Stacy Cooper Bailey

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (41)110.27 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Med Guides are the only Food and Drug Administration-regulated source of written patient information distributed with prescriptions drugs. Despite their potential value, studies have found them to have limited utility.
    Medical care. 09/2014; 52(9):781-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and nature of physician, nurse, and pharmacist verbal counseling at the time of a new prescription for an opioid-acetaminophen containing medication as recalled by patients.DesignA mixed methods approach with data from cross sectional, structured interviews was used.SettingThe settings were one academic emergency department in Chicago, IL and one outpatient pharmacy at a public hospital in Atlanta, GA.PatientsOne hundred forty-nine patients receiving a new prescription for an opioid-acetaminophen medication were enrolled.Methods Interviews assessed patient recall of counseling they received from their physician, nurse, and pharmacist upon receiving the new prescription. Their responses were unitized and assigned to categories.ResultsOne hundred forty-nine patients were enrolled; 61.1% African American and 58.4% female. Seven major categories of responses were noted; frequencies of patient recall for counseling in these categories were reported. Four categories related to the content of the counseling discussion were 1) details of administration (patient recall counseling from: physician/nurse only 44.3%, pharmacist only 5.4%, both providers 12.8%); 2) activities to avoid and side effects (36.2%, 4.7%, 8.7%); 3) medication indication (32.9%, 4%, 4%); and 4) addictive potential (9.3%, 1.3%, 0%). Three categories describe patients' recall of the interaction in broad terms: 5) being referred to print informational material accompanying the prescription (MD/RN only 7.4%, pharmacist only 20.1%, both providers 2.7%); 6) having questions solicited (0%, 11.4%, 0%); 7) having no interaction relating to medication counseling (3.4%, 32.2%, 1.3%).Conclusions Patients infrequently recall counseling from providers on topics that are important to prevent harm from opioid-acetaminophen prescriptions. Future patient-centered clinical research should target identifying optimal strategies to convey these critical messages.
    Pain Medicine 08/2014; · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inadequate literacy is common among patients with diabetes and may lead to adverse outcomes. The authors reviewed the relationship between literacy and health outcomes in patients with diabetes and potential interventions to improve outcomes.
    The Diabetes Educator 06/2014; · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether an interactive computer program could improve patient knowledge regarding genetic screening and diagnostic concepts. In this randomized trial, women 6-26 weeks' gestation were assigned to standard care with provider-based counseling or to augmented counseling with an interactive computer program. The computer-based tool conveyed information about genetic testing options. Women were administered a 23-item test of content knowledge immediately and 2-4 weeks after exposure. Test scores were compared between groups at both points using T-tests. 150 women were randomized equally between groups. Groups were similar with regard to demographic characteristics. Women randomized to the interactive tool correctly answered a significantly greater proportion of questions than those who received standard counseling (69.4% ±14.2% vs. 46.0% ± 15.2%, p < .001) on the immediate questionnaire. One hundred and twenty-three (82%) participants participated in the follow-up test. Women randomized to the tool continued to correctly answer a significantly greater proportion of questions (60.6% ± 16% vs. 49.7% ± 18.9%, p = .001). Education, health literacy, electronic health literacy, and other discussions with providers were not associated with a differential benefit from the educational intervention. A patient-directed interactive computer program may help providers to convey relevant information about genetic screening and diagnostic concepts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Prenatal Diagnosis 02/2014; · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of diabetes distress and its relationship with health behaviours and clinical outcomes in low-income patients. Secondary analyses were conducted using baseline data from a clinical trial evaluating a diabetes self-management intervention. Interviews were conducted with 666 participants receiving care at nine safety net clinics in Missouri. Distress was measured using the Diabetes Distress Scale, and outcomes included medication adherence, physical activity, nutrition and clinical biomarkers (haemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol). In a sample of 666 participants, 14.1% and 27.3% of patients were identified as highly and moderately distressed, respectively, with higher rates among younger, female and lower income patients. When compared with moderately and no distress groups, highly distressed patients were less adherent to medications (20.7% vs 29.9% vs 39.4%, p<0.001) and had higher HbA1C values (9.3% (SD=2.0) vs 8.2% (SD=1.8) vs 7.8% (SD=1.7), p<0.001), diastolic blood pressure (81.8 (SD=9.4) vs 80.2 (9.7) vs 78.9 (SD=8.8), p=0.02) and LDL cholesterol (104.6 (SD=42.4) vs 97.2 (34.3) vs 95.5 (37.9)) In multivariable analyses, high and moderate distress were associated with lower medication adherence (OR=0.44; 0.27 to 0.23, p=0.001) and (OR=0.58; 0.42 to 0.79; p=0.001), respectively, and higher HbA1C in only the highly distressed group (B=1.3; 0.81 to 1.85; p<0.001) compared with the no distress group. Diabetes distress is prevalent and linked to poorer adherence to health behaviours and glycemic control in a sample of patients receiving care from low-income clinics.
    Journal of epidemiology and community health 01/2014; · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Improved drug labelling for chronic pill-form medications has been shown to promote patient comprehension, adherence and safety. We extended health literacy principles and included patients' perspectives to improve instructions for: (1) non-pill form, (2) short term, (3) 'as needed,' (4) tapered and (5) escalating dose medications. Participants were recruited via convenience sampling from primary care clinics in Chicago, Illinois and San Francisco, California, USA. 40 adult, English-speaking participants who reported taking at least one prescription drug in the past 12 months were enrolled in the study. Participant opinions, preferences and comprehension of standard and improved medication instructions were assessed during four iterative waves of discussion groups. Brief interviews preceding the discussion groups measured individuals' literacy skills, sociodemographic and health characteristics. On average, participants were 46 years old, took four medications and reported two chronic health conditions. Patients varied sociodemographically; 40% were men and 33% had limited literacy skills. Patients agreed on the need for simpler terminology and specificity in instructions. Discussions addressed optimal ways of presenting numeric information, indication and duration of use information to promote comprehension and safe medication use. Consensus was reached on how to improve most of the instructions. Through this patient-centred approach, we developed a set of health literacy-informed instructions for more challenging medications. Findings can inform current drug labelling initiatives and promote safe and appropriate medication use.
    BMJ Open 01/2014; 4(1):e003699. · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Medication adherence has received a great deal of attention over the past several decades; however, its definition and measurement remain elusive. The authors propose a new definition of medication self-management that is guided by evidence from the field of health literacy. Specifically, a new conceptual model is introduced that deconstructs the tasks associated with taking prescription drugs; including the knowledge, skills and behaviors necessary for patients to correctly take medications and sustain use over time in ambulatory care. This model is then used to review and criticize current adherence measures as well as to offer guidance to future interventions promoting medication self-management, especially among patients with low literacy skills.
    Journal of Health Communication 12/2013; 18(sup1):20-30. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have linked patient misunderstanding of label instructions for as needed (PRN) medications to dosing errors. This study conducted a preliminary field test of patient-centered PRN label instructions. Patients participated in a hypothetical dosing experiment and were randomized to a patient-centered label (referred to as "Take-Wait-Stop") or standard label. Participants were asked to demonstrate dosing the medicine over 24 hours. Three types of independent dosing errors were measured: (a) taking more than two pills at one time, (b) exceeding the maximum daily dose, and (c) waiting fewer than 4 hours between doses. Generalized linear models were used to assess the association between label type, health literacy, and sociodemographic characteristics. Participants' mean age was 39.8 years, 62.1% were female, 43.7% were White, and 72.4% had adequate literacy. Of participants, 31.8% who were shown the standard label demonstrated taking in excess of 6 pills in 24 hours compared with only 14.0% of participants who were shown the Take-Wait-Stop label (p = .05). Overall, only 1 person demonstrated he would take more than 2 pills in a single dose. Of the standard label group, 20.5% demonstrated dosing intervals of fewer than 4 hours compared with 23.3% of the Take-Wait-Stop label group (p=.75). In a multivariate model, participants who were exposed to the standard label were 2.5 times more likely to exceed the recommended maximum daily dose (95% CI [1.05, 7.70], p=.03). The Take-Wait-Stop label was beneficial in preventing participants from exceeding the maximum dose in 24 hours, although it did not significantly reduce other dosing errors.
    Journal of Health Communication 12/2013; 18(sup1):40-48. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Health Communication 12/2013; 18(sup1):5-8. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Female fertility declines dramatically with age, and childbearing at older maternal ages has significant medical consequences for mother and infant that are well-known to health professionals. Despite this, the average maternal age in the United States continues to rise. Many factors likely contribute to this secular trend; to date, no research has examined whether American women are aware of the complications of deferring conception and how this correlates with health literacy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate women's knowledge of the implications of delaying pregnancy. A structured, in-person interview was administered to 300 women between 20 and 50 years of age attending 1 of 2 gynecologic clinics at a single institution. Demographic information, medical history, and gynecologic history were obtained; and participants answered questions about the implications of aging for fertility and pregnancy outcome. Health literacy and numeracy were assessed. Participants demonstrated knowledge deficits about the implications of aging on fertility and pregnancy, and many were unfamiliar with success rates of infertility treatments. Several demographic factors correlated with knowledge; health literacy and numeracy were both important predictive variables. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study of women's knowledge about fertility, aging, and their health literacy. Awareness of the importance of health literacy and numeracy should inform future educational efforts about fertility.
    Journal of Health Communication 12/2013; 18(sup1):118-128. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To systematically review mobile applications currently available to patients to support outpatient medication self-management. Three online stores were searched in March 2013 using nine distinct search terms. Applications were selected if they supported general outpatient medication self-management for adults; they were excluded if they focused on only one medication or condition, provided only a medication list or reference, only ordered refills, were written in a non-English language, or were for local pharmacy/hospital patients only. A multi-step review process was utilized by two independent reviewers to identify eligible applications. A standardized form was used to abstract data. User reviews were compiled from a subsample of applications and qualitatively coded to identify common criticisms. 14 893 applications were initially identified. After the multi-step review process, 424 applications were deemed eligible for inclusion by reviewers (κ=0.85). On average, applications were rated 2.8 stars (out of 5) from 107 reviews. Almost all provided medication reminders (91.0%), half enabled patients to create a medication history or log (51.5%), and 22% could email the log to a third party. Few helped patients organize their regimen (6.2%), check for drug interactions (2.8%), or identify pills (4.0%). User reviews (N=1091) from the subsample of 26 applications revealed common criticisms, including technical malfunctions, poor compatibility with certain medications, and absence of desired features. Hundreds of applications exist in the marketplace to support medication self-management. However, their quality, content, and functionality are highly variable. Research is needed to determine optimal capabilities, evaluate utility, and determine clinical benefit.
    Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 10/2013; · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The authors evaluated the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of 2 interventions designed to promote colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in safety-net settings. A 3-arm, quasi-experimental evaluation was conducted among 8 clinics in Louisiana. Screening efforts included: 1) enhanced usual care, 2) literacy-informed education of patients, and 3) education plus nurse support. Overall, 961 average-risk patients ages 50 to 85 years were eligible for routine CRC screening and were recruited. Outcomes included CRC screening completion and incremental cost effectiveness using literacy-informed education of patients and education plus nurse support versus enhanced usual care. The baseline screening rate was <3%. After the interventions, the screening rate was 38.6% with enhanced usual care, 57.1% with education, and 60.6% with education that included additional nurse support. After adjusting for age, race, sex, and literacy, patients who received education alone were not more likely to complete screening than those who received enhanced usual care; and those who received additional nurse support were 1.60-fold more likely to complete screening than those who received enhanced usual care (95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.42; P = .024). The incremental cost per additional individual screened was $1337 for education plus nurse support over enhanced usual care. Fecal occult blood test rates were increased beyond enhanced usual care by providing brief education and nurse support but not by providing education alone. More cost-effective alternatives to nurse support need to be investigated. Cancer 2013. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 08/2013; · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined patient beliefs about provider awareness of medication use, patient-reported prevalence and nature of provider counseling about medications, and the impact of health literacy on these outcomes. Structured interviews were conducted at academic general internal medicine clinics and federally qualified health centers with 500 adult patients. Interviewer-administered surveys assessed patients' beliefs, self-reported prevalence and nature of provider counseling for new prescriptions, and medication review. Most patients believed their physician was aware of all their prescription and over the counter medications, and all medications prescribed by other doctors; while a minority reported disclosing over the counter and supplement use. Among those receiving new prescriptions (n=190): 51.3% reported physician medication review, 77.4% reported receiving instructions on use from physicians and 43.3% from pharmacists. Side effects were discussed 42.9% of the time by physicians and 25.8% by pharmacists. Significant differences in outcomes were observed by health literacy, age, and clinic type. There is a sizable gap between what patients believe physicians know about their medication regimen and what they report to the physician. Discordance between patient beliefs and physician knowledge of medication regimens could negatively impact patient safety and healthcare quality.
    Patient Education and Counseling 07/2013; · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To contrast barriers to colon cancer (CRC) screening and Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT) completion between rural and urban safety-net patients. Interviews were administered to 972 patients who were not up-to-date with screening. Rural patients were more likely to believe it was helpful to find CRC early (89.7% vs 66.1%, p < .0001), yet were less likely to have received a screening recommendation (36.4% vs. 45.8%, p = .03) or FOBT information (14.5% vs 32.3%, p < .0001) or to have completed an FOBT (22.0% vs 45.8%, p < .0001). Interventions are needed to increase screening recommendation, education and completion, particularly in rural areas.
    American journal of health behavior 05/2013; 37(3):289-98. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Evaluate the evidence regarding the relative effectiveness of multimedia and print as modes of dissemination for patient education materials; examine whether development of these materials addressed health literacy. A structured literature review utilizing Medline, PsycInfo, and the Cumulative Index to the Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), supplemented by reference mining. Of 738 studies screened, 30 effectively compared multimedia and print materials. Studies offered 56 opportunities for assessing the effect of medium on various outcomes (e.g., knowledge). In 30 instances (54%), no difference was noted between multimedia and print in terms of patient outcomes. Multimedia led to better outcomes vs. print in 21 (38%) comparisons vs. 5 (9%) instances for print. Regarding material development, 12 studies (40%) assessed readability and 5 (17%) involved patients in tool development. Multimedia appears to be a promising medium for patient education; however, the majority of studies found that print and multimedia performed equally well in practice. Few studies involved patients in material development, and less than half assessed the readability of materials. Future research should focus on comparing message-equivalent tools and assessing their effect on behavioral outcomes. Material development should include explicit attention to readability and patient input.
    Patient Education and Counseling 07/2012; 89(1):7-14. · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There is increasing concern over the risk of consumer unintentional misuse of non-prescription (a.k.a. 'over-the-counter') medications containing acetaminophen, which could lead to acute liver failure. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of potential misuse and overdose of over-the-counter medications containing acetaminophen, either alone or in combination. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, structured interviews with literacy assessment. SETTING: One academic and one community-based general internal medicine practice in Chicago, IL, and one academic general internal medicine practice and a public hospital clinic in Atlanta, GA. PATIENTS: Five hundred adults seeking primary care, ages 18-80. MEASUREMENT: Demonstration of how and when patients would take over-the-counter medications containing acetaminophen, alone or in combination with one another, over a 24-hour period. RESULTS: Overall, 23.8 % of participants demonstrated they would overdose on a single over-the-counter acetaminophen product by exceeding a dose of four grams in a 24-hour period; 5.2 % made serious errors by dosing out more than six grams. In addition, 45.6 % of adults demonstrated they would overdose by 'double-dipping' with two acetaminophen-containing products. In multivariable analyses, limited literacy (Relative Risk Ratio (RR) 1.65, 95 % Confidence Interval (CI) 1.03-2.66) and heavy acetaminophen use in the past six months (RR 1.70, 95 % CI 1.10-2.64) were independently associated with overdosing over-the-counter products. CONCLUSION: Misunderstanding of the active ingredient and proper instructions for over-the-counter medications containing acetaminophen is common. The potential for errors and adverse events associated with unintentional misuse of these products is substantial, particularly among heavy users of acetaminophen and those with limited literacy.
    Journal of General Internal Medicine 05/2012; · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Medication guides are required documents to be distributed to patients in order to convey serious risks associated with certain prescribed medicines. Little is known about the effectiveness of this information to adequately inform patients on safe use. OBJECTIVE: To examine the readability, suitability, and comprehensibility of medication guides, particularly for those with limited literacy. DESIGN: Assessments of suitability and readability of 185 medication guides, and a sub-study examining change in suitability and readability from 2006 to 2010 among 32 of the medication guides (Study 1); 'open book' comprehension assessment of medication guides (Study 2). SETTING: Two general internal medicine clinics in Chicago, IL. PATIENTS: Four hundred and forty-nine adults seeking primary care services, ages 18-85. MEASUREMENTS: For Study 1, the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM) and Lexile score for readability. For Study 2, a tailored comprehension assessment of content found in three representative medication guides. RESULTS: The 185 analyzed medication guides were on average 1923 words (SD = 1022), with a mean reading level of 10-11th grade. Only one medication guide was deemed suitable in SAM analyses. None provided summaries or reviews, or framed the context first, while very few were rated as having made the purpose evident (8 %), or limited the scope of content (22 %). For Study 2, participants' comprehension of medication guides was poor (M = 52.7 % correct responses, SD = 22.6). In multivariable analysis, low and marginal literacy were independently associated with poorer understanding (β = -14.3, 95 % CI -18.0 - -10.6, p < 0.001; low: β = -23.7, 95 % CI -28.3 - -19.0, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Current medication guides are of little value to patients, as they are too complex and difficult to understand especially for individuals with limited literacy. Explicit guidance is offered for improving these print materials.
    Journal of General Internal Medicine 05/2012; · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We developed a standardized educational tool to inform women about preeclampsia. The objective of this study was to assess whether exposure to this tool led to superior understanding of the syndrome. This was a randomized controlled trial in which 120 women were assigned to (1) a newly developed preeclampsia educational tool, (2) a standard pamphlet addressing preeclampsia that had been created by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, or (3) no additional information. Preeclampsia knowledge was assessed with the use of a previously validated questionnaire. There were no demographic differences among the groups. Patients who received the tool scored significantly better on the preeclampsia questionnaire than those who received the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists pamphlet or no additional information (71%, 63%, 49%, respectively; P < .05). This improved understanding was evident equally among women with and without adequate health literacy (interaction: P > .05). Patients who were exposed to a graphics-based educational tool demonstrated superior preeclampsia-related knowledge, compared with those patients who were exposed to standard materials or no education.
    American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 05/2012; 206(5):431.e1-5. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have examined differences between rural and urban women in mammography barriers, knowledge, and experiences. Exploring differences can help inform tailored interventions. Women, aged ≥40, who had not been screened in the past 2 years were recruited from eight federally qualified health centers across Louisiana. They were given a structured interview assessing mammography knowledge, beliefs, barriers, experiences, and literacy. Of the 1189 patients who participated, 65.0% were African American, 61.6% were rural, and 44.0% had low literacy. Contrary to guidelines, most believed mammography should be done annually (74.3%) before age 40 (70.5%). Compared to urban women, rural participants were more likely to believe mammography will find small breast lumps early (34.4% vs. 6.5%, p<0.0001) and strongly disagree that mammography is embarrassing (14.6% vs. 8.4%, p=0.0002) or that they are afraid of finding something wrong (21.2% vs.12.3%, p=0.007). Rural women were more likely to report a physician recommendation for mammography (84.3% vs. 76.5%, p=0.006), but they were less likely to have received education (57.2% vs. 63.6%, p=0.06) or to have ever had a mammogram (74.8% vs. 78.1%, p=0.007). In multivariate analyses controlling for race, literacy, and age, all rural/urban differences remained significant, except for receipt of a mammogram. Most participants were unclear about when they should begin mammography. Rural participants reported stronger positive beliefs, higher self-efficacy, fewer barriers, and having a physician recommendation for mammography but were less likely to receive education or screening.
    Journal of Women s Health 04/2012; 21(7):748-55. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Despite federal laws requiring language access in healthcare settings, most US pharmacies are unable to provide prescription (Rx) medication instructions to limited English proficient (LEP) patients in their native language. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of health literacy-informed, multilingual Rx instructions (the ConcordantRx instructions) to improve Rx understanding, regimen dosing and regimen consolidation in comparison to standard, language-concordant Rx instructions. DESIGN: Randomized, experimental evaluation. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred and two LEP adults speaking five non-English languages (Chinese, Korean, Russian, Spanish, Vietnamese), recruited from nine clinics and community organizations in San Francisco and Chicago. INTERVENTION: Subjects were randomized to review Rx bottles with either ConcordantRx or standard instructions. MAIN MEASURES: Proper demonstration of common prescription label instructions for single and multi-drug medication regimens. Regimen consolidation was assessed by determining how many times per day subjects would take medicine for a multi-drug regimen. KEY RESULTS: Subjects receiving the ConcordantRx instructions demonstrated significantly greater Rx understanding, regimen dosing and regimen consolidation in comparison to those receiving standard instructions (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 1.25, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.48; P = 0.007 for Rx understanding, IRR: 1.19, 95 % CI: 1.03-1.39; P = 0.02 for regimen dosing and IRR: 0.76, 95 % CI: 0.64-0.90; P = 0.001 for regimen consolidation). In most cases, instruction type was the sole, independent predictor of outcomes in multivariate models controlling for relevant covariates. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for standardized, multilingual Rx instructions that can be implemented in pharmacy practices to promote safe medication use among LEP patients. The ConcordantRx instructions represent an important step towards achieving this goal.
    Journal of General Internal Medicine 03/2012; · 3.28 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

223 Citations
110.27 Total Impact Points


  • 2013–2014
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Division of Pharmaceutical Outcomes and Policy
      North Carolina, United States
  • 2007–2014
    • Northwestern University
      • Division of General Internal Medicine and Geriatrics
      Evanston, Illinois, United States
  • 2012
    • Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans
      • Department of Medicine
      Baton Rouge, LA, United States
  • 2008–2011
    • Vanderbilt University
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Division of General Internal Medicine & Public Health
      Nashville, MI, United States