Antonio Silvestro

Azienda Ospedaliera Bolognini Seriate, Seriate, Lombardy, Italy

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Publications (41)146.49 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To report an angiographic investigation of midterm atherosclerotic disease progression in below-the-knee (BTK) arteries of claudicants. Angiograms were performed in 58 consecutive claudicants (35 men; mean age 68.3+/-8.7 years) with endovascular treatment of femoropopliteal arteries in 58 limbs after a mean follow-up of 3.6+/-1.2 years. Angiograms were reviewed in consensus by 2 experienced readers blinded to clinical data. Progression of atherosclerosis in 4 BTK arterial segments (tibioperoneal trunk, anterior and posterior tibial arteries, and peroneal artery) was assessed according to the Bollinger score. The composite per calf Bollinger score represented the average of the 4 BTK arterial segment scores. The association of the Bollinger score with cardiovascular risk factors and gender was scrutinized. A statistically significant increase in atherosclerotic burden was observed for the mean composite per calf Bollinger score (5.7+/-8.3 increase, 95% CI 3.5 to 7.9, p<0.0001), as well as for each single arterial segment analyzed. In multivariate linear regression analysis, diabetes mellitus was associated with a more pronounced progression of atherosclerotic burden in crural arteries (beta: 5.6, p = 0.035, 95% CI 0.398 to 10.806). Progression of infrapopliteal atherosclerotic lesions is common in claudicants during midterm follow-up. Presence of diabetes mellitus was confirmed as a major risk factor for more pronounced atherosclerotic BTK disease progression.
    Journal of Endovascular Therapy 02/2010; 17(1):39-45. DOI:10.1583/09-2819.1 · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic critical limb ischemia still poses a substantial threat to both limb and life of the affected patients since these patients suffer typically also from associated cardiac and cerebrovascular disease and other severe comorbidities. Due to improved secondary prevention strategies and dedicated technical innovation, however, clinical outcomes have improved in the recent years. Purpose of this article is to provide a balanced discussion of contemporary treatment concepts for patients with critical limb ischemia with a focus on arterial revascularization.
    The Journal of cardiovascular surgery 11/2009; 50(5):647-53. · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endothelial dysfunction is a major determinant of atherosclerosis and a negative prognostic factor in patients with coronary artery disease and hypertension. Recovery of endothelial dysfunction has been associated with improved prognosis in these patients. The aim of the present study was to verify whether antagonism of angiotensin II AT1 receptors with an angiotensin receptor blocker, candesartan, improved endothelial function in patients with hypertension, stable coronary artery disease, and endothelial dysfunction. We studied 26 patients who were receiving beta-blockers with optimal blood pressure control, in a randomized, double blind study. Patients were randomized to placebo (n=13) or to candesartan 16 mg/d (n=13) for 2 months. Endothelial function was assessed by ultrasound using hyperemic flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery. Mean arterial blood pressure was unchanged in both groups (from 93.3 +/- 9.2 to 93.2 +/- 17.3 mm Hg in the candesartan group and from 101.3 +/- 14.2 to 102.3 +/- 13.9 mm Hg in the placebo group; both P=ns). Maximal blood flow was similar between placebo and candesartan groups at baseline and at the end of the study, whereas flow-mediated dilation significantly increased in the candesartan group (from 5.27% +/- 1.69% to 7.15% +/- 2.67%; P=0.01) but remained unchanged in the placebo group (from 4.49% +/- 1.97% to 5.88% +/- 2.30%; P=ns). AT1 receptor antagonism with candesartan, in addition to b-blocker therapy, improves endothelial function in high-risk hypertensive patients.
    Journal of Clinical Hypertension 06/2009; 11(5):260-5. DOI:10.1111/j.1751-7176.2009.00108.x · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is associated with systemic impaired flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and increased risk for cardiovascular events. Decreased FMD may be caused by a decrease in arterial shear stress due to claudication and inflammation due to muscle ischemia and reperfusion. We assumed that endovascular revascularization of lower limb arterial obstructions ameliorates FMD and lowers inflammation through improvement of peripheral perfusion. The study was a prospective, open, randomized, controlled, single-center follow-up evaluation assessing the effect of endovascular revascularization on brachial artery reactivity (FMD) measured by ultrasound, white blood cell (WBC) count, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and fibrinogen. We investigated 33 patients (23 men) with chronic and stable PAD (Rutherford 2 to 3) due to femoropopliteal obstruction. Variables were assessed at baseline and after 4 weeks in 17 patients (group A) who underwent endovascular revascularization and best medical treatment, and in 16 patients (group B) who received best medical treatment only. FMD did not differ between group A and B (4.96% +/- 1.86% vs 4.60% +/- 2.95%; P = .87) at baseline. It significantly improved after revascularization in group A (6.44% +/- 2.88%; P = .02) compared with group B at 4 weeks of follow-up (4.53% +/- 3.17%; P = .92), where it remained unchanged. The baseline ankle-brachial index (ABI) was similar for group A and B (0.63 +/- 0.15 vs 0.66 +/- 0.10; P = .36). At 4 weeks of follow-up, ABI was significantly increased in group A (1.05 +/- 0.15; P = .0004) but remained unchanged in group B (0.62 +/- 0.1). WBC counts of the two groups were comparable at baseline (group A: 7.6 +/- 2.26 x 10(6)/mL and group B: 7.8 +/- 2.02 x 10(6)/mL, P = .81). In group A, the leukocyte count significantly decreased after angioplasty from 7.6 +/- 2.26 to 6.89 +/- 1.35 x 10(6)/mL (P = .03). For group B, WBC count did not differ significantly compared with baseline (7.76 +/- 2.64 x 10(6)/mL; P = .94). No effects were observed on hs-CRP or fibrinogen from endovascular therapy. Endovascular revascularization with reestablishment of peripheral arterial perfusion improves FMD and reduces WBC count in patients with claudication. Revascularization may therefore have clinical implications beyond relief of symptoms, for example, reducing oxidative stress caused by repeated muscle ischemia or increased shear stress due to improved ambulatory activity.
    Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter 10/2008; 48(5):1211-6. DOI:10.1016/j.jvs.2008.06.039 · 3.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study assessed the impact of unfavourable vascular anatomy on the feasibility and safety of carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS). Between 2000 and 2005, 154 CAS procedures (46% in symptomatics) were performed in 138 consecutive patients (mean age 72 +/- 7 years, 63% males), followed for a median period of 16 months by a neurologist performing clinical and duplex scan examination. The impact on outcome of tortuous supra-aortic vessels, tortuous internal carotid artery (ICA), calcified stenosis and contralateral ICA occlusion were assessed. The feasibility was 100%. The 1-month rate of death and disabling stroke was 2.6% (1.2% in the asymptomatic group and 4.2% in symptomatic group, P = 0.33). The 1-month rate of any stroke and death was 4.5%. During follow-up, a further seven events occurred (one ipsilateral major stroke, one ipsilateral minor stroke and five deaths). There was no difference in occurrence of any event during follow-up between asymptomatic and symptomatic group (8.4% versus 9.6%, P = 0.78). At least one unfavourable vascular anatomy condition was present in 48% of cases, two conditions in 16% and three in 3%. No statistically significant association was found between unfavourable vascular anatomy and outcome. Intra-stent restenosis was registered by duplex scan in five cases (3.2%); it was associated with occurrence of minor stroke during follow-up (P = 0.032). CAS as first choice procedure is feasible, safe and effective, despite hostile vascular anatomy may be encountered in some patients. Unfavourable anatomic conditions appear to have a scarce impact on outcome.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine 03/2008; 9(2):137-41. DOI:10.2459/JCM.0b013e3280c56d66 · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to report the technical feasibility of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of obstructed or insufficient collateral branches (anterior and posterior perforating branches) from distal peroneal to foot arteries in diabetic patients with chronic critical limb ischemia (CLI) and chronic noncrossable occlusion of the anterior and posterior tibial arteries. Twenty-four diabetic CLI patients (age, 67 +/- 8 years; 87% males) undergoing collateral PTA were included. Baseline clinical angiographic and follow-up data were retrospectively reviewed. Collateral PTA was associated with a concomitant PTA of other sites in 21 (83%) cases. In 15 cases the treated collateral linked the peroneal with the plantaris communis; in 9 cases, the peroneal with the dorsalis pedis. Angiographic results of collateral PTA were good in 13 cases (<30% residual stenosis), whereas the result was considered moderate (30%-49% residual stenosis) in the remaining cases. Neither perforation nor acute occlusion of the treated collaterals or other relevant complications were observed. Mean follow-up was 32 +/- 17 months. Major amputation was necessary for two (8.3%) patients. Cumulative limb salvage rates at 2 and 4 years were 96% and 87%, respectively. In conclusion, this initial experience shows that PTA of the collateral branches from distal peroneal to foot arteries is a feasible technique. Future studies are required to define the clinical role of this novel approach.
    CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology 01/2008; 31(1):49-55. DOI:10.1007/s00270-007-9214-3 · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    L Graziani · A Silvestro · V Bertone · E Manara · R Andreini · A Sigala · R Mingardi · R De Giglio ·
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    ABSTRACT: Arteriographic lesions of diabetic subjects with critical limb ischemia (CLI) and ischemic foot ulcer were reviewed retrospectively, to provide new criteria for stratification of these patients on the basis of their vascular involvement. In 417 consecutive CLI diabetic subjects with ischemic foot ulcer undergoing lower limb angiography, lesions were defined as stenosis or occlusion, localization, and length (<5 cm, 5-10 cm, >10 cm). In a subgroup of 389 subjects, foot arteries also were evaluated. Patients then were categorized into 7 classes of progressive vascular involvement based on angiographic findings. Of the 2893 found lesions (55% occlusions) 1% were in the iliac arteries, whereas 74% were in below-the-knee (BTK) arteries. Sixty-six % of all BTK lesions were occlusions, and 50% were occlusions >10 cm (p<0.001 vs proximal segments). Occlusions of all BTK were present in 28% of patients, although there was patency of at least one foot artery in 55% of patients. The morphologic Class 4 (two arteries occluded and multiple stenoses of tibial/peroneal and/or femoral/popliteal vessels) was the most common (36%). An inverse correlation between morphologic class and TcPO2 was observed (r=-0.187, p=0.003). In CLI diabetic subjects with ischemic foot ulcer, the vascular involvement is extremely diffuse and particularly severe in tibial arteries, with high prevalence of long occlusions. A new morphologic categorization of these patients is proposed.
    European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 05/2007; 33(4):453-60. DOI:10.1016/j.ejvs.2006.11.022 · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is common among patients on chronic dialysis. Despite severe clinical manifestations, the indication for bypass surgery is controversial, because of the high morbidity and mortality rate of these patients. The less invasive percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is a possible alternative, but data about PTA in dialysis patients are scarce. We followed 107 dialysis patients (mean age 67+/-10, 75 males) with 132 ischaemic limbs (97% with critical limb ischaemia and ischaemic foot lesions or rest pain) consecutively treated by PTA. PTA was successful in 97% of cases. Median follow-up was 22 months. Cumulative limb salvage rates at 12, 24, 36 and 48 months were 86, 84, 84 and 62%, respectively. Log-rank test showed an association between major amputation and baseline presence of foot lesions (P=0.04). This association was confirmed by a Cox survival multivariate analysis [hazard ratio (HR)=7.03, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.1-43.0, P=0.035]. Limb salvage without any new intervention on the same leg was achieved in 70% of the cases, and was associated with the absence of diabetes mellitus (P=0.01), lower number of treated lesions (P=0.04) and proximal level (iliac and/or femoro-popliteal) of PTA (P<0.001). Independent predictors were diabetes mellitus (HR=3.47, 95% CI=1.31-9.17, P=0.01) and proximal PTA (HR=0.28, 95% CI=0.08-0.94, P=0.04). Fifty-three (49%) patients died during follow-up. Patients older than 67 years (the median value in our sample) had a 2.4-fold increase in mortality risk (95% CI=1.4-4.1, P<0.001). PTA is feasible and effective in dialysis patients with PAD, and should be preferred to other more invasive interventions.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 04/2007; 22(4):1144-9. DOI:10.1093/ndt/gfl764 · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prognostic impact of the functional status of patients with intermittent claudication is still obscure. From the lists of seven general practitioners, we identified all subjects aged 40-80 years (n = 4352). Of those reporting leg symptoms while walking on the Rose questionnaire (n = 760), 60 had a qualifying diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). All of them received the Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ). For each patient affected by PAD, three sex- and age-matched controls were selected randomly. After a 24-month follow-up, survival curves showed that PAD patients with WIQ scores > median had a higher cardiovascular risk than controls, and patients with WIQ scores < median had an even poorer prognosis (p < 0.001 for all WIQ domains). In PAD, after adjustment for age, sex, ankle-brachial index and comorbidity, two WIQ domains (ie walking speed and stair-climbing) were associated with cardiovascular events. The cardiovascular risk of claudicants who had a score > median for at least three WIQ domains was intermediate versus the risk of controls and PAD patients with a WIQ score < median, also when adjusted for the covariates indicated above (RR = 3.26, p = 0.019). In intermittent claudication, a worse functional status entails a greater risk of ischemic events versus low functional impairment.
    Vascular Medicine 12/2006; 11(3):147-54. DOI:10.1177/1358863x06074830 · 1.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that endovascular revascularization of femoropopliteal lesions improves the impaired venoarteriolar response (VAR) in patients with atherosclerosis. We prospectively compared VARs in 15 healthy controls (18 legs) and 14 patients (17 legs) with mild to moderate peripheral arterial disease before and after successful peripheral endovascular angioplasty of femoropopliteal lesions. In all subjects, foot skin blood flow was assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry in the horizontal (HBF) and sitting (SBF) positions. VAR was calculated as (HBF - SBF)/HBF x 100. In patients with peripheral arterial disease, mean HBF (in arbitrary units [AU]; mean +/- SD) was similar before (25.6 +/- 15.3 AU) and after (27.0 +/- 16.4 AU) angioplasty (P = .67), whereas SBF was significantly lower after than before the endovascular procedure (11.6 +/- 7.7 AU to 18.4 +/- 14.1 AU; P < .05). Intragroup differences between SBF and HBF were significant before and after angioplasty (P < .001). VAR was higher after angioplasty (55.1% +/- 21.2%) compared with VAR before intervention (33.4% +/- 20.2%; P = .015). Although VAR increased after the intervention, VAR was still lower than in healthy controls (68.4% +/- 20.5%; P = .025). During the 6 months of follow-up, the ankle-brachial index and VAR remained unchanged (P > .05). Patients with mild to moderate peripheral arterial disease have an impaired orthostatic autoregulation that improves after successful endovascular revascularization of femoropopliteal obstructive lesions. The effect on VAR is sustained in the absence of restenosis.
    Journal of Vascular Surgery 12/2006; 44(5):993-7. DOI:10.1016/j.jvs.2006.06.038 · 3.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our knowledge about the natural history of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is derived from studies carried out almost exclusively in northern European and northern American populations. This study was aimed at defining mortality and cardiovascular morbidity of PAD patients in Italy. From the lists of seven general practitioners, we identified all subjects aged 40-80 years (n = 4352). Of those reporting leg symptoms while walking at the Rose Questionnaire (n = 760), 60 (1.6% of the general population) had PAD, as evidenced by an ankle-brachial index of < 0.90 or reduced Doppler flow velocity. For each PAD patient, three sex and age-matched controls negative to the Rose Questionnaire were randomly selected from the general practice lists. After 24 months of follow-up, 15% of PAD patients died, 8% from cardiovascular disease, and 25% developed a non-fatal cardiovascular event. At Cox analysis, the presence of PAD was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (relative risk 4.03; 95% confidence interval 1.50-10.84; P = 0.006), cardiovascular mortality (relative risk 7.77; 95% confidence interval 1.51-40.16; P = 0.014), and non-fatal cardiovascular events (relative risk 3.11; 95% confidence interval 1.41-6.80; P = 0.005). This Italian study shows that, in general practice, symptomatic PAD is associated with a four-fold increased risk of mortality and a nearly eight-fold increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. These figures are quite similar to those reported in northern European and northern American populations. General practitioners, who are the clinicians primarily and largely responsible for the care of these patients, should be alerted to the consequences of PAD.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine 08/2006; 7(8):608-13. DOI:10.2459/01.JCM.0000237909.26377.9f · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Falsely high ankle-brachial index (ABI) values are associated with an adverse clinical outcome in diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to verify whether such an association also exists in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia (CLI) with and without diabetes. A total of 229 patients (74 +/- 11 years, 136 males, 244 limbs with CLI) were followed for 262 +/- 136 days. Incompressibility of lower limb arteries (ABI > 1.3) was found in 45 patients, and was associated with diabetes mellitus (p = 0.01) and renal insufficiency (p = 0.035). Limbs with incompressible ankle arteries had a higher rate of major amputation (p = 0.002 by log-rank). This association was confirmed by multivariate Cox regression analysis (relative risk [RR] 2.67; 95% CI 1.27-5.64, p = 0.01). The relationship between ABI > 1.3 and amputation rate persisted after subjects with diabetes and renal insufficiency had been removed from the analysis (RR 3.85; 95% CI 1.25-11.79, p = 0.018). Dividing limbs with measurable ankle pressure according to tertiles of ABI, the group in the second tertile (0.323 < or = ABI < or = 0.469) had the lowest amputation rate (4/64, 6.2%), and a U-shaped association between the occurrence of major amputation and ABI was evident. No association was found between ABI and mortality. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that falsely high ABI is an independent predictor of major amputation in patients with CLI.
    Vascular Medicine 05/2006; 11(2):69-74. DOI:10.1191/1358863x06vm678oa · 1.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In patients with intermittent claudication, treadmill exercise may cause acute deterioration of endothelial function and increase in plasma concentrations of adhesion molecules. The authors evaluated the efficacy of intravenously administered propionylcarnitine (PLC) in preventing these phenomena. Thirty-six claudicants with postexercise decrease in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) were randomized to either placebo or PLC (600 mg as a single bolus followed by 1 mg/kg/min for 60 minutes). In the 18 patients randomized to placebo, FMD markedly decreased with exercise before (from 6.8 ±0.4% to 4.0 ±0.4%; p <0.001) and after treatment (from 6.5 ±0.4% to 4.4 ±0.5%; p < 0.001). By contrast, in the PLC group, FMD significantly decreased with exercise before treatment (from 8.0 ±0.7% to 4.4 ±0.4%; p <0.001), but not after active drug administration (from 7.1 ±0.7% to 6.0 ±0.6%; p = 0.067). The difference between treatments was not significant (p = 0.099; ANOVA). However, in the PLC group, the authors found that the greater the exercise-induced deterioration in endothelial function before treatment, the greater the capacity of PLC to prevent a postexercise decrease in FMD (r =-0.50, p = 0.034). Accordingly, they analyzed data in the 19 patients with a baseline exercise-induced decrease in FMD ≥45% (ie, the median FMD reduction in the entire group of 36 patients), and found that the exercise-induced FMD decrease was less after PLC than after placebo (p = 0.046, ANOVA). In the same subgroup, the exercise-induced increase in plasma concentrations of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) was significantly higher before than after treatment in patients randomized to PLC (23.4 ±5% vs 15.3 ±7%, p = 0.007). In conclusion, in patients with intermittent claudication suffering from a greater endothelial derangement after treadmill, PLC administration provided a protective effect against deterioration of FMD and increase of sVCAM-1 induced by exercise.
    Angiology 03/2006; 57(2):145-54. DOI:10.1177/000331970605700203 · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    N Diehm · A Shang · A Silvestro · D-D Do · F Dick · J Schmidli · F Mahler · I Baumgartner ·
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    ABSTRACT: Aim of this study is to correlate distribution pattern of lower limb atherosclerosis with cardiovascular risk factor profile of patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAD). Analysis is based on a consecutive series of 2659 patients (1583 men, 1076 women, 70+/-11 years) with chronic PAD of atherosclerotic origin undergoing primary endovascular treatment of lower extremity arteries. Pattern of atherosclerosis was grouped into iliac (n=1166), femoropopliteal (n=2151) and infrageniculate (n=888) disease defined according to target lesions treated. A multivariable multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed to assess relation with age, gender and classical cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, cigarette smoking) using femoropopliteal disease as reference. Iliac disease was associated with younger age (RRR 0.95 per year of age, 95%-CI 0.94-0.96, p<0.001), male gender (RRR 1.32, 95%-CI 1.09-1.59, p=0.004) and cigarette smoking (RRR 2.02, 95%-CI 1.68-2.42, p<0.001). Infrageniculate disease was associated with higher age (RRR 1.02, 95%-CI 1.01-1.02, p<0.001), male gender (RRR 1.23, 95%-CI 1.06-1.41, p=0.005) and diabetes mellitus (RRR 1.68, 95%-CI 1.47-1.92, p<0.001). Hypercholesterolemia was less prevalent in patients with lesions below the knee (RRR 0.82, 95%-CI 0.71-0.94, p=0.006), whereas no distinct pattern was apparent related to arterial hypertension. Clinical phenotype of peripheral atherosclerosis varies with prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors suggesting differences in mechanisms involved in iliac as compared with infrageniculate lesions. Identification of molecular mechanism might have influence on future therapeutic strategies in PAD patients.
    European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 01/2006; 31(1):59-63. DOI:10.1016/j.ejvs.2005.09.006 · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine clinical efficacy of below-the-knee (BTK) angioplasty in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Interrogation of a prospectively maintained database containing 2,659 patients treated at a tertiary referral hospital between February 1995 and June 2004 identified 29 ESRD patients (21 men; median age 69 years, IQR 10.12) who had 73 infrapopliteal atherosclerotic lesions treated in 38 ischemic limbs. The indication for treatment was intermittent claudication in 13 (34%) and critical limb ischemia in 25 (66%) limbs. BTK angioplasty was attempted either alone (n=18) or combined with an endovascular inflow procedure (n=20). Primary clinical success was defined as hemodynamic improvement (ABI increase >or=0.1) and/or symptomatic improvement (at least one clinical category). Cumulative rates were calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier estimate. Primary technical success reached 97%, whereas hemodynamic improvement was obtained in only 50% (19/38) of the limbs treated. The pedal arteries were severely diseased in all, and complete occlusion of the pedal arch was found in 58% (18/31) of limbs on completion angiography. Median follow-up was 5.9 months (IQR 11.5). Primary clinical success was 17%, 11%, 11%, and 11% in patients with BTK angioplasty alone and 53%, 45%, 45%, and 45% in patients with inflow procedures after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, respectively (p=0.017). Limb salvage was 73% at 12 months. Subgroup analyses showed significantly better clinical results in men (p=0.003) and in patients on hemodialysis compared to peritoneal dialysis (p=0.037). Clinical efficacy of BTK angioplasty is limited in patients with ESRD because of the severely diseased pedal arteries. Further studies are warranted to define subgroups of patients likely to experience a more favorable outcome.
    Journal of Endovascular Therapy 01/2006; 12(6):704-13. DOI:10.1583/05-1638MR.1 · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine if the short-term efficacy of adjunctive endovascular brachytherapy (EVBT) is maintained over time in patients undergoing balloon angioplasty (BA) of femoropopliteal atherosclerotic lesions. To evaluate the long-term clinical and angiographic outcome of EVBT, 147 consecutive patients (82 men; mean age 70.8+/-8.5 years) with 147 treated limbs were randomized to BA with (n=72, 49%) or without (n=75, 51%) adjunctive EVBT (12 or 14-Gy from an (192)Ir source, no centering, a 5-mm reference depth). Sixty-eight (46%) limbs were treated for de novo and 79 (54%) for recurrent femoropopliteal lesions. Clinical follow-up at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months and annually thereafter included evaluation of symptoms, ankle-brachial index (ABI), and intra-arterial angiography for new/worsening symptoms or at follow-up between 2 and 5 years. Sustained clinical success was defined as improvement in ABI >or=0.1 and/or of symptoms without repeated target lesion revascularization. Angiographic restenosis was defined as >or=50% diameter reduction. Subgroup analysis was performed for de novo versus recurrent lesions. Mean clinical follow-up was 32.3+/-21.5 months. Angiographic follow-up was available in 83 (56%) patients (41 BA and 42 BA+EVBT) at a mean 31.8+/-20.7 months. Cumulative sustained clinical success rates at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively, were 84.3%, 82.1%, and 76.4% after BA versus 82.4%, 69.8%, and 67.5% after BA+EVBT (p=0.26 by log-rank). Although the proportion of patients undergoing follow-up angiography was moderate, the freedom from angiographic restenosis at 1, 2, and 3 years was 70.7%, 63.1%, and 47.1% after BA versus 82.7%, 64.3%, and 64.3% after BA+EVBT (p=0.16 by log-rank). No differences were found between BA and BA+EVBT outcomes in patients with de novo versus recurrent femoropopliteal lesions. The seemingly beneficial short-term effects of BA+EVBT are not sustained in the longer term, with no robust clinical improvement after angioplasty of atherosclerotic de novo or recurrent femoropopliteal lesions at up to 5 years.
    Journal of Endovascular Therapy 01/2006; 12(6):723-30. DOI:10.1583/05-1583MR.1 · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and coronary flow reserve (CFR) in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Thirty patients who had PAD, who showed no cardiac symptoms, and who had normal stress SPECT cardiac imaging results and 28 control subjects underwent brachial artery FMD assessment by ultrasound and dipyridamole 99mTc-sestamibi imaging. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was estimated by measuring first-transit counts in the pulmonary artery and myocardial counts from SPECT images. Estimated CFR was expressed as the ratio of MBF at stress to MBF at rest. Patients with PAD were separated into 2 groups according to the median value of overall FMD (6.85%): group 1 (n=15) with FMD above the median (mean+/-SD, 8.78%+/-1.3%) and group 2 (n=15) with FMD below the median (mean+/-SD, 5.14%+/-0.94%). FMD was significantly higher in control subjects (11.4%+/-3.4%) than in both groups of PAD patients (P<0.001 for both). In control subjects, estimated CFR was 2.2+/-0.4-significantly higher than CFR in both groups of PAD patients (P<0.001 for both). In addition, in PAD patients of group 1, estimated CFR was 1.5+/-0.4-higher than CFR in group 2 (1.0+/-0.4) (P<0.01). When all PAD patients were considered, a significant correlation between FMD and estimated CFR was observed (r=0.56, P<0.005). Estimated CFR is significantly lower in patients with PAD than in control subjects, and CFR impairment correlates with the degree of peripheral endothelial dysfunction.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 12/2005; 46(12):1997-2002. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In patients at risk for coronary atherosclerosis, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) rules out significant coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the value of this approach is unknown in patients with peripheral arterial disease who are at increased risk for CAD. This study assessed whether the noninvasive evaluation of endothelial function by brachial artery FMD rules out significant CAD by dipyridamole myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in patients with peripheral arterial disease who are asymptomatic for CAD. Forty-four patients with peripheral arterial disease who were asymptomatic for CAD underwent, in the same day, FMD evaluation and dipyridamole MPI using technetium-99m sestamibi single photon-emission computed tomography. MPI results were abnormal in 17 of 44 patients (39%). FMD was significantly less (6.0 +/- 2.3%) in patients with abnormal MPI results compared with those with normal MPI results (7.3 +/- 1.8%, p = 0.04). By multivariate analysis, FMD was the only significant predictor of abnormal MPI results (odds ratio 0.63, p = 0.02). Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis assessing the ability of FMD to identify patients with summed stress scores > or =3 yielded an area under the curve of 0.74 (p = 0.009). A FMD value >6% provided 92% negative predictive power to rule out abnormal MPI results, with sensitivity of 79% and specificity of 73%. In conclusion, the noninvasive evaluation of endothelial function by FMD has high negative predictive accuracy and good sensitivity and specificity to detect abnormal MPI results in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Thus, it may represent a valuable screening test to rule out significant CAD in these patients.
    The American Journal of Cardiology 12/2005; 96(9):1337-41. DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2005.06.084 · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • N Diehm · I Baumgartner · A Silvestro · P Herrmann · J Triller · J Schmidli · D D Do · H-P Dinkel ·
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    ABSTRACT: Open surgical or endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) relies on precise preprocedual imaging. Purpose of this study was to assess inter- and intraobserver variation of software-supported automated and manual multi row detector CT angiography (MDCTA) in aortoiliac diameter measurements before AAA repair. Thirty original MDCTA data sets (4 x 2mm collimation) of patients scheduled for endovascular AAA repair were studied on a dedicated software capable of creating two-dimensional reformatted planes orthogonal to the aortoiliac center-line. Measurements were performed twice with afour-week interval between readings. Data were analysed by two blinded readers at random order Two different measurement methods were performed: reader-assisted freehand wall-to-wall measurement and semi-automatic measurement. Aortoiliac diameters were significantly underestimated by the semi-automatic method as compared to reader-assisted measurements (p < 0.0031). Intraobserver variability of AAA diameter calculation was not significant (p > 0. 15) for reader-assisted measurements except for the diameter of the left common iliac artery in reader 2 (p = 0.0045) and it was not significant (p > 0. 14) using the semi-automatic method. Interobserver variability was not significant for AAA diameter measurements using the reader-assisted method and for proximal neck analysis with the semiautomatic method (p > 0.27). Relevant interobserver variation was observed for semi-automatic measurement of maximum AAA (p = 0.0007) and iliac artery diameters (p = 0.024). Dedicated MDCTA software provides a useful tool to minimize aortoiliac diameter measurement variation and to improve imaging precision before AAA repair. For reliable AAA diameter analysis the reader-assisted freehand measurement method is recommended to be applied to a set of reformatted CT data as provided by the software used in this study.
    VASA.: Zeitschrift für Gefässkrankheiten. Journal for vascular diseases 12/2005; 34(4):255-61. DOI:10.1024/0301-1526.34.4.255 · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To report endovascular occlusion of an internal iliac artery (IIA) aneurysm with an Amplatz nitinol vascular occlusion plug. A 71-year-old asymptomatic man who had previously undergone open aortic aneurysm repair presented for annual follow-up. A bifurcated Dacron graft had been inserted 12 years ago from the infrarenal aorta to the left common femoral artery and the right common iliac artery. The left common iliac artery was ligated proximally, and the left external iliac artery (EIA) provided retrograde flow into the IIA. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a 7.4-cm aneurysm of the left IIA. After transfemoral calibrated catheter angiography was performed, the proximal EIA was occluded with an Amplatz nitinol vascular occlusion plug. In addition, microcoils were placed distal to the vascular plug to achieve complete thrombosis of the vessel. One day after treatment, the patient was discharged free of symptoms after MRI had shown complete obliteration of the IIA aneurysm. At 6 months, the patient was free from symptoms, and angiography confirmed exclusion of the IIA aneurysm. This case illustrates the technical feasibility and successful short-term follow-up of a novel embolization approach to IIA aneurysms in patients with an aortofemoral graft.
    Journal of Endovascular Therapy 11/2005; 12(5):616-9. DOI:10.1583/05-1505MR.1 · 3.35 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
146.49 Total Impact Points


  • 2010
    • Azienda Ospedaliera Bolognini Seriate
      Seriate, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2008
    • Clinical Institute Città di Brescia
      Brescia, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2007-2008
    • Istituto Clinico Città Studi
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2006-2008
    • Inselspital, Universitätsspital Bern
      • • Swiss Cardiovascular Center Bern
      • • Department of Angiology
      Berna, Bern, Switzerland
  • 2000-2006
    • University of Naples Federico II
      • Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences
      Napoli, Campania, Italy
  • 2004
    • Second University of Naples
      Caserta, Campania, Italy