential to become increasingly more useful in the setting of MGUS/SMM. Current guidelines for the radiological assessment of MM still recommend the traditional skeletal survey, although its limitations are well documented, especially in early phases of the disease when radiographs can significantly underestimate the extent of bone lesions and bone marrow involvement. Newer, more advanced imaging modalities, with higher sensitivities, including whole-body low-dose computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) are being employed. Also various imaging techniques have been used to provide an assessment of bone involvement and identify extra-osseous disease. This review emphasizes the current state of the art and emerging imaging methods, which may help to better define high-risk versus low-risk MGUS/SMM. Ultimately, improved imaging could allow more tailored clinical management, and, most likely play an important role in the development of future treatment strategies for high-risk precursor disease.
Seminars in Hematology 01/2011; 48(1):22-31. · 3.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsies, the actual location of the biopsy site is rarely documented. Here, we demonstrate the capability of TRUS-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image fusion to document the biopsy site and correlate biopsy results with multi-parametric MRI findings. Fifty consecutive patients (median age 61 years) with a median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 5.8 ng/ml underwent 12-core TRUS-guided biopsy of the prostate. Pre-procedural T2-weighted magnetic resonance images were fused to TRUS. A disposable needle guide with miniature tracking sensors was attached to the TRUS probe to enable fusion with MRI. Real-time TRUS images during biopsy and the corresponding tracking information were recorded. Each biopsy site was superimposed onto the MRI. Each biopsy site was classified as positive or negative for cancer based on the results of each MRI sequence. Sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating curve (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) values were calculated for multi-parametric MRI. Gleason scores for each multi-parametric MRI pattern were also evaluated. Six hundred and 5 systemic biopsy cores were analyzed in 50 patients, of whom 20 patients had 56 positive cores. MRI identified 34 of 56 positive cores. Overall, sensitivity, specificity, and ROC area values for multi-parametric MRI were 0.607, 0.727, 0.667, respectively. TRUS-MRI fusion after biopsy can be used to document the location of each biopsy site, which can then be correlated with MRI findings. Based on correlation with tracked biopsies, T2-weighted MRI and apparent diffusion coefficient maps derived from diffusion-weighted MRI are the most sensitive sequences, whereas the addition of delayed contrast enhancement MRI and three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrated higher specificity consistent with results obtained using radical prostatectomy specimens.
Cancer Imaging 01/2011; 11:31-6. · 1.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor targeting Raf and VEGFR, has shown activity in unselected patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). At present there are no validated biomarkers indicative of sorafenib activity.
Patients received sorafenib 400 mg BID daily to determine activity and tolerability and to measure its biological effects. KRAS mutation status (N = 34), angiogenesis markers (VEGF, bFGF, FLT-1, PLGF-1) and imaging with DCE-MRI (dynamic contrast enhanced MRI) to determine early changes in tumor vascular characteristics were evaluated. Three parameters K(trans), K(ep), and V(e) were measured by DCE-MRI at baseline and day 14 of cycle 1. Cytokine analysis was done on days 0, 14, 28, and 54.
Thirty-seven patients with previously treated stage IV NSCLC were enrolled in this single-center phase II trial. In 34 evaluable patients, 2 had partial responses and 20 had stable disease for 3 to 17 months, a disease control rate of 65%. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 3.4 months, and median overall survival (OS) was 11.6 months. Toxicity was consistent with the known side effects of sorafenib. KRAS (32%) and EGFR mutations (22%) showed no correlation with response, PFS, or OS. K(ep), was significant in predicting an improvement in OS (P = 0.035) and PFS (P = 0.029). Cytokine analysis demonstrated an improved OS for bFGF day 0 (<6 vs. >6 pg/mL; P = 0.042), whereas a PFS benefit was seen with bFGF at day 28 (<6 vs. >6; P = 0.028).
