[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cells release extracellular vesicles (ECVs) that can influence differentiation, modulate the immune response, promote coagulation, and induce metastasis. Many ECVs form by budding outwards from the plasma membrane, but the molecules that regulate budding are unknown. In ECVs, the outer leaflet of the membrane bilayer contains aminophospholipids that are normally sequestered to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane, suggesting a role for lipid asymmetry in ECV budding.
We show that loss of the conserved P4-ATPase TAT-5 causes the large-scale shedding of ECVs and disrupts cell adhesion and morphogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. TAT-5 localizes to the plasma membrane and its loss results in phosphatidylethanolamine exposure on cell surfaces. We show that RAB-11 and endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) proteins, which regulate the topologically analogous process of viral budding, are enriched at the plasma membrane in tat-5 embryos, and are required for ECV production.
TAT-5 is the first protein identified to regulate ECV budding. TAT-5 provides a potential molecular link between loss of phosphatidylethanolamine asymmetry and the dynamic budding of vesicles from the plasma membrane, supporting the hypothesis that lipid asymmetry regulates budding. Our results also suggest that viral budding and ECV budding may share common molecular mechanisms.
Current biology: CB 11/2011; 21(23):1951-9. · 10.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fertilization triggers egg activation and converts the egg into a developing embryo. The events of this egg-to-embryo transition typically include the resumption of meiosis, the reorganization of the cortical actin cytoskeleton, and the remodeling of the oocyte surface. The factors that regulate sperm-dependent egg-activation events are not well understood. Caenorhabditis elegans EGG-3, a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase-like (PTPL) family, is essential for regulating cell-surface and cortex rearrangements during egg activation in response to sperm entry. Although fertilization occurred normally in egg-3 mutants, the polarized dispersal of F-actin is altered, a chitin eggshell is not formed, and no polar bodies are produced. EGG-3 is associated with the oocyte plasma membrane in a pattern that is similar to CHS-1 and MBK-2. CHS-1 is required for eggshell deposition, whereas MBK-2 is required for the degradation of maternal proteins during the egg-to-embryo transition. The localization of CHS-1 and EGG-3 are interdependent and both genes were required for the proper localization of MBK-2 in oocytes. Therefore, EGG-3 plays a central role in egg activation by influencing polarized F-actin dynamics and the localization or activity of molecules that are directly involved in executing the egg-to-embryo transition.
Current Biology 10/2007; 17(18):1555-60. · 9.49 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caveolin is the major protein component required for the formation of caveolae on the plasma membrane. Here we show that trafficking of Caenorhabditis elegans caveolin-1 (CAV-1) is dynamically regulated during development of the germ line and embryo. In oocytes a CAV-1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein is found on the plasma membrane and in large vesicles (CAV-1 bodies). After ovulation and fertilization the CAV-1 bodies fuse with the plasma membrane in a manner reminiscent of cortical granule exocytosis as described in other species. Fusion of CAV-1 bodies with the plasma membrane appears to be regulated by the advancing cell cycle, and not fertilization per se, because fusion can proceed in spe-9 fertilization mutants but is blocked by RNA interference-mediated knockdown of an anaphase-promoting complex component (EMB-27). After exocytosis, most CAV-1-GFP is rapidly endocytosed and degraded within one cell cycle. CAV-1 bodies in oocytes appear to be produced by the Golgi apparatus in an ARF-1-dependent, clathrin-independent, mechanism. Conversely endocytosis and degradation of CAV-1-GFP in embryos requires clathrin, dynamin, and RAB-5. Our results demonstrate that the distribution of CAV-1 is highly dynamic during development and provides new insights into the sorting mechanisms that regulate CAV-1 localization.
Molecular Biology of the Cell 08/2006; 17(7):3085-94. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The endocytic pathway of eukaryotes is essential for the internalization and trafficking of macromolecules, fluid, membranes, and membrane proteins. One of the most enigmatic aspects of this process is endocytic recycling, the return of macromolecules (often receptors) and fluid from endosomes to the plasma membrane. We have previously shown that the EH-domain protein RME-1 is a critical regulator of endocytic recycling in worms and mammals. Here we identify the RAB-10 protein as a key regulator of endocytic recycling upstream of RME-1 in polarized epithelial cells of the Caenorhabditis elegans intestine. rab-10 null mutant intestinal cells accumulate abnormally abundant RAB-5-positive early endosomes, some of which are enlarged by more than 10-fold. Conversely most RME-1-positive recycling endosomes are lost in rab-10 mutants. The abnormal early endosomes in rab-10 mutants accumulate basolaterally recycling transmembrane cargo molecules and basolaterally recycling fluid, consistent with a block in basolateral transport. These results indicate a role for RAB-10 in basolateral recycling upstream of RME-1. We found that a functional GFP-RAB-10 reporter protein is localized to endosomes and Golgi in wild-type intestinal cells consistent with a direct role for RAB-10 in this transport pathway.
Molecular Biology of the Cell 04/2006; 17(3):1286-97. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The molecular machinery that mediates sperm-egg interactions at fertilization is largely unknown. We identify two partially redundant egg surface LDL receptor repeat-containing proteins (EGG-1 and EGG-2) that are required for Caenorhabditis elegans fertility in hermaphrodites, but not males. Wild-type sperm cannot enter the morphologically normal oocytes produced by hermaphrodites that lack egg-1 and egg-2 function despite direct gamete contact. Furthermore, we find that levels of meiotic maturation/ovulation and sperm migratory behavior are altered in egg-1 mutants. These observations suggest an unexpected regulatory link between fertilization and other events necessary for reproductive success. egg-1 and egg-2 are the result of a gene duplication in the nematode lineage leading to C. elegans. The two closely related species C. briggsae and C. remanei encode only a single egg-1/egg-2 homolog that is required for hermaphrodite/female fertility. In addition to being the first identified egg components of the nematode fertilization machinery, the egg-1 and egg-2 gene duplication could be vital with regards to maximizing C. elegans fecundity and understanding the evolutionary differentiation of molecular function and speciation.
Current Biology 01/2006; 15(24):2222-9. · 9.49 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Members of the RME-1/mRme-1/EHD1 protein family have recently been shown to function in the recycling of membrane proteins from recycling endosomes to the plasma membrane. RME-1 family proteins are normally found in close association with recycling endosomes and the vesicles and tubules emanating from these endosomes, consistent with the proposal that these proteins directly participate in endosomal transport. RME-1 family proteins contain a C-terminal EH (eps15 homology) domain thought to be involved in linking RME-1 to other endocytic proteins, a coiled-coil domain thought to be involved in homo-oligomerization and an N-terminal P-loop domain thought to mediate nucleotide binding. In the present study, we show that both Caenorhabditis elegans and mouse RME-1 proteins bind and hydrolyze ATP. No significant GTP binding or hydrolysis was detected. Mutation or deletion of the ATP-binding P-loop prevented RME-1 oligomerization and at the same time dissociated RME-1 from endosomes. In addition, ATP depletion caused RME-1 to lose its endosome association in the cell, resulting in cytosolic localization. Taken together, these results indicate that ATP binding is required for oligomerization of mRme-1/EHD1, which in turn is required for its association with endosomes.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2005; 280(17):17213-20. · 4.65 Impact Factor