J L Rapoport

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), Maryland, United States

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Publications (278)2423.97 Total impact

  • K Ahn, S S An, Y Y Shugart, J L Rapoport
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    ABSTRACT: Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) is a rare and severe form of the disorder, with more striking abnormalities with respect to prepsychotic developmental disorders and abnormities in the brain development compared with later-onset schizophrenia. We previously documented that COS patients, compared with their healthy siblings and with adult-onset patients (AOS), carry significantly more rare chromosomal copy number variations, spanning large genomic regions (>100 kb) (Ahn et al. 2014). Here, we interrogated the contribution of common polygenic variation to the genetic susceptibility for schizophrenia. We examined the association between a direct measure of genetic risk of schizophrenia in 130 COS probands and 103 healthy siblings. Using data from the schizophrenia and autism GWAS of the Psychiatric Genomic Consortia, we selected three risk-related sets of single nucleotide polymorphisms from which we conducted polygenic risk score comparisons for COS probands and their healthy siblings. COS probands had higher genetic risk scores of both schizophrenia and autism than their siblings (P<0.05). Given the small sample size, these findings suggest that COS patients have more salient genetic risk than do AOS.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 16 December 2014; doi:10.1038/mp.2014.158.
    Molecular Psychiatry 12/2014; DOI:10.1038/mp.2014.158
  • Lisa A Friedman, Judith L Rapoport
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    ABSTRACT: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with underlying brain anatomical and functional measures, as well as familial/genetic factors that are major foci of neuropsychiatric research. Advances in imaging technology have shown structural and functional brain differences between individuals with and without ADHD. Longitudinal studies have enabled the elucidation of differences in developmental course. Studies comparing persisting and remitting cases of ADHD are particularly promising. Therapeutic doses of psychostimulants normalize many measures of brain anatomy and function. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Current Opinion in Neurobiology 12/2014; 30C:106-111. DOI:10.1016/j.conb.2014.11.007
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    ABSTRACT: Defects in brain development are believed to contribute toward the onset of neuropsychiatric disorders, but identifying specific underlying mechanisms has proven difficult. Here, we took a multifaceted approach to investigate why 15q11.2 copy number variants are prominent risk factors for schizophrenia and autism. First, we show that human iPSC-derived neural progenitors carrying 15q11.2 microdeletion exhibit deficits in adherens junctions and apical polarity. This results from haploinsufficiency of CYFIP1, a gene within 15q11.2 that encodes a subunit of the WAVE complex, which regulates cytoskeletal dynamics. In developing mouse cortex, deficiency in CYFIP1 and WAVE signaling similarly affects radial glial cells, leading to their ectopic localization outside of the ventricular zone. Finally, targeted human genetic association analyses revealed an epistatic interaction between CYFIP1 and WAVE signaling mediator ACTR2 and risk for schizophrenia. Our findings provide insight into how CYFIP1 regulates neural stem cell function and may contribute to the susceptibility of neuropsychiatric disorders.
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    ABSTRACT: Typically reported as vivid, multisensory experiences which may spontaneously resolve, hallucinations are present at high rates during childhood. The risk of associated psychopathology is a major cause of concern. On the one hand, the risk of developing further delusional ideation has been shown to be reduced by better theory of mind skills. On the other hand, ideas of reference, passivity phenomena, and misidentification syndrome have been shown to increase the risk of self-injury or heteroaggressive behaviors. Cognitive psychology and brain-imaging studies have advanced our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying these early-onset hallucinations. Notably, specific functional impairments have been associated with certain phenomenological characteristics of hallucinations in youths, including intrusiveness and the sense of reality. In this review, we provide an update of associated epidemiological and phenomenological factors (including sociocultural context, social adversity, and genetics, considered in relation to the psychosis continuum hypothesis), cognitive models, and neurophysiological findings concerning hallucinations in children and adolescents. Key issues that have interfered with progress are considered and recommendations for future studies are provided.