KRAS and EGFR mutational status showed no correlation with response, PFS, or OS. Radiologic and cytokine changes may act as biomarkers indicative of early angiogenesis inhibition.
Clinical Cancer Research 01/2011; 17(5):1190-9. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autofluorescence arising from normal tissues can compromise the sensitivity and specificity of in vivo fluorescence imaging by lowering the target-to-background signal ratio. Since bioluminescence resonance energy transfer quantum dot (BRET-QDot) nano-particles can self-illuminate in near-infrared in the presence of the substrate, coelenterazine, without irradiating excitation lights, imaging using BRET-QDots does not produce any autofluorescence. In this study, we applied this BRET-QDot nano-particle to the in vivo lymphatic imaging in mice in order to compare with BRET, fluorescence or bioluminescence lymphatic imaging. BRET-QDot655, in which QDot655 is contained as a core, was injected at different sites (e.g. chin, ear, forepaws and hind paws) in mice followed by the intravenous coelenterazine injection, and then bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging were serially performed. In all mice, each lymphatic basin was clearly visualized in the BRET imaging with minimal background signals. The BRET signal in the lymph nodes lasted at least 30 min after coelenterazine injections. Furthermore, the BRET signal demonstrated better quantification than the fluorescence signal emitting from QDot655, the core of this BRET particle. These advantages of BRET-QDot allowed us to perform real-time, quantitative lymphatic imaging without image processing. BRET-Qdots have the potential to be a robust nano-material platform for developing optical molecular imaging probes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pazopanib is an FDA approved Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor inhibitor. We previously reported that it also inhibits tumor cell B-Raf activity in an experimental brain metastatic setting. Here, we determine the effects of different B-Raf genotypes on pazopanib efficacy, in terms of primary tumor growth and anti-angiogenesis. A panel of seven human breast cancer and melanoma cell lines harboring different mutations in the Ras-Raf pathway was implanted orthotopically in mice, and tumor growth, ERK1/2, MEK1/2 and AKT activation, and blood vessel density and permeability were analyzed. Pazopanib was significantly inhibitory to xenografts expressing either exon 11 mutations of B-Raf, or HER2 activated wild type B-Raf; no significant inhibition of a xenograft expressing the common V600E B-Raf mutation was observed. Decreased pMEK staining in the responsive tumors confirmed that B-Raf was targeted by pazopanib. Interestingly, pazopanib inhibition of tumor cell B-Raf also correlated with its anti-angiogenic activity, as quantified by vessel density and area. In conclusion, using pazopanib, tumor B-Raf status was identified as a significant determinant of both tumor growth and angiogenesis.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(10):e25625. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conventional imaging methods, such as angiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and radionuclide imaging, rely on contrast agents (iodine, gadolinium, and radioisotopes, for example) that are "always on." Although these indicators have proven clinically useful, their sensitivity is lacking because of inadequate target-to-background signal ratio. A unique aspect of optical imaging is that fluorescence probes can be designed to be activatable, that is, only "turned on" under certain conditions. These probes are engineered to emit signal only after binding a target tissue; this design greatly increases sensitivity and specificity in the detection of disease. Current research focuses on two basic types of activatable fluorescence probes. The first developed were conventional enzymatically activatable probes. These fluorescent molecules exist in the quenched state until activated by enzymatic cleavage, which occurs mostly outside of the cells. However, more recently, researchers have begun designing target-cell-specific activatable probes. These fluorophores exist in the quenched state until activated within targeted cells by endolysosomal processing, which results when the probe binds specific receptors on the cell surface and is subsequently internalized. In this Account, we present a review of the rational design and in vivo applications of target-cell-specific activatable probes. In engineering these probes, researchers have asserted control over a variety of factors, including photochemistry, pharmacological profile, and biological properties. Their progress has recently allowed the rational design and synthesis of target-cell-specific activatable fluorescence imaging probes, which can be conjugated to a wide variety of targeting molecules. Several different photochemical mechanisms have been utilized, each of which offers a unique capability for probe design. These include self-quenching, homo- and hetero-fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), H-dimer formation, and photon-induced electron transfer (PeT). In addition, the repertoire is further expanded by the option for reversibility or irreversibility of the signal emitted through these mechanisms. Given the wide range of photochemical mechanisms and properties, target-cell-specific activatable probes have considerable flexibility and can be adapted to specific diagnostic needs. A multitude of cell surface molecules, such as overexpressed growth factor receptors, are directly related to carcinogenesis and thus provide numerous targets highly specific for cancer. This discussion of the chemical, pharmacological, and biological basis of target-cell-specific activatable imaging probes, and methods for successfully designing them, underscores the systematic, rational basis for further developing in vivo cancer imaging.
Accounts of Chemical Research 11/2010; 44(2):83-90. · 20.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aims to develop and characterize the trafficking of a dual-modal agent that identifies primary draining or sentinel lymph node (LN).
Herein, a dual-reporting silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticle (SCION) is developed. Nude mice were imaged by magnetic resonance (MR) and optical imaging and axillary LNs were harvested for histological analysis. Trafficking through lymphatics was observed with intravital and ex vivo confocal microscopy of popliteal LNs in B6-albino, CD11c-EYFP, and lys-EGFP transgenic mice.
In vivo, SCION allows visualization of LNs. The particle's size and surface functionality play a role in its passive migration from the intradermal injection site and its minimal uptake by CD11c+ dendritic cells and CD169+ and lys+ macrophages.
After injection, SCION passively migrates to LNs without macrophage uptake and then can be used to image LN(s) by MRI and fluorescence. Thus, SCION can potentially be developed for use in sentinel node resections or for intralymphatic drug delivery.
Molecular imaging and biology: MIB: the official publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging 11/2010; 13(6):1163-72. · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Target specific small molecules as modulators of drug delivery may play a significant role in the future development of therapeutics. Small molecules can alter the in vivo pharmacokinetics of therapeutic macromolecules leading to more efficient drug delivery with less systemic toxicity. The potential of creating a more effective drug delivery system through glycosylation has led, for instance, to the addition of galactose to increase drug delivery to the liver. However, there are many other monosaccharides with potentially useful targeting properties that require further characterization. Here, we investigate the potential of glycosylation to guide molecular therapies using five different monosaccharides conjugated to human serum albumin (HSA). Additionally, we investigate how the amount of glycosylation may alter the pharmacokinetic profile of HSA. We introduce the use of in vivo near-infrared optical imaging to characterize the effect of differential glycosylation on the pharmacokinetics of macromolecules.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quantum dots (QDs) are fluorescent nanoparticles with broad excitation and narrow, wavelength-tunable emission spectra. They are used extensively for in vitro fluorescence imaging studies and more recently for in vivo small animal and pre-clinical studies. To date there has been little concern about the selection of QD size (and thus emission wavelength peak) and excitation wavelengths, as they have little relevance to the results of in vitro studies. In vivo imaging, however, poses additional constraints, such as the scattering and absorption by tissue, which may influence the signal intensity at the body surface. Here, we demonstrate that longer-wavelength excitation and emission yield less quantization error in measured relative fluorescence intensity, using three near-infrared QDs (QD655, QD705 and QD800) applied to in vivo lymphatic imaging, and a range of excitation wavelengths from the blue to the red. Statistically significant differences in quantization error were observed between nearly all pairs of excitation wavelengths (445-490, 503-555, 575-605, 615-665 and 671-705 nm). Similarly, quantization error decreased with longer emission wavelengths (655, 705 and 800 nm). Light absorbance and scattering were demonstrated to be more potent factors than absorbance efficiency of QDs in producing quantization error in the measured fluorescence intensity. As a result, while wavelengths can be adjusted for qualitative experiments, the longest possible wavelengths should be used if quantification is desired during QD imaging experiments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical translation of novel optical probes requires testing of human specimens ex vivo to ensure efficacy. However, it may be difficult to remove human tissue from the operating room due to regulatory/privacy issues. Therefore, we designed a portable fluorescence camera to test targeted optical imaging probes on human specimens in the operating room.
A compact benchtop fluorescence camera was designed and built in-house. A mouse xenograft model of ovarian cancer with an activatable imaging probe based on rhodamine green was used to test the device. Comparison was made to commercially available imaging systems.
The prototype camera produced images comparable to images acquired with commercially available, non-portable imaging systems.
We demonstrate the feasibility of a specimen-based portable fluorescence camera for use in the operating room. Its small size ensures that tissue excised from patients can be tested promptly for fluorescence within the operating room environment, thus expediting the testing of novel imaging probes.
Molecular imaging and biology: MIB: the official publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging 10/2010; 13(5):862-7. · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify , within the framework of a current Phase I trial, whether factors related to intraprostatic cancer lesions (IPLs) or individual patients predict the feasibility of high-dose intraprostatic irradiation.
Endorectal coil MRI scans of the prostate from 42 men were evaluated for dominant IPLs. The IPLs, prostate, and critical normal tissues were contoured. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans were generated with the goal of delivering 75.6 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions to the prostate, with IPLs receiving a simultaneous integrated boost of 3.6 Gy per fraction to a total dose of 151.2 Gy, 200% of the prescribed dose and the highest dose cohort in our trial. Rectal and bladder dose constraints were consistent with those outlined in current Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocols.
Dominant IPLs were identified in 24 patients (57.1%). Simultaneous integrated boosts (SIB) to 200% of the prescribed dose were achieved in 12 of the 24 patients without violating dose constraints. Both the distance between the IPL and rectum and the hip-to-hip patient width on planning CT scans were associated with the feasibility to plan an SIB (p = 0.002 and p = 0.0137, respectively).
On the basis of this small cohort, the distance between an intraprostatic lesion and the rectum most strongly predicted the ability to plan high-dose radiation to a dominant intraprostatic lesion. High-dose SIB planning seems possible for select intraprostatic lesions.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 10/2010; 80(2):614-20. · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Imaging of the lymphatic system is critical in preoperative planning of resections of complex lymphatic malformations. However, safe, effective imaging methods with sufficient resolution to identify the lymphatics have been lacking. In this study, we demonstrate the use of gadolinium-labeled dendrimers to image the lymphatics in small and large animal models during magnetic resonance lymphangiography.
Polyamidoamine G6-Gd_1B4M_N-hydroxysuccinimide was synthesized and administered intradermally in the extremities of normal mice and pigs at several doses.
The lymphatics were well demonstrated in both animal models and there was rapid uptake in the deep lymphatic system, including the thoracic duct. A significant dose reduction was achieved (1 µmol Gd/kg) in the 35-kg pig compared with mice, while still producing excellent results. No toxicity was observed and only minor inflammatory changes were observed at the injection site 30 days later.
We demonstrate that a low dose of a macromolecular magnetic resonance contrast agent can provide rapid imaging of the deep lymphatic system in both small and large animals. This data provides a basis to consider a similar agent in clinical trials.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful imaging modality that can provide an assessment of function or molecular expression in tandem with anatomic detail. Over the last 20-25 years, a number of gadolinium-based MR contrast agents have been developed to enhance signal by altering proton relaxation properties. This review explores a range of these agents from small molecule chelates, such as Gd-DTPA and Gd-DOTA, to macromolecular structures composed of albumin, polylysine, polysaccharides (dextran, inulin, starch), poly(ethylene glycol), copolymers of cystamine and cystine with GD-DTPA, and various dendritic structures based on polyamidoamine and polylysine (Gadomers). The synthesis, structure, biodistribution, and targeting of dendrimer-based MR contrast agents are also discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biomedical optical imaging is rapidly evolving because of its desirable features of rapid frame rates, high sensitivity, low cost, portability and lack of radiation. Quantum dots are attractive as imaging agents owing to their high brightness, and photo- and bio-stability. Here, the current status of in vitro and in vivo real-time optical imaging with quantum dots is reviewed. In addition, we consider related nanocrystals based on solid-state semiconductors, including upconverting nanoparticles and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer quantum dots. These particles can improve the signal-to-background ratio for real-time imaging largely by suppressing background signal. Although toxicity and biodistribution of quantum dots and their close relatives remain prime concerns for translation to human imaging, these agents have many desirable features that should be explored for medical purposes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: This review is a primer on the technical aspects of performing a high-quality MRI and MR spectroscopic imaging examination of the prostate. CONCLUSION: MRI and MR spectroscopic imaging are useful tools in the localization, staging, and functional assessment of prostate cancer. Performing a high-quality MR spectroscopic examination requires understanding of the technical aspects and limitations of spectral acquisition, postprocessing techniques, and spectral evaluation.
American Journal of Roentgenology 06/2010; 194(6):1414-26. · 2.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paramagnetic nanomaterials for use as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents have higher relaxivity than conventional low molecular weight MRI agents. However, the biocompatibility and pharmacokinetics of such nanomaterials will strongly affect the likelihood of clinical approval. We synthesized MRI contrast agents based on biocompatible lysine-dendri-grafts: Gd-BzDTPA-lysineG2 and Gd-BzDTPA-lysineG3. The relaxivity of Gd-BzDTPA-lysineG2 and Gd-BzDTPA-lysineG3 increased with sample temperature, while the relaxivity of Gd-BzDTPA-PAMAMG4 decreased with increasing sample temperature. The increase in relaxivity with increasing temperature may be attributed to accessibility of water to the internal Gd chelates with lysine-dendri-grafts, which does not occur with PAMAM dendrimers. Gd-BzDTPA-lysineG3 had a long intravascular half-life but were largely excreted by the kidneys. Therefore, Gd-BzDTPA-lysineG3 enhanced the blood vessels for longer periods than Gd-BzDTPA-PAMAMG4, but was still excreted through the kidney. Because of their biocompatibility, desirable magneto-physical characteristics and favorable pharmacokinetics, which are derived from different interior structures rather than the physical size, lysine-dendri-graft MR contrast agents may be feasible for clinical use.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The key to improving the sensitivity of in vivo molecular imaging is to increase the target-to-background signal ratio (TBR). Optical imaging has a distinct advantage over other molecular imaging methods in that the fluorescent signal can be activated at the target thus reducing background signal. Previously, we found that H-dimer formation quenches fluorescence of xanthene fluorophores, and among these, TAMRA had the highest quenching ratio. Another approach to lowering background signal is to employ pH activation based on the photon-induced electron transfer (PeT) theory. We hypothesized that combining these two strategies could lead to greater quenching capacity than was possible with either probe alone. A pH-sensitive fluorophore, pHrodo or TAMRA was conjugated to the cancer targeting molecules, avidin (Av) and trastuzumab (Tra). As expected, both pHrodo and TAMRA formed H-dimers when conjugated to avidin or antibody and the dimerization resulted in efficient fluorescence quenching. In addition, pHrodo conjugated probes showed pH-dependent fluorescence activation. When the probes were used in an in vivo animal model, fluorescence endoscopy with Av-pHrodo depicted tumors with high TBR 1 h and 2 h after injection. Av-TAMRA also visualized tumors 1 h and 2 h after the injection, however, TBR was lower due to the background signal from non-specific binding 1 h after the injection as well as background fluorescence from the unbound agent. Thus, we demonstrate that a dual-controlled activatable optical probe based on the combination of H-dimer formation and pH activation can achieve high TBR at early time points during in vivo molecular imaging.