Chuan-Chi Chiang

Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, 臺南市, Taiwan, Taiwan

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Publications (9)63.02 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationship among obesity, cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVDRFs), and plasma complement C3 concentration in children and adolescents. In a nationwide survey conducted between 1992 and 2000, all school children aged 6-18 yr with abnormal results in repeated urine samples, including hematuria, proteinuria, and glucosuria (n = 97 312; 36 557 boys and 60 755 girls), were investigated for their body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, and plasma complement C3 concentrations. Children in the higher percentile groups for BMI or having more CVDRFs, namely, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia, had higher plasma C3 concentrations independently (p for both trends <0.05, adjusted for age and gender). The odds ratios (ORs) for having one, two, or three CVDRFs in obese children were 4.74 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.47-5.03], 19.8 (95% CI = 17.8-22.0), and 139 (95% CI = 96.6-200), respectively, adjusted for age, gender, and family history of diabetes, which were substantially reduced after adjustment for plasma C3 concentrations. The ORs for children with plasma C3 concentrations in the highest quartile to have one, two, or three CVDRFs were 2.32 (95% CI = 2.21-2.44), 5.68 (95% CI = 4.83-6.67), and 58.6 (95% CI = 19.7-174), respectively, adjusted for age, gender, family history of diabetes, and BMI. Obesity is associated with clustering of CVDRFs in children and adolescents. Obesity and clustering of CVDRFs are associated with elevated plasma complement C3. Children and adolescents with higher plasma C3 concentrations have higher risk of clustering of CVDRFs independent of obesity.
    Pediatric Diabetes 04/2012; 13(6):476-83. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate how hypertension and hypercholesterolemia aggregate at different fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels in children aged 6-16 yr. In a nationwide survey conducted between 1992 and 2000, all schoolchildren aged 6-18 yr with abnormal results in repeated urine samples were included. In this study, we recruited 27 535 students aged 6- to 16-yr whose FPG levels were 90-125 mg/dL. Another 17 907 children were randomly selected as control from schoolchildren with FPG <90 mg/dL by stratification to reflect the age- and sex-specific proportion of the whole student population. The risk of having hypertension or hypercholesterolemia increased at FPG level above 90 mg/dL compared with children with FPG <90 mg/dL [6-10 yr, odd ratios (OR) = 1.51 and 1.82 for FPG 90-99 and 100-125 mg/dL for girls, OR = 1.35 and 2.03 for FPG 90-99 and 100-125 mg/dL for boys; 10-16 yr, OR = 1.24 and 1.66 for FPG 90-99 and 100-125 mg/dL for girls, OR = 1.17 and 1.41 for FPG 90-99 and 100-125 mg/dL for boys, all p < 0.05]. The risk of having both hypertension and hypercholesterolemia elevated at FPG 100-125 mg/dL (6-10 yr, OR = 2.76 for girls and 2.75 for boys; 10-16 yr, OR = 2.19 for girls and 1.74 for boys, all p < 0.05). Aggregation of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and abnormal glycemia was found at FPG level above 100 mg/dL, which supported the definition of abnormal glycemia in metabolic syndrome by the International Diabetes Federation in 10- to 16-yr-old children. These findings also suggest that this FPG cutoff is reasonable for 6- to 10-yr-old children.
    Pediatric Diabetes 02/2011; 12(1):41-9. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the association of blood pressure elevation with body mass index (BMI) and total cholesterol levels in children who screened positive for proteinuria, glucosuria, and/or hamaturia. From 1992 to 2000, a mass urine screening program was conducted annually for nearly 3,000,000 students aged 6 to 18 years. Of 99,350 students with positive results on urine tests, further examination found 17,548 students (17.7%) had blood pressure elevation. A case-control analysis was performed with randomly selected subjects with normal blood pressure who were frequency matched by sex and age. The adjusted odds ratio for blood pressure elevation in obese students was 3.45 (95% CI, 3.20-3.72), compared with students of normal weight. The odds ratio for blood pressure elevation increased to 6.15 (95% CI, 4.12-9.18) for students with a total cholesterol level > or =250 mg/dL and obesity, compared with students with a total cholesterol level <200 mg/dL and normal weight. This study found a high prevalence of elevated blood pressure in children with abnormal urinalysis results, with a strong association with BMI and total cholesterol level.
    The Journal of pediatrics 06/2009; 155(1):79-83, 83.e1. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Childhood obesity has become prevalent, resulting in a greater risk of hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. However, the relationship between these comorbid conditions and birth weight remains uncertain. We conducted this study to evaluate the relationship between birth weight and cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. In a nationwide survey conducted between 1992 and 2000, all schoolchildren 6 to 18 years old with glucosuria, proteinuria, or microscopic hematuria in repeated urine samples were included and received a physical examination and blood test. Those with gestational age <37 weeks were excluded. We enrolled 81,538 children (51,111 girls and 30,427 boys) and obtained their birth weights from the Taiwan Birth Registry. Obesity and hypertension were defined by age- and sex-specific cut-offs. Diabetes was diagnosed if the fasting glucose was >7 mM. The risk of obesity was higher for those with birth weights > or =4000 grams [odds ratio (OR), 1.65] and 3543 to 3999 grams (OR, 1.28) and lower for those with birth weights 2601 to 2999 grams (OR, 0.90), using 3000 to 3542 grams as the reference group. An increased risk of diabetes was associated with both higher and lower birth weights, indicating a U-shaped relationship (OR, <2600 grams, 1.607; 2601 to 2999 grams, 1.119; 3543 to 3999 grams, 1.112; > or =4000 grams, 1.661). In the 10- to 12-year-old age group, the risk of hypertension was higher in those with birth weights <2600 grams (OR, 1.20). Low birth weight was associated with childhood diabetes. High birth weight was correlated with childhood obesity and diabetes. Our data indicate different relationships between birth weight and the development of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes in childhood.
    Obesity 06/2007; 15(6):1609-16. · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the relationship between birth weight and type 1 diabetes, data from national birth registry and national surveillance of diabetes in Taiwanese schoolchildren were analyzed. From 1992 to 1997, all schoolchildren aged 6-18 years were screened for diabetes by a mass urine survey program in Taiwan Province. This cohort consisted of 1966 children with diabetes and 1780 of randomly selected subjects with normal fasting glycemia. Questionnaires were designed for telephone interviews with students' parents or physicians to classify subjects' types of diabetes. The birth history of each participant was obtained from the Taiwan's Birth Registry. After merging the data, there were 835 subjects, including 277 of type 1 diabetes and 533 of normal fasting glycemia available for the present analyses. The odds ratio (95% CI) for type 1 diabetes, after adjusting age, sex, socioeconomic status, family history of diabetes, birth order, breast-feeding, BMI, and gestational diabetes mellitus was 2.24 (1.11-4.50) for children with low birth weight (<5th percentile, i.e., < or =2600 g) when compared with the referent group of a birth weight of 3000-3542 g (equivalent to the 25-75th percentile). In conclusion, low birth weight was associated with increased risk of type 1 diabetes in Taiwanese schoolchildren.
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 01/2007; 74(3):309-15. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the effect of body composition and adiponectin on insulin resistance and beta-cell function in schoolchildren during puberty. Plasma adiponectin level and its relationships with insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function were analyzed in 500 randomly recruited nondiabetic Taiwanese schoolchildren (245 boys and 255 girls) aged 6-18 years in a national survey program for diabetes in 1999. Insulin resistance and beta-cell function were evaluated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Plasma adiponectin concentrations were determined with radioimmunoassay. Plasma glucose levels remained stable, whereas insulin resistance increased with a compensatory rise in beta-cell function during this period. A transient drop of adiponectin level with a trough at 10-12 years was found in boys but not in girls. This pubertal drop of adiponectin levels in boys coincides with the sharp rise in testosterone concentration. A negative correlation between testosterone levels and adiponectin concentration was also noted in boys (r = -0.142, P = 0.032). Plasma adiponectin levels correlated inversely with relative body weight, fasting insulin concentrations, and insulin resistance index by HOMA in boys aged 15-18 years and in girls aged 11-14 years. No association was observed between adiponectin levels and beta-cell function by HOMA. There is a transient drop in the level of adiponectin during male puberty, correlated with the increase in testosterone level in boys. Plasma adiponectin levels were inversely correlated with obesity and insulin resistance in boys and girls during the pubertal period.
    Diabetes Care 03/2004; 27(2):308-13. · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite a disturbing trend of increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in childhood, little is known about the epidemiology of childhood type 2 DM, especially in the Taiwanese population. To study the rate and risk factors for childhood type 2 DM based on a nationwide screening program in Taiwan. Screening in 1999 for type 2 DM using urine and blood testing and confirmed by follow-up telephone survey among schoolchildren aged 6 to 18 years in Taiwan, followed by a nested case-control study conducted in 2002 comparing 137 children with type 2 DM with 1,000 randomly selected children without diabetes chosen to represent the age and sex distribution of the whole student population. Rate and identification of risk factors associated with childhood type 2 DM. The rate of newly identified diabetes was 9.0 per 100,000 for boys and 15.3 per 100,000 for girls. Follow-up at 3 years revealed that, of 253 children with newly diagnosed diabetes, 24 (9.5%) had type 1 DM, 137 (54.2%) had type 2 DM, and 22 (8.7%) had secondary diabetes. Compared with children aged 6 to 9 years, the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of type 2 DM increased to 6.59 (3.23-13.4) for those aged 13 to 15 years and to 4.59 (2.07-10.2) for those aged 16 to 18 years. The OR (95% CI) of type 2 DM in children with a body mass index in the 95th percentile or higher (obesity) was 18.8 (9.22-38.5) compared with those with a body mass index in less than the 50th percentile. Other factors significantly associated with type 2 DM were hypercholesterolemia (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.04-3.23), blood pressure greater than the 85th percentile (OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.07-2.70), and positive family history of diabetes (OR, 3.95; 95% CI, 2.01-7.78). Our mass screening program showed that type 2 DM is the leading cause of childhood DM in Taiwan. Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of type 2 DM in children.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 10/2003; 290(10):1345-50. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the gender differences in cases and characteristics of diabetes mellitus (DM) that can be identified from a mass urine screen program for school children in Taiwan. Screening for the childhood asymptomatic proteinuria and glucosuria began in 1992 for school children. Students were instructed to collect mid-stream samples of the first morning urine for glucosuria and proteinuria tests using urine strip devices. Students with positive results for glucose and/or protein and/or occult blood in the first examination received a second urine test. The third screening test was performed for urine and fasting blood sample for 11-item examinations if the second test was positive. The 1997 criteria of American Diabetes Association were used for defining DM. Approximately 2,615,000-2,932,000 students received the preliminary screening each semester. The overall average rates of newly identified diabetes from 1993 to 1999 were 8.3 per 100,000 among boys, and 12.0 per 100,000 among girls. The average rate of new cases increased significantly from sixth grade for boys and fourth grade for girls, with peak rates of 14.7 per 100,000 in eighth grade for boys and 19.0 per 100,000 in sixth grade for girls. Similar prevalence trends by sex and grade were observed, higher in girls than in boys. This mass screening data suggest that childhood diabetes of all types in Taiwan is elevated in the age of puberty and higher in girls than in boys.
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 04/2003; 59(3):201-6. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the effect of birth weight on risk of type 2 diabetes in the schoolchildren in Taiwan. From 1992 to 1997, all schoolchildren aged 6-18 years were screened for diabetes in Taiwan Province. This cohort consisted of 1,966 patients with diabetes and 1,780 randomly selected subjects with normal fasting glycemia (NFG). Questionnaire interviewing was designed to classify diabetes. The birth weight was obtained from the Taiwan's Birth Registry. After merging the data, there were 978 subjects, including 429 with type 2 diabetes and 549 with of NFG enrolled in the present analyses. The odds ratios (95% CI) for type 2 diabetes, after adjusting age, sex, BMI, family history of diabetes, and socioeconomic status, were 2.91 (1.25-6.76) for children with low birth weight (<2,500 g) and 1.78 (1.04-3.06) for those with high birth weight (> or =4,000 g) when compared with the referent group (birth weight 3,000-3,499 g). The risk of diabetes was still 64% higher in the high birth weight group [odds ratio (OR) 1.64 (95% CI 0.91-2.96)], even after adjustment for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Patients with type 2 diabetes who were born with high birth weight were more likely to have a higher BMI and diastolic blood pressure as well as a higher family history of diabetes compared with those with low birth weight. A U-shaped relationship between birth weight and risk of type 2 diabetes was found in the schoolchildren aged 6-18 years in Taiwan. Schoolchildren with type 2 diabetes who were born with low birth weight had different metabolic phenotypes compared with those born with high birth weight.
    Diabetes Care 02/2003; 26(2):343-8. · 7.74 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

314 Citations
63.02 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2012
    • Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science
      臺南市, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2004–2011
    • National Taiwan University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2003
    • National Taiwan University
      • School of Medicine
      Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan