Yue Li

Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States

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Publications (26)110.71 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two valid targets for antibiotic development, 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin pyrophosphokinase (HPPK) and dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), catalyze consecutive reactions in folate biosynthesis. In Francisella tularensis (Ft), these two activities are contained in a single protein, FtHPPK-DHPS. While Pemble and coworkers determined the structure of FtHPPK-DHPS, they were unable to measure the kinetic parameters of the enzyme (PloS one 5, e14165). In this study, we elucidated the binding and inhibitory activities of two HPPK inhibitors (HP-18 and HP-26) against FtHPPK-DHPS, determined the structure of FtHPPK-DHPS in complex with HP-26, and measured the kinetic parameters for the dual enzymatic activities of FtHPPK-DHPS. The biochemical analyses showed that HP-18 and HP-26 have significant isozyme selectivity and that FtHPPK-DHPS is unique in that the catalytic efficiency of its DHPS activity is only 1/2.6×10(5) that of Escherichia coli DHPS. Sequence and structural analyses suggest that HP-26 is an excellent lead for developing tularemia therapeutics and that the very low DHPS activity is due, at least in part, to the lack of a key residue that interacts with the substrate p-aminobenzoic acid (pABA). A BLAST search of 10 F. tularensis genomes indicated that the bacterium contains a single FtHPPK-DHPS. The marginal DHPS activity and the singular existence of FtHPPK-DHPS in F. tularensis make this bacterium more vulnerable to DHPS inhibitors. Current sulfa drugs are ineffective against tularemia; new inhibitors targeting the unique pABA-binding pocket may be effective and less subject to resistance because mutation may make the marginal DHPS activity unable to support the growth of F. tularensis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    FEBS Journal 06/2014; · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway leads to the biosynthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate (IDP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP), the precursors for isoprene and other higher isoprenoids. Isoprene has significant effects on atmospheric chemistry while other isoprenoids have diverse roles ranging from various biological processes to applications in commercial uses. Understanding the metabolic regulation of the MEP pathway is important considering the huge applications of this pathway. The deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS) enzyme was cloned from Populus trichocarpa and the recombinant protein (PtDXS) was purified from E. coli. The steady-state kinetic parameters were measured by a coupled enzyme assay. An LC-MS/MS-based assay involving the direct quantification of the end product of the enzymatic reaction, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP), was developed. The effect of different metabolites of the MEP pathway on PtDXS activity was tested. PtDXS was inhibited by IDP and DMADP. Both of these metabolites compete with thiamine diphosphate for binding with the enzyme. An atomic structural model of PtDXS in complex with thiamine diphosphate and Mg2+ was built by homology modeling and refined by molecular dynamics simulations. The refined structure was used to model the binding of IDP and DMADP, showing that IDP and DMADP bind with the enzyme in a manner very similar to the binding of thiamine diphosphate. The feedback inhibition of PtDXS by IDP and DMADP constitutes an important mechanism of metabolic regulation of the MEP pathway and indicates that TPP-dependent enzymes may often be affected by IDP and DMADP.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 6-Hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin pyrophosphokinase (HPPK), a key enzyme in the folate biosynthesis pathway catalyzing the pyrophosphoryl transfer from ATP to 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin, is an attractive target for developing novel antimicrobial agents. Previously, we studied the mechanism of HPPK action, synthesized bisubstrate analog inhibitors by linking 6-hydroxymethylpterin to adenosine through phosphate groups, and developed a new generation of bisubstrate inhibitors by replacing the phosphate bridge with a piperidine-containing linkage. To further improve linker properties, we have synthesized a new compound, characterized its protein binding/inhibiting properties, and determined its structure in complex with HPPK. Surprisingly, this inhibitor exhibits a new binding mode in that the adenine base is flipped when compared to previously reported structures. Furthermore, the side chain of amino acid residue E77 is involved in protein-inhibitor interaction, forming hydrogen bonds with both 2' and 3' hydroxyl groups of the ribose moiety. Residue E77 is conserved among HPPK sequences, but interacts only indirectly with the bound MgATP via water molecules. Never observed before, the E77-ribose interaction is compatible only with the new inhibitor-binding mode. Therefore, this compound represents a new direction for further development.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 06/2012; 20(14):4303-9. · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Yeast cytosine deaminase (yCD) catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of cytosine to uracil as well as the deamination of the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5FC) to the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil. In this study, the role of Glu64 in the activation of the prodrug 5FC was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis, biochemical, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and computational studies. Steady-state kinetics studies showed that the mutation of Glu64 causes a dramatic decrease in k(cat) and a dramatic increase in K(m), indicating Glu64 is important for both binding and catalysis in the activation of 5FC. (19)F NMR experiments showed that binding of the inhibitor 5-fluoro-1H-pyrimidin-2-one (5FPy) to the wild-type yCD causes an upfield shift, indicating that the bound inhibitor is in the hydrated form, mimicking the transition state or the tetrahedral intermediate in the activation of 5FC. However, binding of 5FPy to the E64A mutant enzyme causes a downfield shift, indicating that the bound 5FPy remains in an unhydrated form in the complex with the mutant enzyme. (1)H and (15)N NMR analysis revealed trans-hydrogen bond D/H isotope effects on the hydrogen of the amide of Glu64, indicating that the carboxylate of Glu64 forms two hydrogen bonds with the hydrated 5FPy. ONIOM calculations showed that the wild-type yCD complex with the hydrated form of the inhibitor 1H-pyrimidin-2-one is more stable than the initial binding complex, and in contrast, with the E64A mutant enzyme, the hydrated inhibitor is no longer favored and the conversion has a higher activation energy, as well. The hydrated inhibitor is stabilized in the wild-type yCD by two hydrogen bonds between it and the carboxylate of Glu64 as revealed by (1)H and (15)N NMR analysis. To explore the functional role of Glu64 in catalysis, we investigated the deamination of cytosine catalyzed by the E64A mutant by ONIOM calculations. The results showed that without the assistance of Glu64, both proton transfers before and after the formation of the tetrahedral reaction intermediate become partially rate-limiting steps. The results of the experimental and computational studies together indicate that Glu64 plays a critical role in both the binding and the chemical transformation in the conversion of the prodrug 5FC to the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil.
    Biochemistry 12/2011; 51(1):475-86. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 6-Hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin pyrophosphokinase (HPPK), a key enzyme in the folate biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes the pyrophosphoryl transfer from ATP to 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin. The enzyme is essential for microorganisms, is absent from humans, and is not the target for any existing antibiotics. Therefore, HPPK is an attractive target for developing novel antimicrobial agents. Previously, we characterized the reaction trajectory of HPPK-catalyzed pyrophosphoryl transfer and synthesized a series of bisubstrate analog inhibitors of the enzyme by linking 6-hydroxymethylpterin to adenosine through 2, 3, or 4 phosphate groups. Here, we report a new generation of bisubstrate analog inhibitors. To improve protein binding and linker properties of such inhibitors, we have replaced the pterin moiety with 7,7-dimethyl-7,8-dihydropterin and the phosphate bridge with a piperidine linked thioether. We have synthesized the new inhibitors, measured their K(d) and IC(50) values, determined their crystal structures in complex with HPPK, and established their structure-activity relationship. 6-Carboxylic acid ethyl ester-7,7-dimethyl-7,8-dihydropterin, a novel intermediate that we developed recently for easy derivatization at position 6 of 7,7-dimethyl-7,8-dihydropterin, offers a much high yield for the synthesis of bisubstrate analogs than that of previously established procedure.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 11/2011; 20(1):47-57. · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between protein conformational dynamics and enzymatic reactions has been a fundamental focus in modern enzymology. Using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) with a combined statistical data analysis approach, we have identified the intermittently appearing coherence of the enzymatic conformational state from the recorded single-molecule intensity-time trajectories of enzyme 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin pyrophosphokinase (HPPK) in catalytic reaction. The coherent conformational state dynamics suggests that the enzymatic catalysis involves a multistep conformational motion along the coordinates of substrate-enzyme complex formation and product releasing, presenting as an extreme dynamic behavior intrinsically related to the time bunching effect that we have reported previously. The coherence frequency, identified by statistical results of the correlation function analysis from single-molecule FRET trajectories, increases with the increasing substrate concentrations. The intermittent coherence in conformational state changes at the enzymatic reaction active site is likely to be common and exist in other conformation regulated enzymatic reactions. Our results of HPPK interaction with substrate support a multiple-conformational state model, being consistent with a complementary conformation selection and induced-fit enzymatic loop-gated conformational change mechanism in substrate-enzyme active complex formation.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 08/2011; 133(36):14389-95. · 10.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The configuration and hydrogen-bonding network of side-chain amides in a 35 kDa protein were determined by measuring differential and trans-hydrogen-bond H/D isotope effects by using the isotopomer-selective (IS)-TROSY technique, which leads to a reliable recognition and correction of erroneous rotamers that are frequently found in protein structures. First, the differential two-bond isotope effects on carbonyl (13)C' shifts, which are defined as Delta(2)Delta(13)C'(ND) = (2)Delta(13)C'(ND(E))-(2)Delta(13)C'(ND(Z)), provide a reliable means for the configuration assignment for side-chain amides, because environmental effects (hydrogen bonds and charges, etc.) are greatly attenuated over the two bonds that separate the carbon and hydrogen atoms, and the isotope effects fall into a narrow range of positive values. Second and more importantly, the significant variations in the differential one-bond isotope effects on (15)N chemical shifts, which are defined as Delta(1)Delta(15)N(D) = (1)Delta(15)N(D(E))-(1)Delta(15)N(D(Z)) can be correlated with hydrogen-bonding interactions, particularly those involving charged acceptors. The differential one-bond isotope effects are additive, with major contributions from intrinsic differential conjugative interactions between the E and Z configurations, H-bonding interactions, and charge effects. Furthermore, the pattern of trans-H-bond H/D isotope effects can be mapped onto more complicated hydrogen-bonding networks that involve bifurcated hydrogen-bonds. Third, the correlations between Delta(1)Delta(15)N(D) and hydrogen-bonding interactions afford an effective means for the correction of erroneous rotamer assignments of side-chain amides. Rotamer correction by differential isotope effects is not only robust, but also simple and can be applied to large proteins.
    ChemBioChem 12/2008; 9(17):2860-71. · 3.74 Impact Factor
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society 03/2008; 130(8):2428-9. · 10.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 6-Hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin pyrophosphokinase (HPPK) is a key enzyme in the folate-biosynthetic pathway and is essential for microorganisms but absent from mammals. HPPK catalyzes Mg(2+)-dependent pyrophosphoryl transfer from ATP to 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin (HP). Previously, three-dimensional structures of Escherichia coli HPPK (EcHPPK) have been determined at almost every stage of its catalytic cycle and the reaction mechanism has been established. Here, the crystal structure of Yersinia pestis HPPK (YpHPPK) in complex with HP and an ATP analog is presented together with thermodynamic and kinetic characterizations. The two HPPK molecules differ significantly in a helix-loop area (alpha2-Lp3). YpHPPK has lower affinities than EcHPPK for both nucleotides and HP, but its rate constants for the mechanistic steps of both chemical transformation and product release are comparable with those of EcHPPK. Y. pestis, which causes plague, is a category A select agent according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Therefore, these structural and biochemical data are valuable for the design of novel medical countermeasures against plague.
    Acta Crystallographica Section D Biological Crystallography 12/2007; 63(Pt 11):1169-77. · 14.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The shikimate biosynthetic pathway is essential to microorganisms, plants, and parasites but absent from mammals. Therefore, shikimate dehydrogenase (SD) and other enzymes in the pathway are attractive targets for developing nontoxic antimicrobial agents, herbicides, and antiparasite drugs. SD catalyzes the fourth reaction in the pathway, the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate- (NADP-) dependent reduction of 3-dehydroshikimic acid to shikimic acid (SA), as well as its reverse, by the transfer of a hydride. Previous structural studies reveal that the enzyme exists in two major conformations, an open and a closed form. For the reaction to occur, it is believed that the catalytic complex assumes the closed conformation. Nonetheless, the only structure containing both SA and NADP+ exhibits an open conformation (PDB entry 2EV9). Here, we present two crystal structures of Aquifex aeolicus SD, including a ternary complex with both SA and NADP+, which assumes the closed conformation and therefore contains a catalytically competent active site. On the basis of preexisting and novel structural and biochemical data, a catalytic mechanism is proposed.
    Biochemistry 09/2007; 46(33):9513-22. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: By using the mixed solvent of 50% H2O/50% D2O and employing deuterium decoupling, TROSY experiments exclusively detect NMR signals from semideuterated isotopomers of carboxamide groups with high sensitivities for proteins with molecular weights up to 80 kDa. This isotopomer-selective strategy extends TROSY experiments from exclusively detecting backbone to both backbone and side-chain amides, particularly in large proteins. Because of differences in both TROSY effect and dynamics between 15N-H(E){D(Z)} and 15N-H(Z){D(E)} isotopomers of the same carboxamide, the 15N transverse magnetization of the latter relaxes significantly faster than that of the former, which provides a direct and reliable stereospecific distinction between the two configurations. The TROSY effects on the 15N-H(E){D(Z)} isotopomers of side-chain amides are as significant as on backbone amides.
    Journal of Magnetic Resonance 07/2007; 186(2):319-26. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dihydroneopterin aldolase (DHNA) catalyzes both the cleavage of 7,8-dihydro-D-neopterin (DHNP) to form 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin (HP) and glycolaldehyde and the epimerization of DHNP to form 7,8-dihydro-L-monapterin (DHMP). Whether the epimerization reaction uses the same reaction intermediate as the aldol reaction or the deprotonation and reprotonation of C2' of DHNP has been investigated by NMR analysis of the reaction products in a D2O solvent. No deuteration of C2' was observed for the newly formed DHMP. This result strongly suggests that the epimerization reaction uses the same reaction intermediate as the aldol reaction. In contrast with an earlier observation, the DHNA-catalyzed reaction is reversible, which also supports a nonstereospecific retroaldol/aldol mechanism for the epimerization reaction. The binding and catalytic properties of DHNAs from both Staphylococcus aureus (SaDHNA) and Escherichia coli (EcDHNA) were determined by equilibrium binding and transient kinetic studies. A complete set of kinetic constants for both the aldol and epimerization reactions according to a unified kinetic mechanism was determined for both SaDHNA and EcDHNA. The results show that the two enzymes have significantly different binding and catalytic properties, in accordance with the significant sequence differences between them.
    FEBS Journal 06/2007; 274(9):2240-52. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dihydroneopterin aldolase (DHNA) catalyzes the conversion of 7,8-dihydroneopterin (DHNP) to 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin (HP) and the epimerization of DHNP to 7,8-dihydromonopterin (DHMP). Although crystal structures of the enzyme from several microorganisms have been reported, no structural information is available about the critical interactions between DHNA and the trihydroxypropyl moiety of the substrate, which undergoes bond cleavage and formation. Here, we present the structures of Staphylococcus aureus DHNA (SaDHNA) in complex with neopterin (NP, an analog of DHNP) and with monapterin (MP, an analog of DHMP), filling the gap in the structural analysis of the enzyme. In combination with previously reported SaDHNA structures in its ligand-free form (PDB entry 1DHN) and in complex with HP (PDB entry 2DHN), four snapshots for the catalytic center assembly along the reaction pathway can be derived, advancing our knowledge about the molecular mechanism of SaDHNA-catalyzed reactions. An additional step appears to be necessary for the epimerization of DHMP to DHNP. Three active site residues (E22, K100, and Y54) function coordinately during catalysis: together, they organize the catalytic center assembly, and individually, each plays a central role at different stages of the catalytic cycle.
    Journal of Molecular Biology 05/2007; 368(1):161-9. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new strategy for the simultaneous NMR assignment of both backbone and side chain amides in large proteins with isotopomer-selective transverse-relaxation-optimized spectroscopy (IS-TROSY) is reported. The method considers aspects of both the NMR sample preparation and the experimental design. First, the protein is dissolved in a buffer with 50%H2O/50%D2O in order to promote the population of semideuterated NHD isotopomers in side chain amides of Asn/Gln residues. Second, a 13C'-coupled 2D 15N-1H IS-TROSY spectrum provides a stereospecific distinction between the geminal protons in the E and Z configurations of the carboxyamide group. Third, a suite of IS-TROSY-based triple-resonance NMR experiments, e.g. 3D IS-TROSY-HNCA and 3D IS-TROSY-HNCACB, are designed to correlate aliphatic carbon atoms with backbone amides and, for Asn/Gln residues, at the same time with side chain amides. The NMR assignment procedure is similar to that for small proteins using conventional 3D HNCA/3D HNCACB spectra, in which, however, signals from NH2 groups are often very weak or even missing due to the use of broad-band proton decoupling schemes and NOE data have to be used as a remedy. For large proteins, the use of conventional TROSY experiments makes resonances of side chain amides not observable at all. The application of IS-TROSY experiments to the 35-kDa yeast cytosine deaminase has established a complete resonance assignment for the backbone and stereospecific assignment for side chain amides, which otherwise could not be achieved with existing NMR experiments. Thus, the development of IS-TROSY-based method provides new opportunities for the NMR study of important structural and biological roles of carboxyamides and side chain moieties of arginine and lysine residues in large proteins as well as amino moieties in nucleic acids.
    Journal of Biomolecular NMR 01/2007; 36(4):205-14. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    Yi Wang, Yue Li, Honggao Yan
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    ABSTRACT: Dihydroneopterin aldolase (DHNA) catalyzes the conversion of 7,8-dihydroneopterin (DHNP) to 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin (HP) in the folate biosynthetic pathway. There are four conserved active site residues at the active site, E22, Y54, E74, and K100 in Staphylococcus aureus DHNA (SaDHNA), corresponding to E21, Y53, E73, and K98, respectively, in Escherichia coli DHNA (EcDHNA). The functional roles of the conserved glutamate and lysine residues have been investigated by site-directed mutagenesis in this work. E22 and E74 of SaDHNA and E21, E73, and K98 of EcDHNA were replaced with alanine. K100 of SaDHNA was replaced with alanine and glutamine. The mutant proteins were characterized by equilibrium binding, stopped-flow binding, and steady-state kinetic analyses. For SaDHNA, none of the mutations except E74A caused dramatic changes in the affinities of the enzyme for the substrate or product analogues or the rate constants. The Kd values for SaE74A were estimated to be >3000 microM, suggesting that the Kd values of the mutant are at least 100 times those of the wild-type enzyme. For EcDHNA, the E73A mutation increased the Kd values for the substrate or product analogues neopterin (MP), monapterin (NP), and 6-hydroxypterin (HPO) by factors of 340, 160, and 5600, respectively, relative to those of the wild-type enzyme. The K98A mutation increased the Kd values for NP, MP, and HPO by factors of 14, 3.6, and 230, respectively. The E21A mutation increased the Kd values for NP and HPO by factors of 2.2 and 42, respectively, but decreased the Kd value for MP by a factor of 3.3. The E22 (E21) and K100 (K98) mutations decreased the kcat values by factors of 1.3-2 x 10(4). The E74 (E73) mutation decreased in the kcat values by factors of approximately 10. The results suggested that E74 of SaDHNA and E73 of EcDHNA are important for substrate binding, but their roles in catalysis are minor. In contrast, E22 and K100 of SaDHNA are important for catalysis, but their roles in substrate binding are minor. On the other hand, E21 and K98 of EcDHNA are important for both substrate binding and catalysis.
    Biochemistry 12/2006; 45(51):15232-9. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Shikimate kinase (SK) and other enzymes in the shikimate pathway are potential targets for developing nontoxic antimicrobial agents, herbicides, and antiparasite drugs, because the pathway is essential in microorganisms, plants, and parasites but absent from mammals. SK catalyzes the reaction of phosphoryl transfer from ATP to shikimic acid (SA). Since 2002, a total of 11 SK structures have been reported, but none contains either the two substrate (SA and ATP) or the two product (SA-phosphate and ADP) molecules. Here, we present three crystal structures of SK from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtSK), including apo-MtSK, a binary complex MtSK x SA, and the ternary complex of MtSK with SA and an ATP analogue, AMPPCP. The structures of apo-MtSK and MtSK x AMPPCP x SA make it possible to elucidate the conformational changes of MtSK upon the binding of both substrates; the structure of MtSK x AMPPCP x SA reveals interactions between the protein and gamma-phosphate which indicate dynamic roles of catalytic residues Lys15 and Arg117.
    Biochemistry 08/2006; 45(28):8539-45. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Deletion mutagenesis, biochemical, and X-ray crystallographic studies have shown that loop 3 of Escherichia coli 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin pyrophosphokinase (HPPK) is required for the assembly of the active center, plays an important role in the stabilization of the ternary complex of HPPK with MgATP and 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin (HP), and is essential for catalysis. Whether the critical functional importance of loop 3 is due to the interactions between residues R84 and W89 and the two substrates has been addressed by site-directed mutagenesis, biochemical, and X-ray crystallographic studies. Substitution of R84 with alanine causes little changes in the dissociation constants and kinetic constants of the HPPK-catalyzed reaction, indicating that R84 is not important for either substrate binding or catalysis. Substitution of W89 with alanine increases the K(d) for the binding of MgATP by a factor of 3, whereas the K(d) for HP increases by a factor of 6, which is due to the increase in the dissociation rate constant. The W89A mutation decreases the rate constant for the chemical step of the forward reaction by a factor of 15 and the rate constant for the chemical step of the reverse reaction by a factor of 25. The biochemical results of the W89A mutation indicate that W89 contributes somewhat to the binding of HP and more significantly to the chemical step. The crystal structures of W89A show that W89A has different conformations in loops 2 and 3, but the critical catalytic residues are positioned for catalysis. When these results are taken together, they suggest that the critical functional importance of loop 3 is not due to the interactions of the R84 guanidinium group or the W89 indole ring with the substrates.
    Biochemistry 07/2005; 44(24):8590-9. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Yeast cytosine deaminase (yCD), a zinc metalloenzyme, catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of cytosine to uracil. The enzyme is of great biomedical interest because it also catalyzes the deamination of the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5FC) to form the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5FU). yCD/5FC is one of the most widely used enzyme/prodrug combinations for gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy for the treatment of cancers. A pH indicator assay has been developed for the measurement of the steady-state kinetic parameters for the deamination reaction. Transient kinetic studies have shown that the product release is a rate-limiting step in the activation of the prodrug 5FC by yCD. The rate constant of the chemical step for the forward reaction (250 s(-)(1)) is approximately 8 times that of the product release (31 s(-)(1)) and approximately 15 times k(cat) (17 s(-)(1)). The transient kinetic results are consistent with those of the steady-state kinetic analysis in the sense that the k(cat) and K(m) values calculated from the rate constants determined by the transient kinetic analysis are in close agreement with those measured by the steady-state kinetic analysis. NMR experiments have demonstrated that free 5FU is in slow exchange with its complex with yCD but has a low affinity for yCD. The transient kinetic and NMR results together suggest that the release of 5FU is rate-limiting in the activation of the prodrug 5FC by yCD and may involve multiple steps.
    Biochemistry 05/2005; 44(15):5940-7. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin pyrophosphokinase (HPPK) catalyzes the Mg(2+)-dependent pyrophosphoryl transfer from ATP to 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin (HP). The reaction follows a bi-bi mechanism with ATP as the first substrate and AMP and HP pyrophosphate (HPPP) as the two products. HPPK is a key enzyme in the folate biosynthetic pathway and is essential for microorganisms but absent from mammals. For the HPPK-catalyzed pyrophosphoryl transfer, a reaction coordinate is constructed on the basis of the thermodynamic and transient kinetic data we reported previously, and the reaction trajectory is mapped out with five three-dimensional structures of the enzyme at various liganded states. The five structures are apo-HPPK (ligand-free enzyme), HPPK.MgATP(analog) (binary complex of HPPK with its first substrate) and HPPK.MgATP(analog).HP (ternary complex of HPPK with both substrates), which we reported previously, and HPPK.AMP.HPPP (ternary complex of HPPK with both product molecules) and HPPK.HPPP (binary complex of HPPK with one product), which we present in this study.
    Structure 04/2004; 12(3):467-75. · 5.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 6-Hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin pyrophosphokinase (HPPK) catalyzes the transfer of pyrophosphoryl group from ATP to 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin (HP) following an ordered bi-bi mechanism with ATP as the first substrate. The rate-limiting step of the reaction is product release, and the complete active center is assembled and sealed only upon the binding of both ATP and HP. The assembly of the active center involves large conformational changes in three catalytic loops, among which loop 3 undergoes the most dramatic and unusual changes. To investigate the roles of loop 3 in catalysis, we have made a deletion mutant, which has been investigated by biochemical and X-ray crystallographic analysis. The biochemical data showed that the deletion mutation does not have significant effects on the dissociation constants or the rate constants for the binding of the first substrate MgATP or its analogues. The dissociation constant of HP for the mutant increases by a factor of approximately 100, which is due to a large increase in the dissociation rate constant. The deletion mutation causes a shift of the rate-limiting step in the reaction and a decrease in the rate constant for the chemical step by a factor of approximately 1.1 x 10(5). The crystal structures revealed that the deletion mutation does not affect protein folding, but the catalytic center of the mutant is not fully assembled even upon the formation of the ternary complex and is not properly sealed. The results together suggest that loop 3 is dispensable for the folding of the protein and the binding of the first substrate MgATP, but is required for the assembling and sealing of the active center. The loop plays an important role in the stabilization of the ternary complex and is critical for catalysis.
    Biochemistry 03/2004; 43(6):1469-77. · 3.38 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

213 Citations
110.71 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2014
    • Michigan State University
      • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      East Lansing, Michigan, United States
  • 2002–2012
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • Macromolecular Crystallography Laboratory
      Maryland, United States
  • 2007
    • International Union of Toxicology
      Reston, Virginia, United States