[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To perform wire-guided cannulation using a newly designed J-shaped tip guidewire, and to verify feasibility and safety for use.
The study was conducted on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) patients with naïve papilla undergoing diagnosis and treatment of biliary diseases between September 2011 and July 2012. We performed ERCP in a succession of 50 cases with a J-shaped tip guidewire. The first insertion attempt began with a trainee who had 5 min to complete cannulation, followed if necessary by the trainer for another 5 min. We assessed the primary success rate of selective biliary cannulation within 10 min and adverse events such as post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP), bleeding or perforation.
The primary success rate was 90% (45/50) within 10 min, the initial success rate within 5 min by trainee staff was 76% (38/50). The rate of PEP was 6% (3/50), but all 3 cases were mild pancreatitis. All patients were managed successfully with conservative treatment. There was no bleeding or perforation.
A newly designed J-shaped tip guide-wire has the possibility to facilitate selective biliary cannulation for ERCP and appears to be safe.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 07/2013; 19(28):4531-6. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is widely performed. However, despite its widespread use, complications often follow and some of them are life-threatening. We report on two patients who developed pseudoaneurysm after PEG and how the bleeding was stemmed by transcatheter arterial embolization. Case 1 is an 84-year-old man. PEG by the pull method using One Step Button 24 Fr was performed. Blood-laced vomiting, followed by hemorrhagic shock was observed on day 21. Pseudoaneurysm less than 10 mm in diameter was observed in the gastroepiploic artery by urgent percutaneous abdominal angiography. A microcatheter was advanced selectively and the affected area was embolized by metallic coils and n-butyl cyanoacrylate. Case 2 is an 89-year-old man. PEG by the pull method using One Step Button 24 Fr was performed. On day 28, bleeding from the gastrostomy portion occurred and the patient went into shock. On urgent percutaneous abdominal angiography, pseudoaneurysm ∼5 mm in diameter was detected in the left gastric artery. A microcatheter was advanced selectively and the affected area was embolized by metallic coils and n-butyl cyanoacrylate. In the present two cases, gastrostomies were created in the anterior wall of the mid body portion as suitable for PEG position, but the bleedings occurred because of pseudoaneurysm formation accompanied by damage to the gastroepiploic or the left gastric artery. Those who perform PEG on a regular basis should be aware of the possibility of pseudoaneurysm as a serious adverse event.
European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology 06/2013; · 1.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Usually, uncovered self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) are used for palliation of malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO). A triple-layered covered SEMS is reported to be efficacious, but its performance has not been compared with uncovered SEMS. The present study is the first to compare the efficacy and safety of a triple-layered covered versus uncovered SEMS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A multicenter randomized study was conducted in two tertiary referral centers, with 62 eligible patients with symptomatic GOO to receive covered (n = 31) or uncovered SEMS (n = 31). The primary endpoint was SEMS patency, and secondary endpoints were success rate and adverse events after complete follow up. RESULTS: Both groups had a technical success rate of 100% and comparable clinical success rates (P = 0.67). There was nostatistically significant difference in stent patency and adverse events between the two groups (P = 0.52 and P = 0.38, respectively). Although the occurrence rate of persistent obstructive symptoms was comparable (P = 0.42), that of recurrent obstructive symptoms was higher in the uncovered group (29% vs 3.6%, P = 0.0125). Patient survival did not differ between groups (P = 0.34). CONCLUSION: There was no statistically significant difference in stent patency, but use of a triple-layered covered SEMS was associated with less frequent stent dysfunction more than 4 weeks after stenting, despite similar short-term outcomes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: The pull method is associated with a high incidence of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) site infection. The introducer method has been shown to be less likely to cause infection, because it avoids the passage of a tube through the oropharynx. The aim of the present study was to compare the modified introducer method with the pull method for PEG. Methods: The study included patients who were scheduled for PEG from April 2008 to April 2010. The patients were randomly assigned to receive PEG by the pull method (Group I) or the modified introducer method (Group II). We evaluated the incidence of PEG site infection, some infection-associated parameters and other complications. Wound infections were evaluated in accordance with the Jain's score. Results: Of 62 patients enrolled, 31 patients were assigned to each of the two groups. One patient in Group I died on the day after PEG. The cause of death and relationship with PEG were unclear. Excluding this patient, 61 were included in the per-protocol analysis. The incidence of peristomal infection within 1 week was slightly lower in Group II than in Group I, albeit not statistically significant (12.9% vs 23.3%, P = 0.3354). White blood cell count (WBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were significantly lower in Group II (WBC: P = 0.0345, CRP: P = 0.0346). None of the patients underwent surgical procedures for the treatment of peristomal infection. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that gastrostomy by the modified introducer method may be less likely, although not significantly, to cause peristomal infection than the pull method.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: Self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) for the gastrointestinal tract have different types of flanges at either the oral end or both ends to prevent stent migration. The effect of flange shape on the properties of SEMS, to our knowledge, has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to measure the strain that a SEMS imposes on the adjacent wall and the anti-migration force (AF) exerted by three stents, each with a different flange shape. Methods: Stents with one of three different flanges (flared, dumbbell, and barrel) were designed and then their strain and AF values were measured with apparatuses devised in our laboratory. Results: Although the average maximal strain values at the flange were similar (508.4 µm/m, 513.3 µm/m and 486.4 µm/m for flared, dumbbell and barrel, respectively), strain values for each position differed among the three different types of stents. Strain values for the flared shape increased toward the stent end, reaching the maximum value. Maximal strain values for the dumbbell and barrel shapes were observed near the flange's midpoint. Maximal AF values differed significantly according to flange shape. Thus, the median maximal AF values were 1.85 newton, 1.35 newton, and 1.13 newton, for barrel, dumbbell and flared shapes, respectively. Conclusions: The performance of braided esophageal SEMS with barrel shaped flanges is superior to that of SEMS with dumbbell or flared flanges, based on the strain on the adjacent wall and the prevention of stent migration.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most self-expandable metallic stents for colorectal placement are uncovered because of the high migration rate of covered stents. However, the optimal stent design for colorectal use remains unclear.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a double-wire woven uncovered stent for definitive palliative treatment of malignant colorectal obstruction.
This study was a prospective, single-arm, observational clinical study of patients enrolled between December 2005 and September 2010.
This study was conducted at a referral hospital in Japan.
Twenty-four consecutive patients with malignant colorectal obstruction were included in the study.
A double-wire woven uncovered stent was placed by use of a standard through-the-scope endoscopic placement technique.
Technical, initial clinical, and long-term clinical success were measured. Long-term clinical success was defined as sustained relief of obstructive symptoms without reintervention until the patient's death.
The Karnofsky performance status score before stent placement was 60 (median, interquartile range, 42.5-67.5). Twenty of 24 patients had primary colorectal cancer, and 4 had extracolorectal malignancies. The site of obstruction was the ascending colon in 10 patients, descending colon in 4 patients, sigmoid colon in 7 patients, and rectum in 3 patients. Technical, initial, and long-term clinical success rates were 100%, 100%, and 83%. Median stent patency time was 149 days (interquartile range, 45-198 days). Median survival time after stent placement was 155 days (interquartile range, 68-231 days). Four patients (17%) had negative outcomes including stent occlusion by tumor ingrowth (8%) and stent migration (8%). The highest Karnofsky performance status score after stent placement was 70 (median; interquartile range, 50-70). The Karnofsky performance status score improved after stent placement (p = 0.002).
This study was limited because it was a single-arm, single-center study, and it had a small sample size.
Endoscopic placement of double-wire woven uncovered stents is effective and safe as definitive palliative treatment for patients with malignant colorectal obstruction.
Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 09/2012; 55(9):983-9. · 3.34 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wire-guided cannulation (WGC) is expected to reduce the incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP). Our aim was to compare the incidence of PEP and the success rate of deep biliary cannulation using WGC or the standard cannulation method with contrast injection (STD).
A total of 172 cases with an intact papilla were randomized into the STD group (n = 86) and the WGC group (n = 86). First a trainee endoscopist attempted the cannulation and if it was not successful, an expert endoscopist tried. When the cannulation was not successful within 10 min, the other method was conducted as a second attempt. The primary endpoint was the incidence of PEP and the secondary endpoint was the success rate of selective cannulation.
In successful cases, PEP occurred in 6.5% in the STD group and 3.0% in the WGC group in the first attempt. Overall rate of PEP was 6.0% (3, mild; 1, moderate and 1, severe) in the STD group and 2.3% (2, mild) in the WGC group, which were not significantly different. Selective cannulation rate in the first attempt was 73.8% in the STD group and 77.9% in the WGC group. After a crossover, the cannulation was successful in the second attempt in 36.4% and 42.1% and finally in 95.2% and 100% by the STD and WGC method, respectively.
The incidence of PEP tended to be lower in the WGC method compared to the STD method. In addition, all cases of pancreatitis in the WGC group were mild. The success rate of cannulation was comparable between two groups.
Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology 10/2010; 46(1):109-15. · 2.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endoscopic retrograde biliary biopsy samples are frequently too small and inadequate, which makes histological interpretation difficult. We therefore evaluated the diagnostic usefulness of forceps with a larger-sized cup and compared this with standard forceps for biliary biopsy.
This prospective study included consecutive patients with extrahepatic biliary strictures who underwent retrograde biliary biopsy between March 2005 and March 2006 at the Toho University Ohashi Medical Center. The standard forceps used were 1.8-mm forceps (FB-39Q, Olympus, Tokyo, Japan) and the large-capacity forceps were 2.2-mm forceps (Radial jaw3, Boston Scientific Inc., Natick, Massachusetts, USA). Four randomized biopsy specimens were taken from each patient, two using each type of forceps.
A total of 32 patients (30 with malignant biliary strictures and 2 with benign biliary strictures) were enrolled. The median size of the biopsy samples taken using the standard forceps was 0.68 mm (2) and that using the large-capacity forceps was 1.98 mm (2) ( P < 0.0001). Significant differences between the standard forceps and large-capacity forceps were observed in sensitivity (43 % vs. 70 %), adequacy of the specimens, and submucosal tissue sampling rate.
Large-capacity forceps performed better than standard forceps in terms of size, adequacy of the sample, submucosal sampling rate, and detection of neoplasia.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Periampullary cancer may cause not only biliary but also duodenal obstructions. In patients with concomitant duodenal obstructions, endoscopic biliary stenting remains technically difficult and may often require percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. We describe a method of metal stent placement via a thin forward-viewing endoscope in patients with simultaneous biliary and duodenal obstruction. In two consecutive patients with biliary and duodenal obstruction due to pancreatic cancer, a new biliary metal stent mounted in a slim delivery catheter was placed via a thin forward viewing endoscope after passage across the duodenal stenosis without balloon dilation. In both patients, with our new placement technique, metallic stents were successfully placed in a short time without adverse events. After biliary stenting, one patient received curative resection and the other received duodenal stenting for palliation. Metallic stent placement with a forward-viewing thin endoscope is a beneficial technique, which can avoid percutaneous drainage in patients with bilio-duodenal obstructions due to periampullary cancer.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 06/2010; 16(22):2828-31. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Self-expandable metallic stents are widely used for palliation of malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO), but clinical outcomes of different stents have not been compared. Here, we compared outcomes in patients with a GOO receiving either an Ultraflex (UF) or a Niti-S (NS) stent.
Prospective outcomes in 53 patients receiving palliative placement of an NS stent for symptomatic GOO over a 3-year period were compared with those obtained retrospectively in 31 patients receiving a UF stent in a previous 5-year period. Main outcome measurement was between-group comparison of clinical outcome, complications, and reintervention.
Baseline characteristics between the groups were comparable. No difference in technical or clinical success rate was observed. Median procedure time for NS placement was shorter than for UF (15 vs 40 min; P < 0.0001). Complications were more frequent with NS than with UF placement, albeit without statistical significance (16% vs 25%). Although two severe complications occurred in each group, neither was stent related in the NS group. Reintervention was more frequent in the NS group (3% vs 21%; P = 0.0485). Median survival time was 53 versus 88 days for UF versus NS stents, respectively.
Although no significant difference was seen with regard to feasibility, reintervention was less frequent with UF stents than with NS stents. However, UF stents require much more procedure time, and a complicated and difficult placement procedure. These observations suggest that although NS stents placed using a through-the-scope technique may be more patient friendly than UF stents, further optimization of through-the-scope stents is still required. Further prospective comparison of NS and UF stents in GOO treatment is warranted.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 54-year-old man had repeated pancreatitis since three years after pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PpPD) and reconstruction by the modified Child method. Since abdominal pain appeared after meals, a pancreatic duct tube was removed endoscopically, which resulted in an improvement. It has been postulated that a pancreatic duct tube, used at the anastomosis between the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract, is spontaneously dislodged or creates a spatial gap with the wall of the main pancreatic duct enough to let the pancreatic juice outflow. However, endoscopic removal of the tube remained in place was significantly effective. We here discussed this case with reference of previous published reports.
Nippon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology 03/2009; 106(2):228-32.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Self-expandable metallic stents (SEMSs) are widely used for palliation of malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO). A common complication of their use, however, is stent obstruction caused by tumor ingrowth or hyperplasia. The covered SEMS was designed to prevent these problems.
We compared the performance of uncovered and covered SEMSs in patients with GOO.
A retrospective study, single center.
A tertiary-referral center.
Sixty patients with symptomatic malignant GOO.
All patients received an uncovered or covered knitted nitinol stent by using the over-the-wire placement procedure.
Comparison of the clinical outcome, complications, and the reintervention rate between uncovered and covered stents.
Thirty-one patients (mean [+/-SEM] age 72.2 +/- 2.1 years; 16 men) received uncovered SEMSs, and 29 (mean [+/-SEM] age 70.6 +/- 1.7 years; 17 men) received covered SEMSs. The technical success rate was 100% in both groups. No difference in clinical success was seen (90.3% uncovered group vs 86.2% covered group). Regarding early complications (<1 week), one mild case of pancreatitis from the stent covering the papilla occurred in each group. Late complications included reobstruction, migration, bleeding, stent fracture, and perforation. The occurrence of reobstruction did not differ between the 2 groups (3.2% uncovered group vs 10.3% covered group). No difference in migration (0% uncovered group vs 6.9% covered group) was seen. The uncovered group required less frequent reinterventions for stent reobstruction, migration, or stent fracture (3.2% uncovered group vs 20.7% covered group, P = .0490). The uncovered group had 2 major late complications: bleeding and perforation. All 60 patients died, with a median survival time of 51 days and 62 days, respectively.
Small-sized, single-center, retrospective study.
In palliation for malignant GOO, covered stents were associated with a more frequent need for reintervention than uncovered stents, despite similar outcomes and complications. These results require confirmation in a larger randomized comparison.