Sang Hui Chu

Yonsei University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

Are you Sang Hui Chu?

Claim your profile

Publications (36)66.83 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is common among cancer patients who undergo chemotherapy with platinum analogues, taxanes, vinca alkaloids, epothilone, bortezomib, and thalidomide. The purpose of this study was to investigate the evidence of using drugs affecting the central nervous system (CNS) to alleviate CIPN in cancer patients.
    Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer. 09/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper has two objectives. Firstly, it provides an overview of the social network module, data collection procedures, and measurement of ego-centric and complete-network properties in the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (KSHAP). Secondly, it directly compares the KSHAP structure and results to the ego-centric network structure and results of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), which conducted in-home interviews with 3,005 persons 57 to 85 years of age in the United States.
    BMC Geriatrics 09/2014; 14(1):102. · 2.34 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence supports the importance of maintaining skeletal muscle mass for cardiovascular health. However, there is limited data on the relationship between skeletal muscle mass and arterial stiffness targeting an elderly population. Thus, we investigated the association between skeletal muscle mass and arterial stiffness in an elderly Korean population. This study used data from the Korean Social Life, Health and Aging Project which started in 2011. In this cross-sectional study, 180 men (mean age 71.7) and 247 women (mean age 70.9) were included. Arm and leg muscle masses were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Radial augmentation index, a noninvasive measure of arterial stiffness, was assessed by radial pulse wave analysis. The relationship between skeletal muscle mass and augmentation index was investigated by multiple linear regression analysis. In men, limb muscle mass was significantly and inversely associated with augmentation index (β=-1.07% per 1 kg muscle mass, p < 0.001) when adjusted for age. This inverse association remained after additional adjustment for body mass index, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, fasting glucose, insulin, smoking and alcohol intake (β=-0.69%, p = 0.019). In women, the inverse association between limb muscle mass and augmentation index was less prominent (β=-0.59%, p = 0.030), and the association disappeared when fully adjusted (β=-0.32%, p = 0.304). However, limb muscle mass was not associated with resting blood pressure either in men and women. Our results suggest that decreased skeletal muscle mass may affect arterial wall elasticity.
    Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 07/2014; · 1.70 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this randomized controlled trial, we examined the effects of a 3-month therapeutic lifestyle modification (TLM) intervention on knowledge, self-efficacy, and health behaviors related to bone health in postmenopausal women in rural Korea. Forty-one women ages 45 or older were randomly assigned to either the intervention (n = 21) or control (n = 20) group. The intervention group completed a 12-week, 24-session TLM program of individualized health monitoring, group health education, exercise, and calcium-vitamin D supplementation. Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed significant increases in knowledge and self-efficacy and improvement in diet and exercise after 12 weeks, providing evidence that a comprehensive TLM program can be effective in improving health behaviors to maintain bone health in women at high risk of osteoporosis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Research in Nursing & Health 06/2014; · 2.18 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), measured by a simple step test, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Korean adults, in a cross sectional design.
    BMC Public Health 05/2014; 14(1):481. · 2.08 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: : Background: Recently, osteocalcin (OC), an osteoblast-derived hormone, has been suggested as a new link between obesity and insulin resistance in humans. However, few studies regarding the relationship between OC and obesity in Asian children have been published. We investigated the association of OC with adiposity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean children.Methods: Two hundred and nine (100 boys, 109 girls) children (age: 9.78 ± 1.05 years, body mass index (BMI): 22.27 ± 5.34 kg/m(2)) participated in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric parameters, insulin resistance, lipid profiles, total OC, and an inflammatory marker, C-reactive protein (CRP), were measured. MetS phenotype was also determined.Results: Serum total OC levels were significantly lower in overweight or obese children (76.96 ± 27.08 ng/ml vs. 66.91 ± 21.39 ng/ml, p = 0.020) and it was negatively associated with body fat after controlling for age, gender and BMI. Serum total OC concentrations were significantly lower in participants with central obesity or at least two components of MetS driven by waist circumference than they were in those with none. Stepwise linear regression results also showed that serum total OC was partially explained by age, gender, waist-to-hip ratio, and fasting glucose.Conclusions: This study supported a negative association between serum total OC and adiposity in children. OC may be associated with childhood central obesity; however, further research using more accurate measurements is needed to identify the association between these variables.
    Obesity Research & Clinical Practice 05/2014; 8(3):e201-98. · 0.51 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) may be one of the most common predictors of mortality and rehospitalization. This study was conducted to identify factors affecting HRQOL in Korean patients with CHF using two HRQOL measurements. The study included a sample of 114 patients. HRQOL was measured by the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) and the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Instrument - Short Version (WHOQOL-BREF). Multiple regression analyses were performed to analyze the relationship between the factors and HRQOL. Significant correlations were found between MLHFQ and WHOQOL-BREF in total and component scores, with the two exceptions of WHOQOL-BREF psychological and MLHFQ physical or total. The perceived economic status, functional status, and sex were factors identified as having an effect on HRQOL. The MLHFQ was better able to differentiate sex, comorbidity, and functional status. Further studies are needed to implement cost-effective nursing interventions for patients with CHF to improve their HRQOL.
    Japan Journal of Nursing Science 01/2014; 11(1):54-64. · 0.58 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (KSHAP) is a population-based longitudinal study of health determinants among elderly Koreans. The target population of the KSHAP are people aged 60 years or older and their spouses living in a rural community of Korea. A complete enumeration survey was conducted in the first wave of the KSHAP on 94.7% (814 of 860) of the target population between December 2011 and July 2012. The KSHAP-Health Examination (KSHAP-HE) cohort consists of 698 people who completed additional health examinations at a public health center (n=533) or at their home (n=165). Face-to-face questionnaires were used to interview participants on their demographics, social network characteristics, medical history, health behaviors, cognitive function, and depression symptoms. Health center examinations included anthropometric measures, body impedance analysis, resting blood pressure measurement, radial artery tonometry, bone densitometry, the timed up-and-go test, and fasting blood analysis. However, only anthropometric measures, blood pressure measurement, and non-fasting blood analysis were available for home health examinations. Collaboration is encouraged and access to the KSHAP baseline data will be available via the website of the Korean Social Science Data Archive (http://www.kossda.or.kr).
    Epidemiology and health. 01/2014; 36:e2014003.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Research has shown that obesity appears to spread through social ties. However, the association between other characteristics of social networks and obesity is unclear. This study aimed to identify the association between social network characteristics and body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) in an elderly Korean population. This cross-sectional study analyzed data from 657 Koreans (273 men, 384 women) aged 60 years or older who participated in the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Network size is a count of the number of friends. Density of communication network is the number of connections in the social network reported as a fraction of the total links possible in the personal (ego-centric) network. Average frequency of communication (or meeting) measures how often network members communicate (or meet) each other. The association of each social network measure with BMI was investigated by multiple linear regression analysis. After adjusting for potential confounders, the men with lower density (<0.71) and higher network size (4-6) had the higher BMI (β=1.089, p=0.037) compared to the men with higher density (>0.83) and lower size (1-2), but not in the women (p=0.393). The lowest tertile of communication frequency was associated with higher BMI in the women (β=0.885, p=0.049), but not in the men (p=0.140). Our study suggests that social network structure (network size and density) and activation (communication frequency and meeting frequency) are associated with obesity among the elderly. There may also be gender differences in this association.
    Journal of preventive medicine and public health = Yebang Uihakhoe chi. 11/2013; 46(6):336-345.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) is activated during calorie restriction and appears to be related to energy balance through glucose or lipid metabolism and insulin signaling. These findings suggest that SIRT1 may play a role in the pathophysiology of visceral obesity. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between SIRT1 gene expression in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and abdominal visceral adiposity as measured by computed tomography. We recruited 43 men and women without history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease Biomarkers of metabolic disease and body composition by computed tomography were assessed. SIRT1 gene expression was determined using isolated PBMCs. SIRT1 expression levels negatively correlated with body mass index, waist circumference, abdominal visceral fat area, and homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and positively correlated with adiponectin levels. Results of step-wise multiple regression analysis revealed that abdominal visceral fat area and HOMA-IR were independently associated with SIRT1 expression. The significant association between abdominal visceral fat accumulation and SIRT1 gene expression in PBMCs suggests that SIRT1 may be a new therapeutic target for the prevention of disease related to obesity, especially visceral obesity.
    Endocrine Journal 08/2013; · 2.23 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The purposes of this study are to examine (1) the feasibility and efficacy of two different home-based exercise protocols on the level of physical activity (PA), and (2) the effect of increased PA via home-based exercise program on biomarkers of colorectal cancer. METHODS: Seventeen patients (age 55.18 ± 13.3 years) with stage II-III colorectal cancer completed the 12-week home-based exercise program. Subjects were randomized into either casually intervened home-based exercise group (CIHE) or intensely intervened home-based exercise group (IIHE). The primary outcome was the level of PA. Furthermore, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, insulin-like growth factor axis, and adipocytokines were measured. RESULTS: Both CIHE and IIHE program significantly increased the level of PA at 12 weeks compared to its level at baseline (CIHE, 10.00 ± 8.49 vs. 46.07 ± 45.59; IIHE, 12.08 ± 11.04 vs. 35.42 ± 27.42 MET hours per week). Since there was no difference in PA change between groups (p = 0.511), the data was combined in analyzing the effects of increased PA on biomarkers. Increase in PA significantly reduced insulin (6.66 ± 4.58 vs. 4.86 ± 3.48 μU/ml, p = 0.006), HOMA-IR (1.66 ± 1.23 vs. 1.25 ± 1.04, p = 0.017), and tumor necrosis alpha-α (TNF-α 4.85 ± 7.88 vs. 2.95 ± 5.38 pg/ml, p = 0.004), and significantly increased IGF-1 (135.39 ± 60.15 vs. 159.53 ng/ml, p = 0.007), IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3 (2.67 ± 1.48 vs. 3.48 ± 1.00 ng/ml, p = 0.013), and adiponectin (6.73 ± 3.07 vs. 7.54 ± 3.96 μg/ml, p = 0.015). CONCLUSION: CIHE program was as effective as IIHE program in increasing the level of PA, and the increase in PA resulted in significant change in HOMA-IR, IGF-1 axis, TNF-α, and adiponectin levels in stage II-III colorectal cancer survivors.
    Supportive Care in Cancer 05/2013; · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Low levels of physical activity (PA) are strongly associated with the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and chronic diseases. However, few studies have examined this association in Koreans. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the associations between PA and MetS risks in Korean adults. A total of 1,016 Korean adults (494 males and 522 females) participated in this study. PA levels were assessed using the International PA Questionnaire. MetS risk factors were determined using clinically established diagnostic criteria. Compared with the highest PA group, the group with the lowest level of PA was at greater risk of high triglyceride (TG) in males (odds ratio [OR], 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 3.24) and of hemoglobin A1c ≥5.5% in females (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.00 to 3.04) after adjusting for age and body mass index. Compared with subjects who met the PA guidelines, those who did not meet the guidelines were more likely to have low high density lipoprotein cholesterol in both males (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.58), and females (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.20 to 2.77). Furthermore, those who did not meet the PA guidelines were at increased risk of high TG levels in males (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.86) and abnormal fasting glucose (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.17 to 3.20) and MetS (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.15 to 3.84) in females. Increased levels of PA are significantly associated with a decreased risk of abnormal MetS components.
    Diabetes & metabolism journal 04/2013; 37(2):132-9.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Chemerin is a recently discovered adipocytokine, associated with adiposity and insulin sensitivity. The current study investigated the effects of lifestyle intervention on circulating chemerin level and its association with insulin resistance and adiponectin in human. METHODS: Forty male and 20 female obese adults (mean age: 29.7±5.7 y, mean BMI: 29.3±4.5kg/m(2)) completed an 8-week lifestyle intervention program, which consisted of a home-based diet and exercise program. Anthropometric measurements and biomarkers were assessed at the baseline and at the end of the study. RESULTS: Eight weeks of lifestyle intervention reduced body weight, visceral fat and subcutaneous fat by 3.8%, 15.3% and 11.5%, respectively. The lifestyle intervention further reduced fasting insulin (10.9±6.6 vs. 7.6±5.3 μU/ml, p<0.001) and homeostasis assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (2.3±1.5 vs. 1.6±1.2, p<0.001), chemerin (103.3±20.7 vs. 96.5±19.5ng/ml, p<0.001) and hs-CRP levels (1.3±1.8 vs. 0.2±0.2mg/dl, p<0.001) while it increased fasting pentraxin (PTX) 3 (0.6±0.7 vs. 0.7±0.4ng/ml, p=0.049) level. The Δ chemerin levels correlated with Δ insulin (r=0.349, p=0.024) and HOMA-IR (r=0.333, p=0.36) even after adjusting for age and gender. CONCLUSION: The lifestyle intervention reduced circulating chemerin levels independent of visceral fat mass and adiponectin. Chemerin levels are associated with insulin resistance at the baseline and after the lifestyle intervention.
    Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 02/2013; · 2.54 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effects of a postsurgical, inpatient exercise program on postoperative recovery in operable colon cancer patients METHODS: We conducted the randomized controlled trial with two arms: postoperative exercise vs. usual care. Patients with stages I-III colon cancer who underwent colectomy between January and December 2011 from the Colorectal Cancer Clinic, were recruited for the study. Subjects in the intervention group participated in the postoperative inpatient exercise program consisted of twice daily exercise, including stretching, core, balance, and low-intensity resistance exercises. The usual care group was not prescribed a structured exercise program. The primary endpoint was the length of hospital stay. Secondary endpoints were time to flatus, time to first liquid diet, anthropometric measurements, and physical function measurements. RESULTS: A total of 31 (86.1 %) patients completed the trial, with adherence to exercise interventions at 84.5 %. The mean length of hospital stay was 7.82 ± 1.07 days in the exercise group compared with 9.86 ± 2.66 days in usual care (mean difference, 2.03 days; 95 % confidence interval (CI), -3.47 to -0.60 days; p = 0.005) in per-protocol analysis. The mean time to flatus was 52.18 ± 21.55 h in the exercise group compared with 71.86 ± 29.2 h in the usual care group (mean difference, 19.69 h; 95 % CI, -38.33 to -1.04 h; p = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: Low-to-moderate-intensity postsurgical exercise reduces length of hospital stay and improves bowel motility after colectomy procedure in patients with stages I-III colon cancer.
    International Journal of Colorectal Disease 02/2013; · 2.24 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the impact of diabetes on outcomes in colorectal cancer patients and to examine whether this association varies by the location of tumor (colon vs. rectum). This study includes 4,131 stage I-III colorectal cancer patients, treated between 1995 and 2007 (12.5% diabetic, 53% colon, 47% rectal) in South Korea. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to determine the prognostic influence of DM on survival endpoints. Colorectal cancer patients with DM had significantly worse disease-free survival (DFS) [hazard ratio (HR) 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00-1.37] compared with patients without DM. When considering colon and rectal cancer independently, DM was significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS) (HR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.11-1.92), DFS (HR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.15-1.84) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) (HR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.98-1.76) in colon cancer patients. No association for OS, DFS or RFS was observed in rectal cancer patients. There was significant interaction of location of tumor (colon vs. rectal cancer) with DM on OS (P = 0.009) and DFS (P = 0.007). This study suggests that DM negatively impacts survival outcomes of patients with colon cancer but not rectal cancer.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e55196. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 06/2012; · 2.54 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The role of pentraxin-3 (PTX3) in the development of insulin resistance is still not clear. We aimed to test 1) whether circulating PTX3 levels are associated with insulin resistance and 2) whether changes in PTX3 levels after the physical activity are associated with changes in insulin resistance. Fifty-seven overweight or obese children (39 boys, 18 girls; age: 12.04±0.82y, BMI: 26.5±1.2 kg/m²) participated in the study. All participants were housed together and their amount of physical activity (1823.5±1.34 kcal/day) and food intake (1882±68.8 kcal/day) were tightly controlled. Circulating PTX3 levels at baseline were negatively associated with fasting insulin (r=-.336, p=0.012) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (r=-.334, p=0.014) even after adjustment for BMI and Tanner stage. The degree of change in PTX3 levels notably associated with changes in fasting insulin (r=-.280, p=0.035) and HOMA-IR (r=-.281, p=.034) in response to the physical activity intervention. Subgroup analysis further indicates that HOMA-IR was improved more in subjects whose PTX3 levels were increased compared with subjects who PTX3 levels were decreased (HOMA-IR delta: -2.33±1.3 vs -1.46±0.70, p=0.004). PTX3 is negatively associated with insulin resistance and associated with changes in insulin resistance induced by physical activity in overweight and obese children.
    Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 06/2012; 413(19-20):1430-7. · 2.54 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to investigate the views of patients and healthy volunteers on participation in clinical trials. A total of 291 clinical trial participants, including 140 patients and 151 healthy volunteers, were recruited from four university hospital-affiliated clinical trial centers among 15 Korean regional clinical trial centers in South Korea where the levels of information and care were sufficient to meet the global standard. Participants were recruited from phase I trials or bioequivalence tests, a short term hospitalization under close monitoring in the clinical trial centers, or from phase II, III or IV trials occurring in both wards and outpatient clinics. A structured questionnaire survey was performed to identify their perspectives on clinical trials. Participants who were patients were significantly influenced by medical personnels regarding the decision making processes for participation in clinical trials when compared to healthy volunteers. However, no difference was found between the two groups in the level of willingness to participate in and satisfaction with clinical trials. More than 50% of patient subjects misunderstood and thought that their physicians could persuade them to participate in clinical trials or that all the participants would receive a new drug or treatment during trials. Clinical researchers who are involved in clinical trials should make an extra effort to confirm the level of understanding of their patients regarding the clinical trial and to guarantee that each patient has sufficient time to make an informed decision before participating in a clinical trial.
    Contemporary clinical trials 03/2012; 33(4):611-9. · 1.51 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are considered chronic inflammatory states. Chemerin, a novel adipokine, may play an important role in linking MetS and inflammation. We investigated the association of chemerin with inflammatory markers and with characteristics of MetS in apparently healthy overweight and obese adults. We studied 92 adults; 59 men and 33 women whose average body mass index (BMI) was 28.15 ± 5.08 kg/m(2). Anthropometric parameters, insulin resistance indices, lipid profiles, and inflammatory markers including high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), pentraxin 3 (PTX3), adiponectin, and chemerin were measured. Controlling for age, gender, and BMI, serum chemerin level was positively correlated with body fat and serum triglyceride, and negatively correlated with adiponectin and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL- C), and was not correlated with altered hsCRP or PTX3 levels. Among the low, moderate and high chemerin groups, high chemerin individuals are more likely to have lower HDL-C. Conversely, individuals in the low adiponectin group are more likely to have lower HDL-C and show more MetS phenotypic traits than moderate and high adiponectin subjects. To determine the relationships of chemerin and adiponectin to MetS and its components, participants were stratified into four groups based on their chemerin and adiponectin levels (high chemerin/high adiponectin, high chemerin/low adiponectin, low chemerin/high adiponectin, or low chemerin/low adiponectin). Participants who were in the high chemerin/low adiponectin group more likely to have dyslipidemia and MetS (OR: 5.79, 95% CI:1.00-33.70) compared to the other three group. Our findings suggest that chemerin and adiponectin may reciprocally participate in the development of MetS.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e34710. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Poor adherence in patients taking warfarin may be one of the most common barriers to obtain favorable anticoagulation outcomes. This study was conducted to identify factors affecting medication adherence and their relationships with anticoagulation control in Korean patients taking warfarin. In a cross-sectional survey, 204 patients taking warfarin who had visited an outpatient clinic of a cardiovascular center located in Seoul, Korea, were included as research subjects. Medication adherence, knowledge about warfarin, self-efficacy, and patient understanding of the international normalized ratio (INR) were investigated. Participants' medical records were also reviewed to identify clinical characteristics including comorbid conditions, warfarin regimen, and INR. When medication adherence was defined as taking warfarin according to medical advice (frequency, dosage, time, and precautions), 56 (27.5%) of 204 respondents were adherent. The adherent group had a greater understanding about warfarin than the nonadherent group as measured by 10 survey items (7.20 ± 1.70 vs 6.56 ± 1.84; P < .05) and had significantly higher self-efficacy (P < .000). However, medication adherence was not associated with good anticoagulation level as measured by INR. The results show that knowledge about warfarin and self-efficacy exert significant influence on medication adherence, and yet medication adherence did not predict therapeutic anticoagulation control. Further studies are needed to identify factors predicting favorable anticoagulation control in patients taking warfarin.
    The Journal of cardiovascular nursing 09/2011; 26(6):466-74. · 1.47 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

237 Citations
66.83 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2014
    • Yonsei University
      • Department of Clinical Nursing
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010
    • Choonhae College
      South Korea
  • 2005
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2003–2004
    • Yonsei University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Ewha Womans University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea