[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cetuximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody developed for targeting the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), has been intensively used to treat cancer patients with metastatic colorectal cancer and head and neck cancer. Intact immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody like cetuximab, however, has some limitations such as high production cost and low penetration rate from vasculature into solid tumor mass due to its large size. In attempt to overcome these limitations, we engineered cetuximab to create single chain variable fragments (scFv-CH3; Minibody) that were expressed in bacterial system. Among three engineered minibodies, we found that MI061 minibody, which is composed of the variable heavy (VH) and light (VL) region joined by an 18-residue peptide linker, displays higher solubility and better extraction properties from bacterial lysate. In addition, we validated that purified MI061 significantly interferes ligand binding to EGFR and blocks EGFR's phosphorylation. By using a protein microarray composed of 16,368 unique human proteins covering around 2,400 plasma membrane associated proteins such as receptors and channels, we also demonstrated that MI061 only recognizes the EGFR but not other proteins as compared with cetuximab. These results indicated that engineered MI061 retains both binding specificity and affinity of cetuximab for EGFR. Although it had relatively short half-life in serum, it was shown to be highly significant anti-tumor effect by inhibiting ERK pathway in A431 xenograft model. Taken together, our present study provides compelling evidence that engineered minibody is more effective and promising agent for in vivo targeting of solid tumors.
PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e113442. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays a role in liver cancer development. We previously showed that ROS increased HBx levels and here, we investigated the role of antioxidants in the regulation of HBx expression and their clinical relevance. We found that overexpression of catalase induced a significant loss in HBx levels. The cysteine null mutant of HBx (Cys-) showed a dramatic reduction in its protein stability. In clonogenic proliferation assays, Huh7-X cells produced a significant number of colonies whereas Huh7-Cys- cells failed to generate them. The Cys at position 69 of HBx was crucial to maintain its protein stability and transactivation function in response to ROS. Among 50 HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) specimens, 72% of HCCs showed lower catalase levels than those of surrounding non-tumor tissues. In advanced stage IV, catalase levels in non-tumor tissues were increased whereas those in tumors were further reduced. Accordingly, patients with a high T/N ratio for catalase showed significantly longer survival than those with a low T/N ratio. Together, catalase expression in HCC patients can be clinically useful for prediction of patient survival, and restoration of catalase expression in HCCs could be an important strategy for intervention in HBV-induced liver diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As a member of imitation switch (ISWI) family in ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors, RSF complex consists of SNF2h ATPase and Rsf-1. Although it has been reported that SNF2h ATPase is recruited to DNA damage sites (DSBs) in a poly(ADP-ribosyl) polymerase 1 (PARP1)-dependent manner in DNA damage response (DDR), the function of Rsf-1 is still elusive. Here we show that Rsf-1 is recruited to DSBs confirmed by various cellular analyses. Moreover, the initial recruitment of Rsf-1 and SNF2h to DSBs shows faster kinetics than that of γH2AX after micro-irradiation. Signals of Rsf-1 and SNF2h are retained over 30 minutes after micro-irradiation, whereas γH2AX signals are gradually reduced at 10 minutes. Moreover, Rsf-1 is accumulated at DSBs in ATM-dependent manner, and the putative pSQ motifs of Rsf-1 by ATM are required for its accumulation at DSBs. In addition, depletion of Rsf-1 attenuates the activation of DNA damage checkpoint signals and cell survival upon DNA damage. Finally, we demonstrate that Rsf-1 promotes homologous recombination repair (HRR) by recruiting resection factors RPA32 and Rad51. Thus, these findings reveal a new function of chromatin remodeler Rsf-1 as a guard in DNA damage checkpoints and homologous recombination repair.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that prolonged mitochondrial elongation triggers cellular senescence. Here, we report that enforced mitochondrial elongation by hFis1 depletion caused a severe defect in cell cycle progression through G2/M phase (~3-fold reduction in mitotic index; p < 0.01). Reintroduction of Myc-hFis1 to these cells induced mitochondrial fragmentation and restored the cell cycle, indicating that morphodynamic changes of mitochondria closely link to the cell cycle. In hFis1-knockdown cells, cell cycle regulators governing the G2/M phase, including cyclin A, cyclin B1, cyclin-dependent kinase1 (Cdk1), polo-like kinase1 (Plk1), aurora kinase A and Mad2, were significantly suppressed (2- to 10-fold). Notably, however, when mitochondrial fragmentation was induced by double knockdown of hFis1 and Opa1, the cells regained their ability to enter mitosis, and cell cycle regulators were rebounded. Reconstitution of the cyclin B1/Cdk1 complex, a major regulator of the G2/M transition, failed to restore mitotic entry in hFis1-depleted cells. In contrast, expression of Plk1, an upstream regulator of the cyclin B1/Cdk1 complex, or FoxM1 (forkhead box M1), a master transcriptional factor for the cell cycle regulators of G2/M phase, restored the cell cycle in these cells. Our findings suggest that mitochondrial fission molecule hFis1 ensures the proper cell division by interplay with the cell cycle machinery.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 08/2013; · 5.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx), encoded by the HBV genome, is involved in the development of HBV-mediated liver cancer, whose frequency is highly correlated with chromosome instability (CIN). We previously reported that HBx induces mitotic checkpoint dysfunction by targeting the human serine/threonine kinase hBubR1. However, the underlying mechanism remained unresolved. Here, we show that HBxAPα/Rsf-1 associates with hBubR1 and HBx in the chromatin fraction during mitosis. Depletion of HBxAPα/Rsf-1 abolished the interaction between HBx and hBubR1, indicating that HBxAPα/Rsf-1 mediates these interactions. Knockdown of HBxAPα/Rsf-1 with small interfering RNA did not affect the recruitment of hBubR1 to kinetochores; however, it did significantly impair HBx targeting to kinetochores. A deletion mutant analysis revealed that two Kunitz domains of HBx, the Cdc20 binding domain of hBubR1, and full-length of HBxAPα/Rsf-1 were essential for these interactions. Thus, binding of HBx to hBubR1, stabilized by HBxAPα/Rsf-1, significantly attenuated hBubR1 binding to Cdc20 and consequently increased the rate of mitotic aberrations. Collectively, our data show that the HBx impairs hBubR1 function and induces CIN through HBxAPα/Rsf-1, providing a novel mechanism for induction of genomic instability by a viral pathogen in hepatocarcinogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Mitochondria exhibit a dynamic morphology in cells and their biogenesis and function are integrated with the nuclear cell cycle. In mitotic cells, the filamentous network structure of mitochondria takes on a fragmented form. To date, however, whether mitochondrial fusion activity is regulated in mitosis has yet to be elucidated. FINDINGS: Here, we report that mitochondria were found to be fragmented in G2 phase prior to mitotic entry. Mitofusin 1 (Mfn1), a mitochondrial fusion protein, interacted with cyclin B1, and their interactions became stronger in G2/M phase. In addition, MARCH5, a mitochondrial E3 ubiquitin ligase, reduced Mfn1 levels and the MARCH5-mediated Mfn1 ubiquitylation were enhanced in G2/M phase. CONCLUSIONS: Mfn1 is degraded through the MARCH5-mediated ubiquitylation in G2/M phase and the cell cycle-dependent degradation of Mfn1 could be facilitated by interaction with cyclin B1/Cdk1 complexes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hepatitis B virus x protein (HBX) is expressed in HBV-infected liver cells and can interact with a wide range of cellular proteins. In order to understand such promiscuous behavior of HBX we expressed a truncated mini-HBX protein (named Tr-HBX) (residues 18-142) with 5 Cys → Ser mutations and characterized its structural features using circular dichroism (CD) spectropolarimetry, NMR spectroscopy as well as bioinformatics tools for predicting disorder in intrinsically unstructured proteins (IUPs). The secondary structural content of Tr-HBX from CD data suggests that Tr-HBX is only partially folded. The protein disorder prediction by IUPred reveals that the unstructured region encompasses its N-terminal ~30 residues of Tr-HBX. A two-dimensional (1)H-(15)N HSQC NMR spectrum exhibits fewer number of resonances than expected, suggesting that Tr-HBX is a hybrid type IUP where its folded C-terminal half coexists with a disordered N-terminal region. Many IUPs are known to be capable of having promiscuous interactions with a multitude of target proteins. Therefore the intrinsically disordered nature of Tr-HBX revealed in this study provides a partial structural basis for the promiscuous structure-function behavior of HBX.
Molecules and Cells 07/2012; 34(2):165-9. · 14.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a member of the hepadnavirus family. The HBV genome contains four genes designated as S, C, P, and X. The HBV X (HBx) gene encodes for a 16.5-kDa regulatory protein that enhances HBV replication and exerts multifunctional activities. The aim of this study is to describe the rapid and easy purification of HBx using ELP (elastin-like polypeptide) fusion protein.
The ELP-HBx fusion protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Environmental sensitivity was demonstrated via turbidity and dynamic light scattering as a function of temperature. HBx was purified as an ELP fusion protein. ELPs are biopolymers of the pentapeptide repeat Val-Pro-Gly-Xaa-Gly that undergo an inverse temperature phase transition. ELP follows in temperature and salt consistency, precipitation, and solution repetition (inverse transition cycling) with polypeptide, where it purifies the protein in a simple manner.
Fusion proteins underwent supramolecular aggregation at 40 ℃ in 1 M NaCl and slowly resolubilized at subphysiologic temperatures. ELP domain proteolysis liberated a peptide of comparable size and immunoreactivity to the commercial HBx.
This study suggests that HBx can be purified rapidly and easily using inverse transition cycling, and that this method can be applied in determination of HBx 3D structures and HBx stability study.
Osong public health and research perspectives. 06/2012; 3(2):79-84.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) generally shows chemoresistant features to anticancer agents. Paclitaxel has been clinically used in the treatment of various cancers. However, effect of paclitaxel on HCC has not been adequately addressed. Here, we found two categories of hepatoma cells in response to paclitaxel. Paclitaxel effectively decreased the cell viability of SNU475, Hep3B, and SNU387 HCC cells and Chang liver cells (death prone). In contrast, the other five hepatoma cell lines (SNU449, SNU398, SUN368, SNU354, and HepG2 cells) were resistant to paclitaxel (death reluctant). In response to paclitaxel, Bcl-2 was highly phosphorylated in death-prone cells, whereas much less Bcl-2 was phosphorylated in death-reluctant cells. Cotreatment with SP600125, an inhibitor JNK, significantly reduced the phosphorylated Bcl-2 in death-prone cells and caused a significant reduction in cell death. The reduced cell death was due to prohibition into mitotic entry as evidenced by low cyclin B(1)/Cdk1 kinase activity. In death-reluctant cells, inbuild-phospho-JNK levels were high but no longer activated in response to paclitaxel. We found that paclitaxel combined with caffeine or UCN-01, inhibitors of G(2) DNA damage checkpoint, was able to partially overcome resistance to paclitaxel in these cells. Thus our data provide the molecular basis of paclitaxel resistance in hepatoma cells, and appropriate combination therapy may increase treatment efficacy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Chfr is a mitotic stress checkpoint protein that delays mitotic entry in response to microtubule damage; however, the molecular mechanism by which Chfr accomplishes this remains elusive. Here, we show that Chfr levels are elevated in response to microtubule-damaging stress. Moreover, G(2)/M transition is associated with cell cycle-dependent turnover of Chfr accompanied by high autoubiquitylation activity, suggesting that regulation of Chfr levels and auto-ubiquitylation activity are functionally significant. To test this, we generated Chfr mutants Chfr-K2A and Chfr-K5A in which putative lysine target sites of auto-ubiquitylation were replaced with alanine. Chfr-K2A did not undergo cell cycle-dependent degradation, and its levels remained high during G(2)/M phase. The elevated levels of Chfr-K2A caused a significant reduction in phosphohistone H3 levels and cyclinB1/Cdk1 kinase activities, leading to mitotic entry delay. Notably, polo-like kinase 1 levels at G(2) phase, but not at S phase, were ∼2-3-fold lower in cells expressing Chfr-K2A than in wild-type Chfr-expressing cells. Consistent with this, ubiquitylation of Plk1 at G(2) phase was accelerated in Chfr-K2A-expressing cells. In contrast, Aurora A levels remained constant, indicating that Plk1 is a major target of Chfr in controlling the timing of mitotic entry. Indeed, overexpression of Plk1 in Chfr-K2A-expressing cells restored cyclin B1/Cdk1 kinase activity and promoted mitotic entry. Collectively, these data indicate that Chfr auto-ubiquitylation is required to allow Plk1 to accumulate to levels necessary for activation of cyclin B1/Cdk1 kinase and mitotic entry. Our results provide the first evidence that Chfr auto-ubiquitylation and degradation are important for the G(2)/M transition.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2011; 286(35):30615-23. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Chfr is a mitotic stress checkpoint protein that delays mitotic entry in response to microtubule
damage; however, the molecular mechanism by which Chfr accomplishes this remains elusive. Here, we show that Chfr levels are
elevated in response to microtubule-damaging stress. Moreover, G2/M transition is associated with cell cycle dependent turnover
of Chfr accompanied by high auto-ubiquitylation activity, suggesting that regulation of Chfr levels and auto-ubiquitylation
activity are functionally significant. To test this, we generated Chfr mutants Chfr-K2A and Chfr-K5A in which putative lysine
target sites of auto-ubiquitylation were replaced with alanine. Chfr-K2A did not undergo cell cycle-dependent degradation
and its levels remained high during G2/M phase. The elevated levels of Chfr-K2A caused a significant reduction in phospho-histone
H3 levels and cyclinB1/Cdk1 kinase activities, leading to mitotic entry delay. Notably, polo-like kinase 1 levels at G2 phase,
but not at S phase, were ~2-3 fold lower in cells expressing Chfr-K2A than in wild-type Chfr-expressing cells. Consistent
with this, ubiquitylation of Plk1 at G2 phase was accelerated in Chfr-K2A-expressing cells. In contrast, Aurora A levels remained
constant, indicating that Plk1 is a major target of Chfr in controlling the timing of mitotic entry. Indeed, overexpression
of Plk1 in Chfr-K2A-expressing cells restored cyclinB1/Cdk1 kinase activity and promoted mitotic entry. Collectively, these
data indicate that Chfr auto-ubiquitylation is required to allow Plk1 to accumulate to levels necessary for activation of
cyclinB1/Cdk1 kinase and mitotic entry. Our results provide the first evidence that Chfr auto-ubiquitylation and degradation
are important for the G2/ M transition.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2011; · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The oncogenic ability of aberrant hepatocyte growth factor receptor (Met) signaling is thought to mainly rely on its mitogenic and anti-apoptotic effects. Recently, however, cumulating evidences suggest that genomic instability may be a crucial factor in tumorigenesis. Here, we address whether oncogenic Met receptor is linked to the centrosome abnormality and genomic instability. We showed that expression of the constitutive active Met (CA-Met) induced supernumerary centrosomes probably due to deregulated centrosome duplication, which was accompanied with multipolar spindle formation and aneuploidy. Interestingly, LY294002, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, significantly suppressed the appearance of supernumerary centrosomes. Moreover, knockdown of Akt with small interfering RNAs and overexpression of phosphatase and tensin homolog or dominant-negative Akt abrogated supernumerary centrosome formation, evidencing the involvement of PI3K signaling. We further showed that expression of CA-Met significantly increased aneuploidy in p53(-/-) HCT116 cells, but not in p53(+/+) HCT116 cells, indicating that the ability of CA-Met to induce chromosomal instability (CIN) phenotype is related with p53 status. Together, our data demonstrate that aberrant hepatocyte growth factor/Met signaling induces centrosome amplification and CIN via the PI3K-Akt pathway, providing an example that oncogenic growth factor signals prevalent in a wide variety of cancers have cross talks to centrosome abnormality and CIN.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondria constantly divide and combine through fission and fusion activities. MARCH5, a mitochondrial E3 ubiquitin ligase, has been identified as a molecule that binds mitochondrial fission 1 protein (hFis1), dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) and mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), key proteins in the control of mitochondrial fission and fusion. However, how these interactions control mitochondrial dynamics, and cellular function has remained obscure. Here, we show that shRNA-mediated MARCH5 knockdown promoted the accumulation of highly interconnected and elongated mitochondria. Cells transfected with MARCH5 shRNA or a MARCH5 RING domain mutant displayed cellular enlargement and flattening accompanied by increased senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-beta-Gal) activity, indicating that these cells had undergone cellular senescence. Notably, a significant increase in Mfn1 level, but not Mfn2, Drp1 or hFis1 levels, was observed in MARCH5-depleted cells, indicating that Mfn1 is a major ubiquitylation substrate. Introduction of Mfn1(T109A), a GTPase-deficient mutant form of Mfn1, into MARCH5-RNAi cells not only disrupted mitochondrial elongation, but also abolished the increase in SA-beta-Gal activity. Moreover, the aberrant mitochondrial phenotypes in MARCH5-RNAi cells were reversed by ectopic expression of Drp1, but not by hFis1, and reversion of the mitochondria morphology in MARCH5-depleted cells was accompanied by a reduction in SA-beta-Gal activity. Collectively, our data indicate that the lack of MARCH5 results in mitochondrial elongation, which promotes cellular senescence by blocking Drp1 activity and/or promoting accumulation of Mfn1 at the mitochondria.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chromatin structure has a crucial role in a diversity of physiological processes, including development, differentiation and stress responses, via regulation of transcription, DNA replication and DNA damage repair. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors regulate chromatin structure and activate the DNA damage checkpoint pathway involving Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM). Herein, we investigated the impact of histone acetylation/deacetylation modification on the ATM-mediated transcriptional modulation to provide a better understanding of the transcriptional function of ATM. The prototype HDAC inhibitor trichostain A (TSA) reprograms expression of the myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL1) and Gadd45 genes via the ATM-mediated signal pathway. Transcription of MCL1 and Gadd45alpha is enhanced following TSA treatment in ATM(+) cells, but not in isogenic ATM(-) or kinase-dead ATM expressing cells, in the ATM-activated E2F1 or BRCA1- dependent manner, respectively. These findings suggest that ATM and its kinase activity are essential for the TSA-induced regulation of gene expression. In summary, ATM controls the transcriptional upregulation of MCL1 and Gadd45 through the activation of the ATM-mediated signal pathway in response to HDAC inhibition. These findings are important in helping to design combinatory treatment schedules for anticancer radio- or chemo-therapy with HDAC inhibitors.
Experimental and Molecular Medicine 02/2010; 42(3):195-204. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wound healing requires re-epithelialization from the wound margin through keratinocyte proliferation and migration, and some growth factors are known to influence this process. In the present study, we found that the co-treatment with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and TGF-beta1 resulted in enhanced migration of HaCaT cells compared with either growth factor alone, and that N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant agent, was the most effective among several inhibitors tested, suggesting the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis using 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) dye showed an early (30 min) as well as a late (24 h) increase of ROS after scratch, and the increase was more prominent with the growth factor treatment. Diphenyliodonium (DPI), a potent inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, abolished the increase of ROS at 30 min, followed by the inhibition of migration, but not the late time event. More precisely, gene knockdown by shRNA for either Nox-1 or Nox-4 isozyme of gp91phox subunit of NADPH oxidase abolished both the early time ROS production and migration. However, HaCaT cell migration was not enhanced by treatment with H((2))O((2)). Collectively, co-treatment with HGF and TGF-beta1 enhances keratinocyte migration, accompanied with ROS generation through NADPH oxidase, involving Nox-1 and Nox-4 isozymes.
Experimental and Molecular Medicine 02/2010; 42(4):270-9. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic inflammation can be a major risk factor for cancer development and may contribute to the high worldwide incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is known to be an important mediator of inflammatory responses; however, its link to hepatitis B virus (HBV)-mediated inflammatory responses has not been established. Here, we demonstrate that the expression of COX-2 mRNA and protein was significantly elevated in cells transfected by HBV replicon but not in cells transfected by HBV genome lacking the HBx gene. Notably, COX-2 induction was correlated with HBx's ability to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Consistently with this, antioxidant treatment and ectopic expression of manganese superoxide dismutase or catalase completely abolished COX-2 induction. Interestingly, a mitochondria localization-defective mutant of HBx (HBx(Delta 68-117)) neither increased intracellular ROS levels nor induced COX-2 expression. HBx(68-117), which encodes only amino acids 68-117 and is sufficient for mitochondria localization, increased ROS levels but did not induce COX-2 expression. Similarly, HBx targeting to the outer membrane of mitochondria (Mito-HBx) increased ROS but also failed to increase COX-2 expression, suggesting that other cytoplasmic signaling pathways are involved in HBx-mediated COX-2 induction. Indeed, inhibition of cytoplasmic calcium signaling by cyclosporine A, blocking mitochondrial permeability transition pore, and herbimycin, and inhibition of calcium-dependent tyrosine kinase suppressed HBV-mediated COX-2 induction. Thus, the data indicate that both mitochondrial ROS and cytoplasmic calcium signaling are necessary for the COX-2 induction. Our studies revealed a pathophysiological link between HBV infection and hepatic inflammation, and this chain of events might contribute to early steps in HBV-associated liver carcinogenesis.
Journal of Molecular Medicine 11/2009; 88(4):359-69. · 4.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of BubR1 has been established mainly in mitosis as an essential mitotic checkpoint protein although it is expressed throughout the cell cycle. To explore a possible role of BubR1 in regulating the G(2) phase of cell cycle, we have employed siRNA-mediated hBubR1 knockdown in HeLa cells. Here, we demonstrate that reducing BubR1 levels during the G(2) phase causes accelerated mitotic entry. As expected, BubR1 depletion leads to degradation of cyclin B(1) in the G(2) phase. Intriguingly, cyclin B(1) is prematurely targeted to centrosomes appearing at early G(2) phase in BubR1-depleted cells despite its low levels. This is in contrast to control cells where cyclin B(1) appears at the centrosomes in early prophase based on cell cycle-specific localization of CENP-F. Furthermore, cyclin B/Cdk1 kinase activity in early G(2) is aberrantly high in BubR1-depleted cells. Together, our results indicate that hBubR1 depletion triggers premature centrosomal localization of cyclin B(1) probably leading to premature mitotic entry. This study is the first to suggest a role of hBubR1 in controlling centrosome targeting of cyclin B(1) and timing of mitotic entry.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Growth factors accelerate G0 to S progression in the cell cycle, however, the roles of growth factors in other cell cycle phases are largely unknown. Here, we show that treatment of HeLa cells with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) at G2 phase induced the G2/M transition delay as evidenced by FACS analysis as well as by mitotic index and time-lapse analyses. Growth factors such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) also induced G2/M transition delay like HGF. HGF treatment at G2 phase causes a delayed activation of cyclin B1-associated kinase and a diminished nuclear translocation of cyclin B1. Either U0126, a MAPK kinase (MEK) inhibitor, or kinase-dead mutant of ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) abolished the delay. Additionally, knockdown of RSK1, but not RSK2, with siRNA abrogated the delay, indicating that the extracellular-regulated protein kinase (ERK)-RSK1 mediates the HGF-induced delay. We further found that the delay in G2/M transition of cells expressing oncogenic HGF receptor, M1268T, was abolished by RSK1 knockdown. Intriguingly, we observed that HGF induced chromosomal segregation defects, and depletion of RSK1, but not RSK2, aggravated these chromosomal aberrations. Taken together, the ERK-RSK1 activation by growth factors delays G2/M transition and this might be required to maintain genomic integrity during growth factor stimulation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multifunctional activities of the hepatitis B virus X-protein (HBx) in cells have been largely implicated in the development of liver cancer; one of these activities is the loss of p53 function by sequestering p53 in the cytoplasm. We have previously found that doxorubicin increased the p53 levels in cells containing p53-binding HBx protein and restored the p53-mediated transcriptional activity that was suppressed by HBx. Here, we investigated the mechanism underlying p53 reactivation. We found that six phosphorylation sites of the Serine residues of p53 were efficiently phosphorylated in HBx-expressing ChangX-34 cells, suggesting that the binding of HBx to the p53 protein does not interfere with the phosphorylation of p53 by signaling kinases. In addition, doxorubicin caused a dramatic reduction of Hdm2 mRNA and protein levels in cells expressing HBx. Intriguingly, reactivation of p53 was accompanied with a nuclear accumulation of p53 and the phosphorylated p53 at Serine15 was only detected in nuclear fraction, but not in cytosolic fraction of doxorubicin-treated ChangX-34 cells. Functional restoration of the p53 protein in HBx-expressing cells occurs according to the dual effects of doxorubicin: a significant reduction of Hdm2 expression and a nuclear accumulation of the phosphorylated p53 protein. Thus, proper usage of doxorubicin as an effective antitumor agent may be reevaluated and can be extended to tumors primarily caused by infection of DNA tumor viruses.
Cancer Science 06/2008; 99(5):888-93. · 3.53 Impact Factor