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    ABSTRACT: Typically reported as vivid, multisensory experiences which may spontaneously resolve, hallucinations are present at high rates during childhood. The risk of associated psychopathology is a major cause of concern. On the one hand, the risk of developing further delusional ideation has been shown to be reduced by better theory of mind skills. On the other hand, ideas of reference, passivity phenomena, and misidentification syndrome have been shown to increase the risk of self-injury or heteroaggressive behaviors. Cognitive psychology and brain-imaging studies have advanced our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying these early-onset hallucinations. Notably, specific functional impairments have been associated with certain phenomenological characteristics of hallucinations in youths, including intrusiveness and the sense of reality. In this review, we provide an update of associated epidemiological and phenomenological factors (including sociocultural context, social adversity, and genetics, considered in relation to the psychosis continuum hypothesis), cognitive models, and neurophysiological findings concerning hallucinations in children and adolescents. Key issues that have interfered with progress are considered and recommendations for future studies are provided.
    Schizophrenia Bulletin 06/2014; 40(Suppl. 4):s221-s232. DOI:10.1093/schbul/sbu029
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    ABSTRACT: Endophentoypes, quantifiable traits lying on the causal chain between a clinical phenotype and etiology, can be used to accelerate genomic discovery in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we identify the neuroanatomic changes that are shared by 22 OCD adult and adolescent patients and 25 of their unaffected siblings who are at genetic risk for the disorder. Comparisons were made against 47 age and sex matched healthy controls. We defined the surface morphology of the striatum, globus pallidus and thalamus, and thickness of the cerebral cortex. Patients with OCD show significant surface expansion compared with healthy controls, following adjustment for multiple comparisons, in interconnected regions of the caudate, thalamus and right orbitofrontal cortex. Their unaffected siblings show similar, significant expansion, most marked in the ventromedial caudate bilaterally, the right pulvinar thalamic nucleus and the right orbitofrontal cortex. These regions define a network that has been consistently implicated in OCD. In addition, both patients with OCD and unaffected siblings showed similar increased thickness of the right precuneus, which receives rich input from the thalamic pulvinar nuclei and the left medial temporal cortex. Anatomic change within the orbitofrontostriatal and posterior brain circuitry thus emerges as a promising endophenotype for OCD.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 11 February 2014; doi:10.1038/mp.2014.3.
    Molecular Psychiatry 02/2014; 20(2). DOI:10.1038/mp.2014.3
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    ABSTRACT: Copy number variants (CNVs) are risk factors in neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, epilepsy, intellectual disability (ID) and schizophrenia. Childhood onset schizophrenia (COS), defined as onset before the age of 13 years, is a rare and severe form of the disorder, with more striking array of prepsychotic developmental disorders and abnormalities in brain development. Because of the well-known phenotypic variability associated with pathogenic CNVs, we conducted whole genome genotyping to detect CNVs and then focused on a group of 46 rare CNVs that had well-documented risk for adult onset schizophrenia (AOS), autism, epilepsy and/or ID. We evaluated 126 COS probands, 69 of which also had a healthy full sibling. When COS probands were compared with their matched related controls, significantly more affected individuals carried disease-related CNVs (P=0.017). Moreover, COS probands showed a higher rate than that found in AOS probands (P<0.0001). A total of 15 (11.9%) subjects exhibited at least one such CNV and four of these subjects (26.7%) had two. Five of 15 (4.0% of the sample) had a 2.5-3 Mb deletion mapping to 22q11.2, a rate higher than that reported for adult onset (0.3-1%) (P<0.001) or autism spectrum disorder and, indeed, the highest rate reported for any clinical population to date. For one COS subject, a duplication found at 22q13.3 had previously only been associated with autism, and for four patients CNVs at 8q11.2, 10q22.3, 16p11.2 and 17q21.3 had only previously been associated with ID. Taken together, these findings support the well-known pleiotropic effects of these CNVs suggesting shared abnormalities early in brain development. Clinically, broad CNV-based population screening is needed to assess their overall clinical burden.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 21 May 2013; doi:10.1038/mp.2013.59.
    Molecular Psychiatry 05/2013; DOI:10.1038/mp.2013.59
  • Judith L Rapoport
    American Journal of Psychiatry 03/2013; 170(3):245-7. DOI:10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12101287
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    Judith L. Rapoport
    Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria 12/2012; 35:S2-S2. DOI:10.1590/1516-4446-2013-S102
  • 59th Meeting of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; 10/2012
  • Molecular Psychiatry 08/2012; 18(7). DOI:10.1038/mp.2012.120
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    ABSTRACT: DUF1220 domains show the largest human-lineage-specific increase in copy number of any protein-coding region in the human genome and map primarily to 1q21, where deletions and reciprocal duplications have been associated with microcephaly and macrocephaly, respectively. Given these findings and the high correlation between DUF1220 copy number and brain size across primate lineages (R(2) = 0.98; p = 1.8 × 10(-6)), DUF1220 sequences represent plausible candidates for underlying 1q21-associated brain-size pathologies. To investigate this possibility, we used specialized bioinformatics tools developed for scoring highly duplicated DUF1220 sequences to implement targeted 1q21 array comparative genomic hybridization on individuals (n = 42) with 1q21-associated microcephaly and macrocephaly. We show that of all the 1q21 genes examined (n = 53), DUF1220 copy number shows the strongest association with brain size among individuals with 1q21-associated microcephaly, particularly with respect to the three evolutionarily conserved DUF1220 clades CON1(p = 0.0079), CON2 (p = 0.0134), and CON3 (p = 0.0116). Interestingly, all 1q21 DUF1220-encoding genes belonging to the NBPF family show significant correlations with frontal-occipital-circumference Z scores in the deletion group. In a similar survey of a nondisease population, we show that DUF1220 copy number exhibits the strongest correlation with brain gray-matter volume (CON1, p = 0.0246; and CON2, p = 0.0334). Notably, only DUF1220 sequences are consistently significant in both disease and nondisease populations. Taken together, these data strongly implicate the loss of DUF1220 copy number in the etiology of 1q21-associated microcephaly and support the view that DUF1220 domains function as general effectors of evolutionary, pathological, and normal variation in brain size.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 08/2012; 91(3):444-54. DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.07.016
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    J L Rapoport, J N Giedd, N Gogtay
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    ABSTRACT: The neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia, which posits that the illness is the end state of abnormal neurodevelopmental processes that started years before the illness onset, is widely accepted, and has long been dominant for childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorders. This selective review updates our 2005 review of recent studies that have impacted, or have the greatest potential to modify or extend, the neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. Longitudinal whole-population studies support a dimensional, rather than categorical, concept of psychosis. New studies suggest that placental pathology could be a key measure in future prenatal high-risk studies. Both common and rare genetic variants have proved surprisingly diagnostically nonspecific, and copy number variants (CNVs) associated with schizophrenia are often also associated with autism, epilepsy and intellectual deficiency. Large post-mortem gene expression studies and prospective developmental multi-modal brain imaging studies are providing critical data for future clinical and high-risk developmental brain studies. Whether there can be greater molecular specificity for phenotypic characterization is a subject of current intense study and debate, as is the possibility of neuronal phenotyping using human pluripotent-inducible stem cells. Biological nonspecificity, such as in timing or nature of early brain development, carries the possibility of new targets for broad preventive treatments.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 10 April 2012; doi:10.1038/mp.2012.23.
    Molecular Psychiatry 04/2012; DOI:10.1038/mp.2012.23
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    ABSTRACT: The nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway was originally discovered by virtue of its ability to rapidly degrade aberrant mRNAs with premature termination codons. More recently, it was shown that NMD also directly regulates subsets of normal transcripts, suggesting that NMD has roles in normal biological processes. Indeed, several NMD factors have been shown to regulate neurological events (for example, neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity) in numerous vertebrate species. In man, mutations in the NMD factor gene UPF3B, which disrupts a branch of the NMD pathway, cause various forms of intellectual disability (ID). Using Epstein Barr virus-immortalized B cells, also known as lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), from ID patients that have loss-of-function mutations in UPF3B, we investigated the genome-wide consequences of compromised NMD and the role of NMD in neuronal development and function. We found that ∼5% of the human transcriptome is impacted in UPF3B patients. The UPF3B paralog, UPF3A, is stabilized in all UPF3B patients, and partially compensates for the loss of UPF3B function. Interestingly, UPF3A protein, but not mRNA, was stabilised in a quantitative manner that inversely correlated with the severity of patients' phenotype. This suggested that the ability to stabilize the UPF3A protein is a crucial modifier of the neurological symptoms due to loss of UPF3B. We also identified ARHGAP24, which encodes a GTPase-activating protein, as a canonical target of NMD, and we provide evidence that deregulation of this gene inhibits axon and dendrite outgrowth and branching. Our results demonstrate that the UPF3B-dependent NMD pathway is a major regulator of the transcriptome and that its targets have important roles in neuronal cells.
    Molecular Psychiatry 12/2011; 17(11):1103-15. DOI:10.1038/mp.2011.163
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    ABSTRACT: We developed a novel method to study dopaminergic neurotransmission using positron emission tomography (PET) with [1-(11)C]arachidonic acid ([1-(11)C]AA). Previous preclinical studies have shown the utility of [1-(11)C]AA as a marker of signal transduction coupled to cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)). Using [1-(11)C]AA and [(15)O]water PET, we measured regional incorporation coefficients K(*) for AA and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), respectively, in healthy male volunteers given the D(1)/D(2) agonist (10 or 20 μg/kg subcutaneous) apomorphine. We confirmed a robust central dopaminergic response to apomorphine by observing significant increases in the serum concentration of growth hormone. We observed significant increases, as well as decreases in K(*) and increases in rCBF in response to apomorphine. These changes remained significant after covarying for handedness and apomorphine dosage. The magnitude of increases in K(*) was lower than those in our previous animal experiments, likely reflecting the smaller dose of apomorphine used in the current human study. Changes in K(*) may reflect neuronal signaling downstream of activated D(2)-like receptors coupled to cPLA(2). Changes in rCBF are consistent with previous studies showing net functional effects of D(1)/D(2) activation. [1-(11)C]AA PET may be useful for studying disturbances of dopaminergic neurotransmission in conditions such as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia.
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 12/2011; 32(4):676-84. DOI:10.1038/jcbfm.2011.171
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    ABSTRACT: Pharmacological, genetic and expression studies implicate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction in schizophrenia (SCZ). Similarly, several lines of evidence suggest that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) could be due to an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. As part of a project aimed at exploring rare and/or de novo mutations in neurodevelopmental disorders, we have sequenced the seven genes encoding for NMDA receptor subunits (NMDARs) in a large cohort of individuals affected with SCZ or ASD (n=429 and 428, respectively), parents of these subjects and controls (n=568). Here, we identified two de novo mutations in patients with sporadic SCZ in GRIN2A and one de novo mutation in GRIN2B in a patient with ASD. Truncating mutations in GRIN2C, GRIN3A and GRIN3B were identified in both subjects and controls, but no truncating mutations were found in the GRIN1, GRIN2A, GRIN2B and GRIN2D genes, both in patients and controls, suggesting that these subunits are critical for neurodevelopment. The present results support the hypothesis that rare de novo mutations in GRIN2A or GRIN2B can be associated with cases of sporadic SCZ or ASD, just as it has recently been described for the related neurodevelopmental disease intellectual disability. The influence of genetic variants appears different, depending on NMDAR subunits. Functional compensation could occur to counteract the loss of one allele in GRIN2C and GRIN3 family genes, whereas GRIN1, GRIN2A, GRIN2B and GRIN2D appear instrumental to normal brain development and function.Keywords: autism; mutation; NMDA; schizophrenia
    10/2011; 1(11):e55. DOI:10.1038/tp.2011.52
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    ABSTRACT: Disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 (DISC1), contains two common non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)--Leu607Phe and Ser704Cys--that modulate (i) facets of DISC1 molecular functioning important for cortical development, (ii) fronto-temporal cortical anatomy in adults and (iii) risk for diverse psychiatric phenotypes that often emerge during childhood and adolescence, and are associated with altered fronto-temporal cortical development. It remains unknown, however, if Leu607Phe and Ser704Cys influence cortical maturation before adulthood, and whether each SNP shows unique or overlapping effects. Therefore, we related genotype at Leu607Phe and Ser704Cys to cortical thickness (CT) in 255 typically developing individuals aged 9-22 years on whom 598 magnetic resonance imaging brain scans had been acquired longitudinally. Rate of cortical thinning varied with DISC1 genotype. Specifically, the rate of cortical thinning was attenuated in Phe-carrier compared with Leu-homozygous groups (in bilateral superior frontal and left angular gyri) and accelerated in Ser-homozygous compared with Cys-carrier groups (in left anterior cingulate and temporal cortices). Both SNPs additively predicted fixed differences in right lateral temporal CT, which were maximal between Phe-carrier/Ser-homozygous (thinnest) vs Leu-homozygous/Cys-carrier (thickest) groups. Leu607Phe and Ser704Cys genotype interacted to predict the rate of cortical thinning in right orbitofrontal, middle temporal and superior parietal cortices, wherein a significantly reduced rate of CT loss was observed in Phe-carrier/Cys-carrier participants only. Our findings argue for further examination of Leu607Phe and Ser704Cys interactions at a molecular level, and suggest that these SNPs might operate (in concert with other genetic and environmental factors) to shape risk for diverse phenotypes by impacting on the early maturation of fronto-temporal cortices.
    Molecular Psychiatry 09/2011; 16(9):917-26. DOI:10.1038/mp.2010.72
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    ABSTRACT: The age at which a parent has a child impacts the child's cognition and risk for mental illness. It appears that this risk is curvilinear, with both age extremes associated with lower intelligence and increased prevalence of some neuropsychiatric disorders. Little is known of the neural mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon. We extracted lobar volumes, surface areas, and cortical thickness from 489 neuroanatomic magnetic resonance images acquired on 171 youth. Using linear mixed model regression, we determined the association between parental age and offspring's neuroanatomy, adjusting for offspring's age, sex, intelligence, and parental socioeconomic class. For gray matter volumes, quadratic paternal and maternal age terms contributed significantly (maternal quadratic age effect: t = -2.2, P = 0.03; paternal quadratic age effect: t = -2.4, P = 0.02) delineating an inverted "U" relationship between parental age and gray matter volume. Cortical volume increased with both advancing paternal and maternal age until around the early 30s after which it fell. Paternal age effects were more pronounced on cortical surface area, whereas maternal age impacted more on cortical thickness. There were no significant effects of parental age on white matter volumes. These parental age effects on cerebral morphology may form part of the link between parental age extremes and suboptimal neurocognitive outcomes.
    Cerebral Cortex 08/2011; 22(6):1256-62. DOI:10.1093/cercor/bhr194

Publication Stats

22k Citations
2,423.97 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1979–2014
    • National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
      • Child Psychiatry Branch
      Maryland, United States
    • University of Rochester
      Rochester, New York, United States
  • 2001–2012
    • Northern Inyo Hospital
      BIH, California, United States
    • Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CHUM)
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 1999–2011
    • McGill University
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2006
    • National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
      Maryland, United States
  • 1998–2001
    • Yale University
      • Department of Psychiatry
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2000
    • University of Iowa
      Iowa City, Iowa, United States
  • 1997
    • Carnegie Mellon University
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 1994–1997
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Branch of Experimental Immunology
      Bethesda, MD, United States
    • The University of Tennessee Health Science Center
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Memphis, Tennessee, United States
  • 1995
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 1991
    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1988
    • New York State Psychiatric Institute
      New York City, New York, United States