Stephen J Callister

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, United States

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Publications (39)142.1 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Lignocellulosic biomass has great promise as a highly abundant and renewable source for the production of biofuels. However, the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulose toward hydrolysis into soluble sugars remains a significant challenge to harnessing the potential of this source of bioenergy. A primary method for deconstructing lignocellulose is via chemical treatments, high temperatures, and hydrolytic enzyme cocktails, many of which are derived from the fungus Trichoderma reesei. Herein, we use an activity-based probe for glycoside hydrolases to rapidly identify optimal conditions for maximum enzymatic lignocellulose deconstruction. We also demonstrate that subtle changes to enzyme composition and activity in various strains of T. reesei can be readily characterized by our probe approach. The approach also permits multimodal measurements, including fluorescent gel-based analysis of activity in response to varied conditions and treatments, and mass spectrometry-based quantitative identification of labelled proteins. We demonstrate the promise this probe approach holds to facilitate rapid production of enzyme cocktails for high-efficiency lignocellulose deconstruction to accommodate high-yield biofuel production.
    Molecular BioSystems 10/2013; · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: At the rate that prokaryotic genomes can now be generated, comparative genomics studies require a flexible method for quickly and accurately predicting orthologs among the rapidly changing set of genomes available. SPOCS implements a graph-based ortholog prediction method to generate a simple tab-delimited table of orthologs, and in addition, html files that provide a visualization of the predicted ortholog/paralog relationships to which gene/protein expression metadata may be overlaid.Availability and Implementation: A SPOCS web application is freely available at http://cbb.pnnl.gov/portal/tools/spocs.html. Source code for Linux systems is also freely available under an open source license at http://cbb.pnnl.gov/portal/software/spocs.html; the Boost C++ libraries and BLAST are required. leeann.mccue@pnnl.gov.
    Bioinformatics 08/2013; · 5.47 Impact Factor
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    Dataset: Paper 08
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    ABSTRACT: Characterization of microbial protein expression provides information necessary to better understand the unique biological pathways that occur within soil microbial communities that contribute to atmospheric CO2 levels and the Earth's changing climate. A significant challenge in studying the soil microbial community proteome is the initial dissociation of bacterial proteins from the complex mixture of particles found in natural soil. The differential extraction of intact bacterial cells limits the characterization of the complete representation of a microbial community. However, in-situ lysis of bacterial cells in soil can lead to potentially high levels of protein adsorption to soil particles. Here, we investigated various amino acids for their ability to block soil protein adsorption sites prior to in-situ lysis of bacterial cells, as well as their compatibility with both tryptic digestion and mass spectrometric analysis. The treatments were tested by adding proteins from lysed Escherichia coli cells to representative treated and untreated soil samples. The results show that it is possible to significantly increase protein identifications through blockage of binding sites on a variety of soil and sediment textures; use of an optimized desorption buffer further increases the number of identifications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Proteomics 06/2013; · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Termite hindguts are populated by a dense and diverse community of microbial symbionts working in concert to transform lignocellulosic plant material and derived residues into acetate, to recycle and fix nitrogen, and to remove oxygen. Although much has been learned about the breadth of microbial diversity in the hindgut, the ecophysiological roles of its members is less understood. In this study, we present new information about the ecophysiology of microorganism Diplosphaera colotermitum strain TAV2, an autochthonous member of the Reticulitermes flavipes gut community. An integrated high-throughput approach was used to determine the transcriptomic and proteomic profiles of cells grown under hypoxia (2% O2) or atmospheric (20% O2) concentrations of oxygen. Our results revealed that genes and proteins associated with energy production and utilization, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, nitrogen fixation, and replication and recombination were upregulated under 2% O2. The metabolic map developed for TAV2 indicates that this microorganism may be involved in biological nitrogen fixation, amino-acid production, hemicellulose degradation and consumption of O2 in the termite hindgut. Variation of O2 concentration explained 55.9% of the variance in proteomic profiles, suggesting an adaptive evolution of TAV2 to the hypoxic periphery of the hindgut. Our findings advance the current understanding of microaerophilic microorganisms in the termite gut and expand our understanding of the ecological roles for members of the phylum Verrucomicrobia.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 9 May 2013; doi:10.1038/ismej.2013.74.
    The ISME Journal 05/2013; · 8.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microbes play a key role in mediating aquatic biogeochemical cycles. However, our understanding of the relationships between microbial phylogenetic/physiological diversity and habitat physico-chemical characteristics is restrained by our limited capacity to collect co-registered microbial and geochemical sampling at appropriate spatial and temporal scales. Accordingly, we have developed a low-cost, continuous fluid sampling system (the Biological OsmoSampling System, or BOSS) to address this limitation. The BOSS does not use electricity, can be deployed in harsh/remote environments, and collects/preserves samples with daily resolution for > 1 year. Here we present data on the efficacy of DNA and protein preservation during a 1.5-year laboratory study, as well as the results of two field deployments at deep-sea hydrothermal vents, wherein we examined changes in microbial diversity, protein expression and geochemistry over time. Our data reveal marked changes in microbial composition co-occurring with changes in hydrothermal fluid composition, and reveal the temporal dynamics of an enigmatic sulfide-oxidizing symbiont in its free-living state. We also present the first data on in situ protein preservation and expression dynamics, highlighting the potential of BOSS for meta-proteomic studies. These data illustrate the value of using BOSS to study relationships among microbial and geochemical phenomena, and environmental conditions.
    Environmental Science & Technology 03/2013; · 5.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: MultiAlign is a free software tool that aligns multiple liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry datasets to one another by clustering mass and chromatographic elution features across datasets. Applicable to both label-free proteomics and metabolomics comparative analyses, the software can be operated in several modes. For example, clustered features can be matched to a reference database to identify analytes, used to generate abundance profiles, linked to tandem mass spectra based on parent precursor masses, and culled for targeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric analysis. MultiAlign is also capable of tandem mass spectral clustering to describe proteome structure and find similarity in subsequent sample runs. RESULTS: MultiAlign was applied to two large proteomics datasets obtained from liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of environmental samples. Peptides in the datasets for a microbial community that had a known metagenome were identified by matching mass and elution time features to those in an established reference peptide database. Results compared favorably with those obtained using existing tools such as VIPER, but with the added benefit of being able to trace clusters of peptides across conditions to existing tandem mass spectra. MultiAlign was further applied to detect clusters across experimental samples derived from a reactor biomass community for which no metagenome was available. Several clusters were culled for further analysis to explore changes in the community structure. Lastly, MultiAlign was applied to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based datasets obtained from a previously published study of wild type and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation enzyme knockdown mutants of human hepatocarcinoma to demonstrate its utility for analyzing metabolomics datasets. CONCLUSION: MultiAlign is an efficient software package for finding similar analytes across multiple liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry feature maps, as demonstrated here for both proteomics and metabolomics experiments. The software is particularly useful for proteomic studies where little or no genomic context is known, such as with environmental proteomics.
    BMC Bioinformatics 02/2013; 14(1):49. · 3.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cultures of the cyanobacterial genus Cyanothece have been shown to produce high levels of biohydrogen. These strains are diazotrophic and undergo pronounced diurnal cycles when grown under N(2)-fixing conditions in light-dark cycles. We seek to better understand the way in which proteins respond to these diurnal changes, and we performed quantitative proteome analysis of Cyanothece sp. strains ATCC 51142 and PCC 7822 grown under 8 different nutritional conditions. Nitrogenase expression was limited to N(2)-fixing conditions, and in the absence of glycerol, nitrogenase gene expression was linked to the dark period. However, glycerol induced expression of nitrogenase during part of the light period, together with cytochrome c oxidase (Cox), glycogen phosphorylase (Glp), and glycolytic and pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) enzymes. This indicated that nitrogenase expression in the light was facilitated via higher levels of respiration and glycogen breakdown. Key enzymes of the Calvin cycle were inhibited in Cyanothece ATCC 51142 in the presence of glycerol under H(2)-producing conditions, suggesting a competition between these sources of carbon. However, in Cyanothece PCC 7822, the Calvin cycle still played a role in cofactor recycling during H(2) production. Our data comprise the first comprehensive profiling of proteome changes in Cyanothece PCC 7822 and allow an in-depth comparative analysis of major physiological and biochemical processes that influence H(2) production in both strains. Our results revealed many previously uncharacterized proteins that may play a role in nitrogenase activity and in other metabolic pathways and may provide suitable targets for genetic manipulation that would lead to improvement of large-scale H(2) production.
    Applied and environmental microbiology. 01/2013; 79(4):1070-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Cultures of the cyanobacterial genus Cyanothece have been shown to produce high levels of biohydrogen. These strains are diazotrophic and undergo pronounced diurnal cycles when grown under N(2)-fixing conditions in light-dark cycles. We seek to better understand the way in which proteins respond to these diurnal changes and we performed quantitative proteome analysis of Cyanothece ATCC 51142 and PCC 7822 grown under 8 different nutritional conditions. Nitrogenase expression was limited to N(2)-fixing conditions, and in the absence of glycerol, nitrogenase gene expression was linked to the dark period. However, glycerol induced expression of nitrogenase during part of the light period, together with cytochrome c oxidase (Cox), glycogen phosphorylase (Glp), and glycolytic and pentose-phosphate pathway (PPP) enzymes. This indicated that nitrogenase expression in the light was facilitated via higher respiration and glycogen breakdown. Key enzymes of the Calvin cycle were inhibited in Cyanothece ATCC 51142 in the presence of glycerol under H(2) producing conditions, suggesting a competition between these sources of carbon. However, in Cyanothece PCC 7822, the Calvin cycle still played a role in cofactor recycling during H(2) production. Our data comprise the first comprehensive profiling of proteome changes in Cyanothece PCC 7822, and allows an in-depth comparative analysis of major physiological and biochemical processes that influence H(2)-production in both strains. Our results revealed many previously uncharacterized proteins that may play a role in nitrogenase activity and in other metabolic pathways and may provide suitable targets for genetic manipulation that would lead to improvement of large scale H(2) production.
    Applied and environmental microbiology 11/2012; · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microbial glycoside hydrolases play a dominant role in the biochemical conversion of cellulosic biomass to high-value biofuels. Anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria are capable of producing multicomplex catalytic subunits containing cell-adherent cellulases, hemicellulases, xylanases, and other glycoside hydrolases to facilitate the degradation of highly recalcitrant cellulose and other related plant cell wall polysaccharides. Clostridium thermocellum is a cellulosome producing bacterium that couples rapid reproduction rates to highly efficient degradation of crystalline cellulose. Herein, we have developed and applied a suite of difluoromethylphenyl aglycone, N-halogenated glycosylamine, and 2-deoxy-2-fluoroglycoside activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) probes to the direct labeling of the C. thermocellum cellulosomal secretome. These activity-based probes (ABPs) were synthesized with alkynes to harness the utility and multimodal possibilities of click chemistry, and to increase enzyme active site inclusion for LC-MS analysis. We directly analyzed ABP-labeled and unlabeled global MS data, revealing ABP selectivity for glycoside hydrolase (GH) enzymes in addition to a large collection of integral cellulosome-containing proteins. By identifying reactivity and selectivity profiles for each ABP, we demonstrate our ability to widely profile the functional cellulose degrading machinery of the bacterium. Derivatization of the ABPs, including reactive groups, acetylation of the glycoside binding groups, and mono- and disaccharide binding groups, resulted in considerable variability in protein labeling. Our probe suite is applicable to aerobic and anaerobic cellulose degrading systems, and facilitates a greater understanding of the organismal role associated within biofuel development.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 11/2012; · 10.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chloroflexus aurantiacus J-10-fl is a thermophilic green bacterium, a filamentous anoxygenic phototroph, and the model organism of the phylum Chloroflexi. We applied high-throughput, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in a global quantitative proteomics investigation of C. aurantiacus cells grown under oxic (chemoorganoheterotrophically) and anoxic (photoorganoheterotrophically) redox states. Our global analysis identified 13,524 high-confidence peptides that matched to 1,286 annotated proteins, 242 of which were either uniquely identified or significantly increased in abundance under photoheterotrophic culture condition. Fifty-four of the 242 proteins are previously characterized photosynthesis-related proteins, including chlorosome proteins, proteins involved in the bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis, 3-hydroxypropionate (3-OHP) CO(2) fixation pathway, and components of electron transport chains. The remaining 188 proteins have not previously been reported. Of these, five proteins were found to be encoded by genes from a novel operon and observed only in photoheterotrophically grown cells. These proteins candidates may prove useful in further deciphering the phototrophic physiology of C. aurantiacus and other filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs.
    Photosynthesis Research 02/2012; 110(3):153-68. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    Applied and environmental microbiology 01/2012; · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the development of a novel high performance computing method for the identification of proteins from unknown (environmental) samples. The method uses computational optimization to provide an effective way to control the false discovery rate for environmental samples and complements de novo peptide sequencing. Furthermore, the method provides information based on the expressed protein in a microbial community, and thus complements DNA-based identification methods. Testing on blind samples demonstrates that the method provides 79-95% overlap with analogous results from searches involving only the correct genomes. We provide scaling and performance evaluations for the software that demonstrate the ability to carry out large-scale optimizations on 1258 genomes containing 4.2M proteins.
    Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing. Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing 01/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We report a hybrid search method combining database and spectral library searches that allows for a straightforward approach to characterizing the error rates from the combined data. Using these methods, we demonstrate significantly increased sensitivity and specificity in matching peptides to tandem mass spectra. The hybrid search method increased the number of spectra that can be assigned to a peptide in a global proteomics study by 57-147% at an estimated false discovery rate of 5%, with clear room for even greater improvements. The approach combines the general utility of using consensus model spectra typical of database search methods with the accuracy of the intensity information contained in spectral libraries. A common scoring metric based on recent developments linking data analysis and statistical thermodynamics is used, which allows the use of a conservative estimate of error rates for the combined data. We applied this approach to proteomics analysis of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, a cyanobacterium that is a model organism for studies of photosynthetic carbon fixation and biofuels development. The increased specificity and sensitivity of this approach allowed us to identify many more peptides involved in the processes important for photoautotrophic growth.
    Journal of Proteome Research 03/2011; 10(5):2306-17. · 5.06 Impact Factor
  • Stephen J Callister, Hector L Ayala-del-Rio, Syed A Hashsham
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    ABSTRACT: A laser integrated microarray scanner was used to quantify and compare the biomass of Burkholderia cepacia G4 alone, mixed with Afipia sp., and mixed with a trichloroethylene and phenol degrading community. Samples containing B. cepacia G4 were placed in 3-mm diameter wells on gelatin coated glass slides then fixed and immunofluorescently labeled using an IgG conjugate with an attached AlexaTM 546 fluorophore. Linearity and sensitivity of the scanner for biomass quantification were established, and a lower detection limit of 2–5 mg L–1 (103–104 cells mL–1) was calculated. Growth of B. cepacia G4 alone and in the presence of the TCE degrading community was measured using the scanner. Results suggest that the microarray scanner can be used to quantify the biomass of a single population in a dense mixed microbial community. Key words: biomass, Burkholderia cepacia G4, fluorescent antibody, microarray scanner, mixed community.
    Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science. 02/2011; 2(4):247-253.
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    ABSTRACT: Shewanellae are microbial models for environmental stress response; however, the sequential expression of mechanisms in response to stress is poorly understood. Here we experimentally determine the response mechanisms of Shewanella amazonensis SB2B during sodium chloride stress using a novel liquid chromatography and accurate mass-time tag mass spectrometry time-course proteomics approach. The response of SB2B involves an orchestrated sequence of events comprising increased signal transduction associated with motility and restricted growth. Following a metabolic shift to branched chain amino acid degradation, motility and cellular replication proteins return to pre-perturbed levels. Although sodium chloride stress is associated with a change in the membrane fatty acid composition in other organisms, this is not the case for SB2B as fatty acid degradation pathways are not expressed and no change in the fatty acid profile is observed. These findings suggest that shifts in membrane composition may be an indirect physiological response to high NaCl stress.
    Scientific Reports 01/2011; 1:25. · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We analyzed the metaproteome of the bacterial community resident in the hindgut paunch of the wood-feeding 'higher' termite (Nasutitermes) and identified 886 proteins, 197 of which have known enzymatic function. Using these enzymes, we reconstructed complete metabolic pathways revealing carbohydrate transport and metabolism, nitrogen fixation and assimilation, energy production, amino-acid synthesis and significant pyruvate ferredoxin/flavodoxin oxidoreductase protein redundancy. Our results suggest that the activity associated with these enzymes may have more of a role in the symbiotic relationship between the hindgut microbial community and its termite host than activities related to cellulose degradation.
    The ISME Journal 01/2011; 5(1):161-4. · 8.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stimulated by an acetate-amendment field experiment conducted in 2007, anaerobic microbial populations in the aquifer at the Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge site in Colorado reduced mobile U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). During this experiment, planktonic biomass was sampled at various time points to quantitatively evaluate proteomes. In 2008, an acetate-amended field experiment was again conducted in a similar manner to the 2007 experiment. As there was no comprehensive metagenome sequence available for use in proteomics analysis, we systematically evaluated 12 different organism genome sequences to generate sets of aggregate genomes, or "pseudo-metagenomes", for supplying relative quantitative peptide and protein identifications. Proteomics results support previous observations of the dominance of Geobacteraceae during biostimulation using acetate as sole electron donor, and revealed a shift from an early stage of iron reduction to a late stage of iron reduction. Additionally, a shift from iron reduction to sulfate reduction was indicated by changes in the contribution of proteome information contributed by different organism genome sequences within the aggregate set. In addition, the comparison of proteome measurements made between the 2007 field experiment and 2008 field experiment revealed differences in proteome profiles. These differences may be the result of alterations in abundance and population structure within the planktonic biomass samples collected for analysis.
    Environmental Science & Technology 11/2010; 44(23):8897-903. · 5.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Monitoring the activity of target microorganisms during stimulated bioremediation is a key problem for the development of effective remediation strategies. At the US Department of Energy's Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site in Rifle, CO, the stimulation of Geobacter growth and activity via subsurface acetate addition leads to precipitation of U(VI) from groundwater as U(IV). Citrate synthase (gltA) is a key enzyme in Geobacter central metabolism that controls flux into the TCA cycle. Here, we utilize shotgun proteomic methods to demonstrate that the measurement of gltA peptides can be used to track Geobacter activity and strain evolution during in situ biostimulation. Abundances of conserved gltA peptides tracked Fe(III) reduction and changes in U(VI) concentrations during biostimulation, whereas changing patterns of unique peptide abundances between samples suggested sample-specific strain shifts within the Geobacter population. Abundances of unique peptides indicated potential differences at the strain level between Fe(III)-reducing populations stimulated during in situ biostimulation experiments conducted a year apart at the Rifle IFRC. These results offer a novel technique for the rapid screening of large numbers of proteomic samples for Geobacter species and will aid monitoring of subsurface bioremediation efforts that rely on metal reduction for desired outcomes.
    Microbial Biotechnology 07/2010; 4(1):55-63. · 3.21 Impact Factor