Hyeseong Cho

Ajou University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

Are you Hyeseong Cho?

Claim your profile

Publications (52)238.31 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The synthetic triterpenoid 2-cyano-3, 12-dioxooleana-1, 9(11)-dien-C28-methyl ester (CDDO-Me) is considered a promising anti-tumorigenic compound. In this study, we show that treatment with CDDO-Me induces progressive endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived vacuolation in various breast cancer cells and ultimately kills these cells by inducing apoptosis. We found that CDDO-Me-induced increases in intracellular Ca2+ levels, reflecting influx from the extracellular milieu, make a critical contribution to ER-derived vacuolation and subsequent cell death. In parallel with increasing Ca2+ levels, CDDO-Me markedly increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Interestingly, there exists a reciprocal positive-regulatory loop between Ca2+ influx and ROS generation that triggers ER stress and ER dilation in response to CDDO-Me. In addition, CDDO-Me rapidly reduced the protein levels of c-FLIPL (cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein) and overexpression of c-FLIPL blocked CDDO-Me-induced cell death, but not vacuolation. These results suggest that c-FLIPL downregulation is a key contributor to CDDO-Me-induced apoptotic cell death, independent of ER-derived vacuolation. Taken together, our results show that ER-derived vacuolation via Ca2+ influx and ROS generation as well as caspase activation via c-FLIPL downregulation are responsible for the potent anticancer effects of CDDO-Me on breast cancer cells.
    Oncotarget 05/2015; · 6.63 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Receptor-interacting protein kinase-3 (RIP3 or RIPK3) is an essential part of the cellular machinery that executes "programmed" or "regulated" necrosis. Here we show that programmed necrosis is activated in response to many chemotherapeutic agents and contributes to chemotherapy-induced cell death. However, we show that RIP3 expression is often silenced in cancer cells due to genomic methylation near its transcriptional start site, thus RIP3-dependent activation of MLKL and downstream programmed necrosis during chemotherapeutic death is largely repressed. Nevertheless, treatment with hypomethylating agents restores RIP3 expression, and thereby promotes sensitivity to chemotherapeutics in a RIP3-dependent manner. RIP3 expression is reduced in tumors compared to normal tissue in 85% of breast cancer patients, suggesting that RIP3 deficiency is positively selected during tumor growth/development. Since hypomethylating agents are reasonably well-tolerated in patients, we propose that RIP3-deficient cancer patients may benefit from receiving hypomethylating agents to induce RIP3 expression prior to treatment with conventional chemotherapeutics.Cell Research advance online publication 8 May 2015; doi:10.1038/cr.2015.56.
    Cell Research 05/2015; 25(6). DOI:10.1038/cr.2015.56 · 11.98 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Genetic instability is intimately associated with tumor development. In particular, liver cancers associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) exhibit high genetic instability; however, our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms remains limited. In this study, we found that γ-H2AX, a marker of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), and the levels of phospho-Chk2 (p-Chk2, the activated form) were significantly elevated in HBV-associated hepatocellular carcinomas and neighboring regenerating nodules. Likewise, introduction of the pHBV or pMyc-HBx genes into cells induced accumulation of γ-H2AX foci and increased the p-Chk2 level. In these cells, inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdc25C phosphatase (Ser216) and CDK1 (Tyr15) was elevated; consequently, cell-cycle progression was delayed at G2/M phase, suggesting that activation of the ATM-Chk2 pathway by HBx induces cell-cycle delay. Accordingly, inhibition of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) by caffeine or siRNA abolished the increase in the p-Chk2 level and restored the delayed CDK1 kinase activity in ChangX cells. We also found that cytoplasmic HBx, but not nuclear HBx, induced ROS production and led to the accumulation of γ-H2AX foci and the p-Chk2 level. Together, these data indicate that HBx-induced ROS accumulation induces DNA damage that activates the ATM-Chk2 pathway. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms of HBV pathogenesis.
    Journal of General Virology 04/2015; DOI:10.1099/vir.0.000150 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: α-mangostin (α-MG), one of the active substances in Garcinia mangostana, has been shown to exhibit anti-cancer effects in various cancer cell types. α-MG treatment induces G1 arrest in cancer cell models through the induction of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) and the subsequent loss of CDK activity. However, outside its role in the p53-p21CIP1 axis, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of α-MG on cell cycle arrest remain unclear. In this study, we observed that α-MG inhibits the proliferation of HCT116 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, although the loss of p53 rescued the α-MG effect on cell cycle arrest, in agreement with previous reports, p21Cip1 expression was only marginally delayed in the absence of p53 after α-MG treatment. Instead, we found that the activation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the subsequent downregulation of Bmi-1 also contributed to the induction of p16Ink4a, which is responsible for G1 arrest upon α-MG treatment. These findings indicate that α-MG exerts cytostatic effects on colon cancer cells by inducing G1 arrest via the p38 MAPK-p16INK4a axis.
    RSC Advances 04/2015; 5(44). DOI:10.1039/C5RA00780A · 3.71 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) is a severe adverse drug reaction involving extensive keratinocyte death in the epidermis. Histologically, skin from TEN patients exhibits separation at the dermoepidermal junction and accompanying necrosis of epidermal keratinocytes. Receptor-interacting protein kinase-3 (RIP3, or RIPK3) is an essential part of the cellular machinery that executes 'programmed', or 'regulated', necrosis and plays a key role in spontaneous cell death and inflammation in keratinocytes under certain conditions. Here we show that RIP3 expression is highly upregulated in skin sections from TEN patients, and may therefore contribute to the pathological damage in TEN through activation of programmed necrotic cell death. The expression level of mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL), a key downstream component of RIP3 was not significantly different in skin lesions of TEN. However, elevated MLKL phosphorylation was observed in skin from TEN patients, indicating the presence of RIP3-dependent programmed necrosis. Importantly, in an in vitro model of TEN, dabrafenib, an inhibitor of RIP3, prevented RIP3-mediated MLKL phosphorylation and decreased cell death. Results from this study suggest that the high expression of RIP3 in keratinocytes from TEN patients potentiates MLKL phosphorylation/activation and necrotic cell death. Thus, RIP3 represents a potential target for treatment of TEN.Journal of Investigative Dermatology accepted article preview online, 06 March 2015. doi:10.1038/jid.2015.90.
    Journal of Investigative Dermatology 03/2015; DOI:10.1038/jid.2015.90 · 6.37 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although loss of Sirt1 leads to chromosome aneuploidy, which accounts for higher tumor susceptibility, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Herein, we demonstrate that Sirt1 directly regulates Plk1, of which activity is critical for mitotic progression and spindle dynamics. Depletion or inhibition of Sirt1 significantly perturbs the formation of the mitotic spindle, leading to defective chromosome segregation. Elevated depolymerization of the mitotic spindle following loss of Sirt1 was associated with the deregulation of Plk1 activity. Thus, we conclude that Sirt1 may contribute to a mitotic regulator that controls spindle dynamics through Plk1 activity, resulting in fine-tuning of Plk1 dependent microtubule dynamics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/jcb.25144 · 3.37 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Wip1 belongs to the protein phosphatase C (PP2C) family, of which expression is up-regulated by a number of external stresses, and serves as a stress modulator in normal physiological conditions. When overexpressed, premature dephosphorylation of stress-mediators by Wip1 results in abrogation of tumor surveillance, thus Wip1 acts as an oncogene. Previously, the functional regulation of Wip1 in cell-cycle progression by counteracting cellular G1 and G2/M checkpoint activity in response to DNA damage was reported. However, other than in stress conditions, the function and regulatory mechanism of Wip1 has not been fully determined. Herein, we demonstrated that protein regulation of Wip1 occurs in a cell cycle-dependent manner, which is directly governed by APC/C(Cdh1) at the end of mitosis. In particular, we also showed evidence that Wip1 phosphatase activity is closely associated with its own protein stability, suggesting that reduced phosphatase activity of Wip1 during mitosis could trigger its degradation. Furthermore, to verify the physiological role of its phosphatase activity during mitosis, we established doxycycline-inducible cell models, including a Wip1 wild type (WT) and phosphatase dead mutant (Wip1 DA). When ectopically expressing Wip1 WT, we observed a delay in the transition from metaphase to anaphase. In conclusion, these studies show that mitotic degradation of Wip1 by APC/C(Cdh1) is important for normal mitotic progression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 02/2015; 116(8). DOI:10.1002/jcb.25114 · 3.37 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor, Met, regulate skeletal muscle differentiation. In the present study, we identified a novel alternatively spliced isoform of Met lacking exon 13 (designated Δ13Met), which is expressed mainly in human skeletal muscle. Alternative splicing yielded a truncated Met having extracellular domain only, suggesting an inhibitory role. Indeed, Δ13Met expression led to a decrease in HGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Met and ERK phosphorylation as well as cell proliferation and migration via sequestration of HGF. Interestingly, in human primary myoblasts undergoing differentiation, Δ13Met mRNA and protein levels were rapidly increased, concomitantly with a decrease in wild-type Met mRNA and protein. Inhibition of D13Met with siRNA led to a decreased differentiation whereas its overexpression potentiated differentiation of human primary myoblasts. Furthermore, in notexin-induced mouse injury model, exogenous D13Met expression enhanced regeneration of skeletal muscle, further confirming a stimulatory role of the isoform in muscle cell differentiation. In summary, we identified a novel alternatively spliced inhibitory isoform of Met that stimulates muscle cell differentiation, which confers a new means to control muscle differentiation and/or regeneration. Copyright © 2014, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2014; 290(3). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.596957 · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cetuximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody developed for targeting the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), has been intensively used to treat cancer patients with metastatic colorectal cancer and head and neck cancer. Intact immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody like cetuximab, however, has some limitations such as high production cost and low penetration rate from vasculature into solid tumor mass due to its large size. In attempt to overcome these limitations, we engineered cetuximab to create single chain variable fragments (scFv-CH3; Minibody) that were expressed in bacterial system. Among three engineered minibodies, we found that MI061 minibody, which is composed of the variable heavy (VH) and light (VL) region joined by an 18-residue peptide linker, displays higher solubility and better extraction properties from bacterial lysate. In addition, we validated that purified MI061 significantly interferes ligand binding to EGFR and blocks EGFR's phosphorylation. By using a protein microarray composed of 16,368 unique human proteins covering around 2,400 plasma membrane associated proteins such as receptors and channels, we also demonstrated that MI061 only recognizes the EGFR but not other proteins as compared with cetuximab. These results indicated that engineered MI061 retains both binding specificity and affinity of cetuximab for EGFR. Although it had relatively short half-life in serum, it was shown to be highly significant anti-tumor effect by inhibiting ERK pathway in A431 xenograft model. Taken together, our present study provides compelling evidence that engineered minibody is more effective and promising agent for in vivo targeting of solid tumors.
    PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e113442. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0113442 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays a role in liver cancer development. We previously showed that ROS increased HBx levels and here, we investigated the role of antioxidants in the regulation of HBx expression and their clinical relevance. We found that overexpression of catalase induced a significant loss in HBx levels. The cysteine null mutant of HBx (Cys-) showed a dramatic reduction in its protein stability. In clonogenic proliferation assays, Huh7-X cells produced a significant number of colonies whereas Huh7-Cys- cells failed to generate them. The Cys at position 69 of HBx was crucial to maintain its protein stability and transactivation function in response to ROS. Among 50 HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) specimens, 72% of HCCs showed lower catalase levels than those of surrounding non-tumor tissues. In advanced stage IV, catalase levels in non-tumor tissues were increased whereas those in tumors were further reduced. Accordingly, patients with a high T/N ratio for catalase showed significantly longer survival than those with a low T/N ratio. Together, catalase expression in HCC patients can be clinically useful for prediction of patient survival, and restoration of catalase expression in HCCs could be an important strategy for intervention in HBV-induced liver diseases.
    Oncotarget 10/2014; · 6.63 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As a member of imitation switch (ISWI) family in ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors, RSF complex consists of SNF2h ATPase and Rsf-1. Although it has been reported that SNF2h ATPase is recruited to DNA damage sites (DSBs) in a poly(ADP-ribosyl) polymerase 1 (PARP1)-dependent manner in DNA damage response (DDR), the function of Rsf-1 is still elusive. Here we show that Rsf-1 is recruited to DSBs confirmed by various cellular analyses. Moreover, the initial recruitment of Rsf-1 and SNF2h to DSBs shows faster kinetics than that of γH2AX after micro-irradiation. Signals of Rsf-1 and SNF2h are retained over 30 minutes after micro-irradiation, whereas γH2AX signals are gradually reduced at 10 minutes. Moreover, Rsf-1 is accumulated at DSBs in ATM-dependent manner, and the putative pSQ motifs of Rsf-1 by ATM are required for its accumulation at DSBs. In addition, depletion of Rsf-1 attenuates the activation of DNA damage checkpoint signals and cell survival upon DNA damage. Finally, we demonstrate that Rsf-1 promotes homologous recombination repair (HRR) by recruiting resection factors RPA32 and Rad51. Thus, these findings reveal a new function of chromatin remodeler Rsf-1 as a guard in DNA damage checkpoints and homologous recombination repair.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 12/2013; 13(4). DOI:10.4161/cc.27548 · 5.01 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that prolonged mitochondrial elongation triggers cellular senescence. Here, we report that enforced mitochondrial elongation by hFis1 depletion caused a severe defect in cell cycle progression through G2/M phase (~3-fold reduction in mitotic index; p < 0.01). Reintroduction of Myc-hFis1 to these cells induced mitochondrial fragmentation and restored the cell cycle, indicating that morphodynamic changes of mitochondria closely link to the cell cycle. In hFis1-knockdown cells, cell cycle regulators governing the G2/M phase, including cyclin A, cyclin B1, cyclin-dependent kinase1 (Cdk1), polo-like kinase1 (Plk1), aurora kinase A and Mad2, were significantly suppressed (2- to 10-fold). Notably, however, when mitochondrial fragmentation was induced by double knockdown of hFis1 and Opa1, the cells regained their ability to enter mitosis, and cell cycle regulators were rebounded. Reconstitution of the cyclin B1/Cdk1 complex, a major regulator of the G2/M transition, failed to restore mitotic entry in hFis1-depleted cells. In contrast, expression of Plk1, an upstream regulator of the cyclin B1/Cdk1 complex, or FoxM1 (forkhead box M1), a master transcriptional factor for the cell cycle regulators of G2/M phase, restored the cell cycle in these cells. Our findings suggest that mitochondrial fission molecule hFis1 ensures the proper cell division by interplay with the cell cycle machinery.
    Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 08/2013; DOI:10.1007/s00018-013-1428-8 · 5.86 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx), encoded by the HBV genome, is involved in the development of HBV-mediated liver cancer, whose frequency is highly correlated with chromosome instability (CIN). We previously reported that HBx induces mitotic checkpoint dysfunction by targeting the human serine/threonine kinase hBubR1. However, the underlying mechanism remained unresolved. Here, we show that HBxAPα/Rsf-1 associates with hBubR1 and HBx in the chromatin fraction during mitosis. Depletion of HBxAPα/Rsf-1 abolished the interaction between HBx and hBubR1, indicating that HBxAPα/Rsf-1 mediates these interactions. Knockdown of HBxAPα/Rsf-1 with small interfering RNA did not affect the recruitment of hBubR1 to kinetochores; however, it did significantly impair HBx targeting to kinetochores. A deletion mutant analysis revealed that two Kunitz domains of HBx, the Cdc20 binding domain of hBubR1, and full-length of HBxAPα/Rsf-1 were essential for these interactions. Thus, binding of HBx to hBubR1, stabilized by HBxAPα/Rsf-1, significantly attenuated hBubR1 binding to Cdc20 and consequently increased the rate of mitotic aberrations. Collectively, our data show that the HBx impairs hBubR1 function and induces CIN through HBxAPα/Rsf-1, providing a novel mechanism for induction of genomic instability by a viral pathogen in hepatocarcinogenesis.
    Carcinogenesis 03/2013; 34(7). DOI:10.1093/carcin/bgt105 · 5.27 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Yong-Yea Park, Hyeseong Cho
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Mitochondria exhibit a dynamic morphology in cells and their biogenesis and function are integrated with the nuclear cell cycle. In mitotic cells, the filamentous network structure of mitochondria takes on a fragmented form. To date, however, whether mitochondrial fusion activity is regulated in mitosis has yet to be elucidated. FINDINGS: Here, we report that mitochondria were found to be fragmented in G2 phase prior to mitotic entry. Mitofusin 1 (Mfn1), a mitochondrial fusion protein, interacted with cyclin B1, and their interactions became stronger in G2/M phase. In addition, MARCH5, a mitochondrial E3 ubiquitin ligase, reduced Mfn1 levels and the MARCH5-mediated Mfn1 ubiquitylation were enhanced in G2/M phase. CONCLUSIONS: Mfn1 is degraded through the MARCH5-mediated ubiquitylation in G2/M phase and the cell cycle-dependent degradation of Mfn1 could be facilitated by interaction with cyclin B1/Cdk1 complexes.
    Cell Division 12/2012; 7(1):25. DOI:10.1186/1747-1028-7-25 · 2.63 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The hepatitis B virus x protein (HBX) is expressed in HBV-infected liver cells and can interact with a wide range of cellular proteins. In order to understand such promiscuous behavior of HBX we expressed a truncated mini-HBX protein (named Tr-HBX) (residues 18-142) with 5 Cys → Ser mutations and characterized its structural features using circular dichroism (CD) spectropolarimetry, NMR spectroscopy as well as bioinformatics tools for predicting disorder in intrinsically unstructured proteins (IUPs). The secondary structural content of Tr-HBX from CD data suggests that Tr-HBX is only partially folded. The protein disorder prediction by IUPred reveals that the unstructured region encompasses its N-terminal ~30 residues of Tr-HBX. A two-dimensional (1)H-(15)N HSQC NMR spectrum exhibits fewer number of resonances than expected, suggesting that Tr-HBX is a hybrid type IUP where its folded C-terminal half coexists with a disordered N-terminal region. Many IUPs are known to be capable of having promiscuous interactions with a multitude of target proteins. Therefore the intrinsically disordered nature of Tr-HBX revealed in this study provides a partial structural basis for the promiscuous structure-function behavior of HBX.
    Moleculer Cells 07/2012; 34(2):165-9. DOI:10.1007/s10059-012-0060-z · 2.24 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Soon-Hwan Kwon, Hyeseong Cho
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a member of the hepadnavirus family. The HBV genome contains four genes designated as S, C, P, and X. The HBV X (HBx) gene encodes for a 16.5-kDa regulatory protein that enhances HBV replication and exerts multifunctional activities. The aim of this study is to describe the rapid and easy purification of HBx using ELP (elastin-like polypeptide) fusion protein. The ELP-HBx fusion protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Environmental sensitivity was demonstrated via turbidity and dynamic light scattering as a function of temperature. HBx was purified as an ELP fusion protein. ELPs are biopolymers of the pentapeptide repeat Val-Pro-Gly-Xaa-Gly that undergo an inverse temperature phase transition. ELP follows in temperature and salt consistency, precipitation, and solution repetition (inverse transition cycling) with polypeptide, where it purifies the protein in a simple manner. Fusion proteins underwent supramolecular aggregation at 40 ℃ in 1 M NaCl and slowly resolubilized at subphysiologic temperatures. ELP domain proteolysis liberated a peptide of comparable size and immunoreactivity to the commercial HBx. This study suggests that HBx can be purified rapidly and easily using inverse transition cycling, and that this method can be applied in determination of HBx 3D structures and HBx stability study.
    06/2012; 3(2):79-84. DOI:10.1016/j.phrp.2012.04.003
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) generally shows chemoresistant features to anticancer agents. Paclitaxel has been clinically used in the treatment of various cancers. However, effect of paclitaxel on HCC has not been adequately addressed. Here, we found two categories of hepatoma cells in response to paclitaxel. Paclitaxel effectively decreased the cell viability of SNU475, Hep3B, and SNU387 HCC cells and Chang liver cells (death prone). In contrast, the other five hepatoma cell lines (SNU449, SNU398, SUN368, SNU354, and HepG2 cells) were resistant to paclitaxel (death reluctant). In response to paclitaxel, Bcl-2 was highly phosphorylated in death-prone cells, whereas much less Bcl-2 was phosphorylated in death-reluctant cells. Cotreatment with SP600125, an inhibitor JNK, significantly reduced the phosphorylated Bcl-2 in death-prone cells and caused a significant reduction in cell death. The reduced cell death was due to prohibition into mitotic entry as evidenced by low cyclin B(1)/Cdk1 kinase activity. In death-reluctant cells, inbuild-phospho-JNK levels were high but no longer activated in response to paclitaxel. We found that paclitaxel combined with caffeine or UCN-01, inhibitors of G(2) DNA damage checkpoint, was able to partially overcome resistance to paclitaxel in these cells. Thus our data provide the molecular basis of paclitaxel resistance in hepatoma cells, and appropriate combination therapy may increase treatment efficacy.
    AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 02/2012; 302(9):G1016-24. DOI:10.1152/ajpgi.00449.2011 · 3.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Chfr is a mitotic stress checkpoint protein that delays mitotic entry in response to microtubule damage; however, the molecular mechanism by which Chfr accomplishes this remains elusive. Here, we show that Chfr levels are elevated in response to microtubule-damaging stress. Moreover, G(2)/M transition is associated with cell cycle-dependent turnover of Chfr accompanied by high autoubiquitylation activity, suggesting that regulation of Chfr levels and auto-ubiquitylation activity are functionally significant. To test this, we generated Chfr mutants Chfr-K2A and Chfr-K5A in which putative lysine target sites of auto-ubiquitylation were replaced with alanine. Chfr-K2A did not undergo cell cycle-dependent degradation, and its levels remained high during G(2)/M phase. The elevated levels of Chfr-K2A caused a significant reduction in phosphohistone H3 levels and cyclinB1/Cdk1 kinase activities, leading to mitotic entry delay. Notably, polo-like kinase 1 levels at G(2) phase, but not at S phase, were ∼2-3-fold lower in cells expressing Chfr-K2A than in wild-type Chfr-expressing cells. Consistent with this, ubiquitylation of Plk1 at G(2) phase was accelerated in Chfr-K2A-expressing cells. In contrast, Aurora A levels remained constant, indicating that Plk1 is a major target of Chfr in controlling the timing of mitotic entry. Indeed, overexpression of Plk1 in Chfr-K2A-expressing cells restored cyclin B1/Cdk1 kinase activity and promoted mitotic entry. Collectively, these data indicate that Chfr auto-ubiquitylation is required to allow Plk1 to accumulate to levels necessary for activation of cyclin B1/Cdk1 kinase and mitotic entry. Our results provide the first evidence that Chfr auto-ubiquitylation and degradation are important for the G(2)/M transition.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2011; 286(35):30615-23. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M111.231803 · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Chfr is a mitotic stress checkpoint protein that delays mitotic entry in response to microtubule damage; however, the molecular mechanism by which Chfr accomplishes this remains elusive. Here, we show that Chfr levels are elevated in response to microtubule-damaging stress. Moreover, G2/M transition is associated with cell cycle dependent turnover of Chfr accompanied by high auto-ubiquitylation activity, suggesting that regulation of Chfr levels and auto-ubiquitylation activity are functionally significant. To test this, we generated Chfr mutants Chfr-K2A and Chfr-K5A in which putative lysine target sites of auto-ubiquitylation were replaced with alanine. Chfr-K2A did not undergo cell cycle-dependent degradation and its levels remained high during G2/M phase. The elevated levels of Chfr-K2A caused a significant reduction in phospho-histone H3 levels and cyclinB1/Cdk1 kinase activities, leading to mitotic entry delay. Notably, polo-like kinase 1 levels at G2 phase, but not at S phase, were ~2-3 fold lower in cells expressing Chfr-K2A than in wild-type Chfr-expressing cells. Consistent with this, ubiquitylation of Plk1 at G2 phase was accelerated in Chfr-K2A-expressing cells. In contrast, Aurora A levels remained constant, indicating that Plk1 is a major target of Chfr in controlling the timing of mitotic entry. Indeed, overexpression of Plk1 in Chfr-K2A-expressing cells restored cyclinB1/Cdk1 kinase activity and promoted mitotic entry. Collectively, these data indicate that Chfr auto-ubiquitylation is required to allow Plk1 to accumulate to levels necessary for activation of cyclinB1/Cdk1 kinase and mitotic entry. Our results provide the first evidence that Chfr auto-ubiquitylation and degradation are important for the G2/ M transition.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2011; · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The oncogenic ability of aberrant hepatocyte growth factor receptor (Met) signaling is thought to mainly rely on its mitogenic and anti-apoptotic effects. Recently, however, cumulating evidences suggest that genomic instability may be a crucial factor in tumorigenesis. Here, we address whether oncogenic Met receptor is linked to the centrosome abnormality and genomic instability. We showed that expression of the constitutive active Met (CA-Met) induced supernumerary centrosomes probably due to deregulated centrosome duplication, which was accompanied with multipolar spindle formation and aneuploidy. Interestingly, LY294002, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, significantly suppressed the appearance of supernumerary centrosomes. Moreover, knockdown of Akt with small interfering RNAs and overexpression of phosphatase and tensin homolog or dominant-negative Akt abrogated supernumerary centrosome formation, evidencing the involvement of PI3K signaling. We further showed that expression of CA-Met significantly increased aneuploidy in p53(-/-) HCT116 cells, but not in p53(+/+) HCT116 cells, indicating that the ability of CA-Met to induce chromosomal instability (CIN) phenotype is related with p53 status. Together, our data demonstrate that aberrant hepatocyte growth factor/Met signaling induces centrosome amplification and CIN via the PI3K-Akt pathway, providing an example that oncogenic growth factor signals prevalent in a wide variety of cancers have cross talks to centrosome abnormality and CIN.
    Carcinogenesis 09/2010; 31(9):1531-40. DOI:10.1093/carcin/bgq133 · 5.27 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
238.31 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998–2015
    • Ajou University
      • • Graduate School
      • • Department of Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010
    • University of Suwon
      Suigen, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 2000
    • Dong Suwon General Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea