M J Dunn

University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada

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Publications (261)1171.61 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Early embryonic loss accounts for over 70% of total embryonic and foetal loss in dairy cattle. Early embryonic development and survival is associated with the concentration of systemic progesterone. To determine if the uterine proteome is influenced by stage of cycle or systemic progesterone concentrations, uterine flushings (UF) were collected from the ipsi- and contralateral uterine horns of beef heifers on Days 7 (n = 10) and 15 (n = 10) of the oestrous cycle. Animals were separated into low or high progesterone groups based on plasma progesterone concentrations on Day 5 of the cycle. Samples were albumin depleted before iTRAQ® labelling and subsequent SCX-LC-MS/MS analyses. A total of 20 proteins were up to 5.9-fold higher (P < 0.05) and 20 were up to 2.3-fold lower on Day 15 compared to Day 7. In addition, the expression of a number of proteins on Day 7 and/or 15 of the cycle was correlated with progesterone concentrations during Days 3-7 or the rate of change in progesterone between Days 3 and 7. This study highlights the dynamic changes occurring in the microenvironment surrounding the embryo during this period. The findings here also support the hypothesis that progesterone supports embryonic development by altering the maternal uterine environment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Proteomics 10/2013; 13:3333-3353. · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    Fang-Xiang Wu, Habtom Ressom, Michael J Dunn
    Proteomics 01/2013; 13(2):219-20. · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the current investigation, we aimed to characterize the differential protein expression in each of the hippocampal subregions in healthy control samples (n = 20). We used laser-assisted microdissection and difference in-gel electrophoresis to enrich for these tissues and to compare protein profiles. Image analysis was carried out using Progenesis SameSpots. Samples with a false discovery rate smaller than 5%, a p-value of < 0.01, and an expression of at least ± 1.2 were considered significant. Proteins were identified using LC-ESI-MS/MS. The raw mass spectral data were analyzed using DataAnalysis software. Data were searched against the Swissprot database using MASCOT. Samples were grouped according to the different subregions and we found 182 spots to be differentially expressed between the different hippocampal subregions. These have been made available as part of the UCD-2DPAGE database at http://proteomics-portal.ucd.ie:8082. The associated MS data have been submitted to PRIDE (Accession numbers 21593-21745). This baseline data will be helpful in helping us to understand the central role of the hippocampus in health and the evidence that particular hippocampal subregions are differentially affected in disease.
    Proteomics 06/2012; 12(15-16):2477-81. · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early embryo loss is a key factor affecting fertility in dairy and beef herds. Prior to implantation, the bovine embryo spends around 16 days free-floating in the uterine environment and is dependent on the composition of uterine fluid for normal growth and development. However, there is a lack of information regarding the protein composition of the bovine uterus and how it relates to plasma. In this study, uterine flushings (UF) (n = 6) and blood plasma (n = 4) were collected from beef heifers on day 7 of the oestrous cycle, albumin depleted and compared using iTRAQ proteomics. A total of 35 proteins were higher and 18 were lower in UF including metabolic enzymes, proteins with anti-oxidant activity and those involved in modulation of the immune response. This study confirms the dynamic nature of the bovine uterine proteome and that it differs from plasma. Factors affecting the uterine proteome and how it impacts on embryo survival warrant further study.
    Proteomics 05/2012; 12(12):2014-23. · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The eye lens remains transparent because of soluble lens proteins known as crystallins. For years γ-crystallins have been known as the main lens proteins in lower vertebrates such as fish and amphibians. The unique growth features of the lens render it an ideal structure to study ageing; few studies have examined such changes in anuran lenses. This study aimed to investigate protein distribution patterns in Litoria infrafrenata and Phyllomedusa sauvagei species. Lenses were fractionated into concentric layers by controlled dissolution. Water-soluble proteins were separated into high (HMW), middle (MMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) fractions by size-exclusion HPLC and constituents of each protein class revealed by 1DE and 2DE. Spots were selected from 2DE gels on the basis of known ranges of subunit molecular weights and pH ranges and were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS following trypsin digestion. Comparable lens distribution patterns were found for each species studied. Common crystallins were detected in both species; the most prominent of these was γ-crystallin. Towards the lens centre, there was a decrease in α- and β-crystallin proportions and an increase in γ-crystallins. Subunits representing taxon-specific crystallins demonstrating strong sequence homology with ζ-crystallin/quinone oxidoreductase were found in both L. infrafrenata and P. sauvagei lenses. Further work is needed to determine which amphibians have taxon-specific crystallins, their evolutionary origins, and their function.
    Proteomics 05/2012; 12(11):1830-43. · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroproteomics is a powerful platform for targeted and hypothesis driven research, providing comprehensive insights into cellular and sub-cellular disease states, Gene × Environmental effects, and cellular response to medication effects in human, animal, and cell culture models. Analysis of sub-proteomes is becoming increasingly important in clinical proteomics, enriching for otherwise undetectable proteins that are possible markers for disease. Membrane proteins are one such sub-proteome class that merit in-depth targeted analysis, particularly in psychiatric disorders. As membrane proteins are notoriously difficult to analyse using traditional proteomics methods, we evaluate a paradigm to enrich for and study membrane proteins from human post-mortem brain tissue. This is the first study to extensively characterise the integral trans-membrane spanning proteins present in human brain. Using Triton X-114 phase separation and LC-MS/MS analysis, we enriched for and identified 494 membrane proteins, with 194 trans-membrane helices present, ranging from 1 to 21 helices per protein. Isolated proteins included glutamate receptors, G proteins, voltage gated and calcium channels, synaptic proteins, and myelin proteins, all of which warrant quantitative proteomic investigation in psychiatric and neurological disorders. Overall, our sub-proteome analysis reduced sample complexity and enriched for integral membrane proteins by 2.3 fold, thus allowing for more manageable, reproducible, and targeted proteomics in case vs. control biomarker studies. This study provides a valuable reference for future neuroproteomic investigations of membrane proteins, and validates the use Triton X-114 detergent phase extraction on human post mortem brain.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e39509. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Information storage in the brain depends on the ability of neurons to alter synaptic connectivity within key circuitries such as the hippocampus. Memory-associated synaptic plasticity is mediated by a temporal cascade of de novo protein synthesis and altered protein processing. Here, we have used two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) to investigate memory-specific protein changes in the hippocampal dentate gyrus at increasing times following spatial learning. We identified 42 proteins that were significantly regulated in the first 24 h of spatial memory consolidation. Two distinct waves of protein expression regulation were evident, at 3 and 12 h post-learning and this is in agreement with studies employing inhibitors of global translation. Functional classification of the memory-associated proteins revealed that the majority of regulated proteins contributed either to cellular structure or cellular metabolism. For example, actins, tubulins and intermediate filament proteins, core proteins of the three major cytoskeletal components, were dynamically regulated at times that suggest a role in memory-associated synaptic reorganization. Increased proteasome-mediated protein degradation was evident in the early post-training period including the down-regulation of phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes 15 kDa, a key inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling. Some of the most substantial protein expression changes were observed for secreted carrier proteins including transthyretin and serum albumin at 6-12 h post-learning, regulations that could serve an important role in increasing the supply of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone, key synaptic plasticity-promoting signals in the adult brain. Together these observations provide further insight into protein level regulations occurring in the hippocampus during spatial memory consolidation.
    Proteomics 11/2011; 11(21):4189-201. · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have undertaken the identification of basic proteins (pH 6-11) of the human heart using 2-DE. Tissue from the left ventricle of human heart was lysed and proteins were separated in the first dimension on pH 6-11 IPG strips using paper-bridge loading followed by separation on 12% SDS polyacrylamide gels in the second dimension. Proteins were then identified by mass spectrometry and analysed using Proline, a proteomic data analysis platform that was developed in-house. The proteome map contains 176 identified spots with 151 unique proteins and has been made available as part of the UCD-2DPAGE database at http://proteomics-portal.ucd.ie:8082. The associated mass spectrometry data have been submitted to PRIDE (Accession number ♯10098). This reference map, and the other heart reference maps available through the UCD-2DPAGE database, will aid further proteomic studies of heart diseases such as dilated cardiomyopathy and ischaemic heart disease.
    Proteomics 09/2011; 11(17):3582-6. · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neutrophils, cells of the innate immune system, contain an array of proteases and reactive oxygen species-generating enzymes that assist in controlling the invasion of bacteria and pathogens. The high content of intracellular proteolytic enzymes makes them difficult cells to work with as they can degrade proteins of potential interest. Here, we describe the benefits of heat treatment of neutrophils in reducing protein degradation for subsequent proteome analysis. Neutrophils isolated from four healthy volunteers were each divided into three aliquots and subjected to different preparation methods for 2-DE: (i) Heat treatment, (ii) resuspension in NP40 lysis buffer and (iii) resuspension in standard 2-DE lysis buffer. Representative spots found to be statistically significant between groups (p<0.01) were excised and identified by LC-MS/MS, three of which were validated by immunoblotting. Heat-treated samples contained proteins in the high-molecular-weight range that were absent from NP40-treated samples. Moreover, NP40-treated samples showed an increase in spot number and volume at lower molecular weights suggestive of protein degradation. Incorporating heat treatment into sample preparation resulted in the identification of proteins that may not have previously been detected due to sample degradation, thus leading to a more comprehensive 2-DE map of the human neutrophil proteome.
    Proteomics 06/2011; 11(12):2560-4. · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Current MS-based proteomics has facilitated the identification of large numbers of proteins from complex mixtures. The bovine plasma proteome has the potential to provide a wealth of information concerning the biological state of an animal. However, during MS-based experiments, higher abundance proteins such as albumin and immunoglobulin G (IgG) can hinder the identification of potentially important proteins that are present in much lower abundance. While a variety of readily available technologies exist for the depletion of multiple high-abundance proteins from human, mouse and rat samples, there are few available for bovine. In this study, we report the depletion of >97% of albumin and >92% of IgG from bovine plasma.
    Proteomics 05/2011; 11(11):2329 - 2335. · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The hippocampus is strongly implicated in schizophrenia and, to a lesser degree, bipolar disorder. Proteomic investigations of the different regions of the hippocampus may help us to clarify the basis and the disease specificity of the changes. To determine whether schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are associated with distinct patterns of differential protein expression in specific regions of the hippocampus. A postmortem comparative proteomic study, including validation of differential expression, was performed. Midhippocampus samples from well-matched groups of 20 subjects with schizophrenia, 20 subjects with bipolar disorder, and 20 control cases from the Stanley Medical Research Institute Array Collection were analyzed. We used laser-assisted microdissection to enrich for tissue from the hippocampal regions and 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis to compare protein profiles. Levels of differentially expressed proteins were confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting. Hippocampi from haloperidol-treated mice were used to help discriminate drug-associated from disease-associated protein changes. Across all hippocampal regions, 108 protein spots in schizophrenia and 165 protein spots in bipolar disorder were differentially expressed compared with controls. Sixty-one proteins were differentially expressed in both disorders. One hundred fifty-two of these proteins were identified by mass spectrometry, and they implicated a range of different processes including cytoskeletal and metabolic functions. In both disorders, cornu ammonis regions 2 and 3 were affected to a significantly greater degree than other hippocampal regions. Additionally, numerous proteins showed expression changes in more than 1 region and more than 1 disorder. Validation work confirmed changes in septin 11 and in the expression of proteins involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Overall, similar protein changes were observed in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and for the first time indicate that the most prominent proteomic changes occur within the hippocampus in cornu ammonis regions 2 and 3. The cytoskeletal protein septin 11 and the cellular trafficking process of clathrin-mediated endocytosis are implicated by our study.
    Archives of general psychiatry 05/2011; 68(5):477-88. · 12.26 Impact Factor
  • 01/2011; , ISBN: 9780470015902
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    ABSTRACT: Heart failure (HF) prevention strategies require biomarkers that identify disease manifestation. Increases in B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) correlate with increased risk of cardiovascular events and HF development. We hypothesize that coronary sinus serum from a high BNP hypertensive population reflects an active pathological process and can be used for biomarker exploration. Our aim was to discover differentially expressed disease-associated proteins that identify patients with ventricular dysfunction and HF. Coronary sinus serum from 11 asymptomatic, hypertensive patients underwent quantitative differential protein expression analysis by 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis. Proteins were identified using mass spectrometry and then studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in sera from 40 asymptomatic, hypertensive patients and 105 patients across the spectrum of ventricular dysfunction (32 asymptomatic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, 26 diastolic HF, and 47 systolic HF patients). Leucine-rich α2-glycoprotein (LRG) was consistently overexpressed in high BNP serum. LRG levels correlate significantly with BNP in hypertensive, asymptomatic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, diastolic HF, and systolic HF patient groups (P≤0.05). LRG levels were able to identify HF independent of BNP. LRG correlates with coronary sinus serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (P=0.009) and interleukin-6 (P=0.021). LRG is expressed in myocardial tissue and correlates with transforming growth factor-βR1 (P<0.001) and α-smooth muscle actin (P=0.025) expression. LRG was identified as a serum biomarker that accurately identifies patients with HF. Multivariable modeling confirmed that LRG is a stronger identifier of HF than BNP and this is independent of age, sex, creatinine, ischemia, β-blocker therapy, and BNP.
    Circulation Heart Failure 01/2011; 4(2):188-97. · 6.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Meiosis is the cell division that generates haploid gametes from diploid precursors. To provide insight into the functional proteome of budding yeast during meiosis, a 2-D DIGE kinetic approach was used to study proteins in the pH 6-11 range. Nearly 600 protein spots were visualised and 79 spots exhibited statistically significant changes in abundance as cells progressed through meiosis. Expression changes of up to 41-fold were detected and protein sequence information was obtained for 48 spots. Single protein identifications were obtained for 21 spots including different gel mobility forms of 5 proteins. A large number of post-translational events are suggested for these proteins, including processing, modification and import. The data are incorporated into an online 2-DE map of meiotic proteins in budding yeast, which extends our initial DIGE investigation of proteins in the pH 4-7 range. Together, the analyses provide peptide sequence data for 84 protein spots, including 50 single-protein identifications and gel mobility isoforms of 8 proteins. The largest classes of identified proteins include carbon metabolism, protein catabolism, protein folding, protein synthesis and the oxidative stress response. A number of the corresponding genes are required for yeast meiosis and recent studies have identified similar classes of proteins expressed during mammalian meiosis. This proteomic investigation and the resulting protein reference map make an important contribution towards a more detailed molecular view of yeast meiosis.
    Proteomics 12/2010; 10(24):4401-14. · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since their origins in academic endeavours in the 1970s, computational analysis tools have matured into a number of established commercial packages that underpin research in expression proteomics. In this paper we describe the image analysis pipeline for the established 2-DE technique of protein separation, and by first covering signal analysis for MS, we also explain the current image analysis workflow for the emerging high-throughput 'shotgun' proteomics platform of LC coupled to MS (LC/MS). The bioinformatics challenges for both methods are illustrated and compared, whereas existing commercial and academic packages and their workflows are described from both a user's and a technical perspective. Attention is given to the importance of sound statistical treatment of the resultant quantifications in the search for differential expression. Despite wide availability of proteomics software, a number of challenges have yet to be overcome regarding algorithm accuracy, objectivity and automation, generally due to deterministic spot-centric approaches that discard information early in the pipeline, propagating errors. We review recent advances in signal and image analysis algorithms in 2-DE, MS, LC/MS and Imaging MS. Particular attention is given to wavelet techniques, automated image-based alignment and differential analysis in 2-DE, Bayesian peak mixture models, and functional mixed modelling in MS, and group-wise consensus alignment methods for LC/MS.
    Proteomics 11/2010; 10(23):4226-57. · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peptide fractionation is extremely important in proteomics approaches. Full proteome characterization is desired from complex organisms, and with growing interest in post-translational modifications an extended protein sequence coverage is required. Peptide fractionation techniques have the great challenge of feeding current mass spectrometers in a way in which these issues are met. Peptide fractionation can be divided into three simple components: the column characteristics; the mobile phase; and peptide properties (charge, polarity, hydrophobicity and size). The current challenges are in the combination of these three components to allow comprehensive proteomics studies to be improved.
    Expert Review of Proteomics 10/2010; 7(5):655-63. · 3.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is evidence for an inverse association between cellular expression of Hsp27 and vascular disease with carotid plaques, endarterectomy specimens, and cardiac biopsies investigated to date. Here we compare non-diseased coronary arteries from human heart transplant donors and patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) with no evidence of coronary artery disease, to coronary arteries from patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) in order to determine abundance of phosphorylated Hsp27 (phospho-Hsp27) in plaque-free diseased vessels and elucidate how this protective effect is brought about through protein regulation. Western blotting identified phospho-Hsp27, phosphorylated on Ser82, Ser78, and Ser15, to be specifically decreased in IHD, but not DCM, compared to non-diseased vessels. Immunohistochemistry confirmed these results and revealed phospho-Hsp27 was located within both smooth muscle and endothelial cells. Disease-free coronary arteries and from patients with IHD were then subjected to 2-Dimensional Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) analysis to detect proteins with altered abundance, which were subsequently identified by mass spectrometry. Hsp27 showed decreased abundance in ischemic vessels as expected. The expression of cytoskeletal proteins, namely vimentin was significantly reduced, while transgelin and tropomyosin showed significantly increased abundance in vessels with IHD. Immunohistochemistry studies suggested an increase in G-actin abundance to be present within IHD vessels. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that phospho-Hsp27 protects against vascular disease possibly by stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton within endothelial and/or smooth muscle cells.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 09/2010; 49(3):370-9. · 5.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Proteomics is the study of global gene expression of an organ, body system, fluid, or cellular compartment at the protein level. Proteomic findings are reflective of complex gene × environment interactions, and the importance of this is increasingly appreciated in schizophrenia research. In this review, we outline the main proteomic methods available to researchers in this area and summarize, for the first time, the findings of the main quantitative neuroproteomic investigations of schizophrenia brain. Our review of these data revealed 16 gray matter proteins, and eight white matter proteins that were differentially expressed in the same direction in two or more investigations. Pathway analysis identified cellular assembly and organization as particularly disrupted in both gray and white matter, whereas the glycolysis-gluconeogenesis pathway was the major signaling pathway significantly altered in both. Reassuringly, these findings show remarkable convergence with functional pathways and positional candidate genes implicated from genomic studies. The specificity of schizophrenia proteomic findings are also addressed in the context of neuroproteomic investigations of neurodegenerative disorders and bipolar disorder. Finally, we discuss the major challenges in the field of neuroproteomics, such as the need for high throughput validation methods and optimal sample preparation. Future directions in the neuroproteomics of schizophrenia, including the use of blood-based biomarker work, the need to focus on subproteomes, and the increasing use of mass spectrometry-based methods are all discussed. This area of research is still in its infancy and offers huge potential to our understanding of schizophrenia on a cellular level.
    Biological psychiatry 09/2010; 69(2):163-72. · 8.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a 2-DE proteomic reference map containing 227 basic proteins in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex region of the human brain. Proteins were separated in the first dimension on pH 6-11 IPG strips using paper-bridge loading and on 12% SDS-PAGE in the second dimension. Proteins were subsequently identified by MS and spectra were analyzed using an in-house proteomics data analysis platform, Proline. The 2-DE reference map is available via the UCD 2-DE Proteome Database (http://proteomics-portal.ucd.ie:8082) and can also be accessed via the WORLD-2DPAGE Portal (http://www.expasy.ch/world-2dpage/). The associated protein identification data have been submitted to the PRIDE database (accession numbers 10018-10033). Separation of proteins in the basic region resolves more membrane associated proteins relevant to the synaptic pathology central to many neurological disorders. The 2-DE reference map will aid with further characterisation of neurological disorders such as bipolar and schizophrenia.
    Proteomics 07/2010; 10(13):2551-5. · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The biopharmaceutical industry requires cell lines to have an optimal proliferation rate and a high integral viable cell number resulting in a maximum volumetric recombinant protein product titre. Nutrient feeding has been shown to boost cell number and productivity in fed-batch culture, but cell line engineering is another route one may take to increase these parameters in the bioreactor. The use of CHO-K1 cells with a c-myc plasmid allowing for over-expressing c-Myc (designated cMycCHO) gives a higher integral viable cell number. In this study the differential protein expression in cMycCHO is investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by image analysis to determine the extent of the effect c-Myc has on the cell and the proteins involved to give the new phenotype. Over 100 proteins that were differentially expressed in cMycCHO cells were detected with high statistical confidence, of which 41 were subsequently identified by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Further analysis revealed proteins involved in a variety of pathways. Some examples of changes in protein expression include: an increase in nucleolin, involved in proliferation and known to aid in stabilising anti-apoptotic protein mRNA levels, the cytoskeleton and mitochondrial morphology (vimentin), protein biosynthesis (eIF6) and energy metabolism (ATP synthetase), and a decreased regulation of all proteins, identified, involved in matrix and cell to cell adhesion. These results indicate several proteins involved in proliferation and adhesion that could be useful for future approaches to improve proliferation and decrease adhesion of CHO cell lines which are difficult to adapt to suspension culture.
    BMC Biotechnology 03/2010; 10:25. · 2.17 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

7k Citations
1,171.61 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • University of Saskatchewan
      Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
  • 2005–2013
    • University College Dublin
      • • School of Medicine & Medical Science
      • • School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Science
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
  • 2007–2012
    • Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Dublin, L, Ireland
    • Mater Misericordiae University Hospital
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
  • 2011
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Coimbra
      • Centro de Neurociências e Biologia Celular (CNC)
      Coimbra, Distrito de Coimbra, Portugal
  • 1998–2010
    • Imperial College London
      • • Institute of Biomedical Engineering (IBME)
      • • Department of Computing
      • • Cardiovascular Sciences
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2009
    • TobaccoFree Research Institute Ireland
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
    • Queen's University Belfast
      Béal Feirste, N Ireland, United Kingdom
    • Korea Basic Science Institute KBSI
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2006–2008
    • Beaumont Hospital
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
    • Ruhr-Universität Bochum
      • Medizinisches Proteom-Center
      Bochum, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • University of New South Wales
      • School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences (BABS)
      Kensington, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2004–2007
    • King's College London
      • • Department of Neuroscience (IoP)
      • • Institute of Psychiatry
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1989–2007
    • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
      Maryland, United States
  • 2004–2005
    • ICL
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • UK Department of Health
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1995–2004
    • Technische Universität München
      • • Abteilung Technologie
      • • Chair of General Food Technology
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2003
    • University of London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Sydney
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2000
    • Wake Forest School of Medicine
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Winston-Salem, NC, United States
  • 1997
    • Imperial Valley College
      Middlesex, New Jersey, United States
    • University of Liverpool
      Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
  • 1995–1997
    • The Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry
      Plymouth, England, United Kingdom
  • 1990–1995
    • The Heart Lung Center
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1994
    • Royal Veterinary College
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1984
    • Universität Heidelberg
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 1982
    • University of Bristol
      Bristol, England, United Kingdom