Michael J Dunn

University College Dublin, Dublin, Leinster, Ireland

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Publications (269)1290.12 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) can be treated using biologic therapies targeting biomolecules such as tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukins (IL)-17 and IL-23. Whilst 70% PsA patients respond well to therapy, 30% patients show no or limited clinical improvement. Biomarkers that predict response to therapy would help to avoid unnecessary use of expensive biologics in non-responding patients and enable alternative treatments to be explored. Patient synovial-tissue samples from two clinical studies were analysed using Difference In-Gel Electrophoresis based proteomics to identify protein expression differences in response to anti-TNF-α treatment. Subsequent multiplexed multiple-reaction-monitoring (MRM) measurements were used to verify potential biomarkers. A total of 119 proteins were differentially expressed (p<0.05) in response to anti-TNF-α treatment and 25 proteins were differentially expressed (p<0.05) between "good responders" and "poor responders". From these differentially expressed proteins, MRM assays were developed for 4 proteins to explore their potential as treatment predictive biomarkers. Gel-based proteomics strategy has demonstrated differential protein expression in synovial tissue of PsA patients, in response to anti-TNF-α treatment. Development of multiplex MRM assays to these differentially expressed proteins has the potential to predict response to therapy and allow alternative, more effective treatments to be explored sooner. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    PROTEOMICS - CLINICAL APPLICATIONS 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/prca.201500051. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The International Plant Proteomics Organization (INPPO) is a global platform of the plant proteomics community or, more generally, the scientific community that uses proteomics to address plant biology. Organizing an international conference is one of its initiatives to promote plant proteomics by involving and gathering scientists/researchers/students and by disseminating the acquired knowledge. In this fourth INPPO Highlights, the first INPPO World Congress 2014 (INPPO2014) is described and discussed. The INPPO2014 was held at the University of Hamburg (Germany) with the title "Plant Proteomics: Methodology to Biology" under the leadership of Sabine Lüthje (Germany). Participants (around 150) from 38 nations attended this congress covering all continents. The four-day scientific program comprised 52 lectures and 61 poster presentations in a highly professional and friendly atmosphere on mass spectrometry and gel-based proteomics. Two round-table open discussions deliberated on plant proteomics, its associated international organizations/initiatives and future INPPO perspectives. The Second INPPO World Congress 2016 (INPPO2016) "The Quest for Tolerant Varieties-Phenotyping at Plant and Cellular Level" is planned to be organized in Bratislava (Slovakia) under the leadership of Martin Hajduch (Slovak Republic) and Sébastien Carpentier (Belgium) and cosponsored by the COST action FA1306. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
    Proteomics 04/2015; 15(10). DOI:10.1002/pmic.201570084 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ECS induces protein changes in the hippocampus.•Four weeks after chronic ECS there are persisting protein changes in the hippocampus.•Cytoskeletal- and metabolism-related proteins were identified following ECS.•ChronicP-ECS induced change in the cytoskeletal protein actin confirmed by immunoblot.
    Brain Research 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2014.10.020 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective antidepressant treatment, but its molecular mechanisms of action remain to be fully elucidated. To better understand the effects of ECT, we conducted a proteomic study to characterize global changes in plasma protein abundance induced by electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS) in the animal model equivalent of ECT. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a single or repeat (10 sessions) course of ECS, and compared with sham-ECS administered animals. Quantitative differential protein expression analysis was performed, using 2-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D DiGE), on immunodepleted plasma. Proteins were selected for identification by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS): 150 protein spots were significantly altered following a single ECS and 178, following repeated ECS. In total, 18 proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS. Many of these were acute-phase response proteins, previously reported to be increased in depressed patients. Changes in the abundance of two proteins of interest were confirmed by other measures. Repeat ECS was found to significantly reduce plasma levels of haptoglobin and apolipoprotein A-IV, although these changes were no longer evident 4 weeks after the repeated ECS. Our results implicate the immune system-induced acute phase protein response in ECS action while identifying potential plasma biomarkers for ECS.
    Journal of Psychopharmacology 09/2014; DOI:10.1177/0269881114552742 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prenatal stress influences the development of the fetal brain and so contributes to the risk of the development of psychiatric disorders in later life. The hippocampus is particularly sensitive to prenatal stress, and robust abnormalities have been described in the hippocampus in schizophrenia and depression. The aim of this study was to determine whether prenatal stress is associated with distinct patterns of differential protein expression in the hippocampus using a validated mouse model. We therefore performed a comparative proteomic study assessing female hippocampal samples from 8 prenatally stressed mice and 8 control mice. Differential protein expression was assessed using 2-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis and subsequent mass spectrometry. The observed changes in a selected group of differentially expressed proteins were confirmed by Western blotting. In comparison to controls, 47 protein spots (38 individual proteins) were found to be differentially expressed in the hippocampus of prenatally stressed mice. Functional grouping of these proteins revealed that prenatal stress influenced the expression of proteins involved in brain development, cytoskeletal composition, stress response, and energy metabolism. Western blotting was utilized to validate the changes in calretinin, hippocalcin, profilin-1 and the signal-transducing adaptor molecule STAM1. Septin-5 could not be validated via Western blotting due to methodological issues. Closer investigation of the validated proteins also pointed to an interesting role for membrane trafficking deficits mediated by prenatal stress. Our findings demonstrate that prenatal stress leads to altered hippocampal protein expression, implicating numerous molecular pathways that may provide new targets for psychotropic drug development. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Developmental Neuroscience 08/2014; 36(5). DOI:10.1159/000365327 · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: International Plant Proteomics Organization (INPPO) outlined ten initiatives to promote plant proteomics in each and every country. With greater emphasis in developing countries, one of those was to “organize workshops at national and international levels to train manpower and exchange information”. This third INPPO highlights covers the workshop organized for the very first time in a developing country, India, at the Department of Botany in University of Delhi on December 26–30, 2013 titled – “1st Plant Proteomics Workshop / Training Program” under the umbrella of INPPO India-Nepal chapter. Selected 20 participants received on-hand training mainly on gel-based proteomics approach along with manual booklet and parallel lectures on this and associated topics. In house, as well as invited experts drawn from other Universities and Institutes (national and international), delivered talks on different aspects of gel-based and gel-free proteomics. Importance of gel-free proteomics approach, translational proteomics, and INPPO roles were presented and interactively discussed by a group of three invited speakers Drs. Ganesh Kumar Agrawal (Nepal), Randeep Rakwal (Japan), and Antonio Masi (Italy). Given the output of this systematic workshop, it was proposed and thereafter decided to be organized every alternate year; the next workshop will be held in 2015. Furthermore, possibilities on providing advanced training to those students / researchers / teachers with basic knowledge in proteomics theory and experiments at national and international levels were discussed. INPPO is committed to generating next-generation trained manpower in proteomics, and it would only happen by the firm determination of scientists to come forward and do it.
    Proteomics 07/2014; 14(13-14). DOI:10.1002/pmic.201470103 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early embryonic loss accounts for over 70% of total embryonic and foetal loss in dairy cattle. Early embryonic development and survival is associated with the concentration of systemic progesterone. To determine if the uterine proteome is influenced by stage of cycle or systemic progesterone concentrations, uterine flushings (UF) were collected from the ipsi- and contralateral uterine horns of beef heifers on Days 7 (n = 10) and 15 (n = 10) of the oestrous cycle. Animals were separated into low or high progesterone groups based on plasma progesterone concentrations on Day 5 of the cycle. Samples were albumin depleted before iTRAQ® labelling and subsequent SCX-LC-MS/MS analyses. A total of 20 proteins were up to 5.9-fold higher (P < 0.05) and 20 were up to 2.3-fold lower on Day 15 compared to Day 7. In addition, the expression of a number of proteins on Day 7 and/or 15 of the cycle was correlated with progesterone concentrations during Days 3-7 or the rate of change in progesterone between Days 3 and 7. This study highlights the dynamic changes occurring in the microenvironment surrounding the embryo during this period. The findings here also support the hypothesis that progesterone supports embryonic development by altering the maternal uterine environment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Proteomics 11/2013; 13:3333-3353. DOI:10.1002/pmic.201300204 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The International Plant Proteomics Organization (INPPO) is a non-profit organization whose members are scientists involved or interested in plant proteomics. Since the publication of the first INPPO highlights in 2012, continued progress on many of the organization's mandates/goals has been achieved. Two major events are emphasized in this second INPPO highlights. First, the change of guard at the top, passing of the baton from Dominique Job, INPPO founding President to Ganesh Kumar Agrawal as the incoming President. Ganesh K. Agrawal, along with Dominique Job and Randeep Rakwal initiated the INPPO. Second, the most recent INPPO achievements and future targets, mainly the organization of first the INPPO World Congress in 2014, tentatively planned for Hamburg (Germany), are mentioned.
    PROTEOMICS 11/2013; 13(21):3093-3100. DOI:10.1002/pmic.201370174 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    Fang-Xiang Wu, Habtom Ressom, Michael J Dunn
    Proteomics 01/2013; 13(2):219-20. DOI:10.1002/pmic.201370022 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the current investigation, we aimed to characterize the differential protein expression in each of the hippocampal subregions in healthy control samples (n = 20). We used laser-assisted microdissection and difference in-gel electrophoresis to enrich for these tissues and to compare protein profiles. Image analysis was carried out using Progenesis SameSpots. Samples with a false discovery rate smaller than 5%, a p-value of < 0.01, and an expression of at least ± 1.2 were considered significant. Proteins were identified using LC-ESI-MS/MS. The raw mass spectral data were analyzed using DataAnalysis software. Data were searched against the Swissprot database using MASCOT. Samples were grouped according to the different subregions and we found 182 spots to be differentially expressed between the different hippocampal subregions. These have been made available as part of the UCD-2DPAGE database at http://proteomics-portal.ucd.ie:8082. The associated MS data have been submitted to PRIDE (Accession numbers 21593-21745). This baseline data will be helpful in helping us to understand the central role of the hippocampus in health and the evidence that particular hippocampal subregions are differentially affected in disease.
    Proteomics 08/2012; 12(15-16):2477-81. DOI:10.1002/pmic.201200031 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroproteomics is a powerful platform for targeted and hypothesis driven research, providing comprehensive insights into cellular and sub-cellular disease states, Gene × Environmental effects, and cellular response to medication effects in human, animal, and cell culture models. Analysis of sub-proteomes is becoming increasingly important in clinical proteomics, enriching for otherwise undetectable proteins that are possible markers for disease. Membrane proteins are one such sub-proteome class that merit in-depth targeted analysis, particularly in psychiatric disorders. As membrane proteins are notoriously difficult to analyse using traditional proteomics methods, we evaluate a paradigm to enrich for and study membrane proteins from human post-mortem brain tissue. This is the first study to extensively characterise the integral trans-membrane spanning proteins present in human brain. Using Triton X-114 phase separation and LC-MS/MS analysis, we enriched for and identified 494 membrane proteins, with 194 trans-membrane helices present, ranging from 1 to 21 helices per protein. Isolated proteins included glutamate receptors, G proteins, voltage gated and calcium channels, synaptic proteins, and myelin proteins, all of which warrant quantitative proteomic investigation in psychiatric and neurological disorders. Overall, our sub-proteome analysis reduced sample complexity and enriched for integral membrane proteins by 2.3 fold, thus allowing for more manageable, reproducible, and targeted proteomics in case vs. control biomarker studies. This study provides a valuable reference for future neuroproteomic investigations of membrane proteins, and validates the use Triton X-114 detergent phase extraction on human post mortem brain.
    PLoS ONE 06/2012; 7(6):e39509. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0039509 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The eye lens remains transparent because of soluble lens proteins known as crystallins. For years γ-crystallins have been known as the main lens proteins in lower vertebrates such as fish and amphibians. The unique growth features of the lens render it an ideal structure to study ageing; few studies have examined such changes in anuran lenses. This study aimed to investigate protein distribution patterns in Litoria infrafrenata and Phyllomedusa sauvagei species. Lenses were fractionated into concentric layers by controlled dissolution. Water-soluble proteins were separated into high (HMW), middle (MMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) fractions by size-exclusion HPLC and constituents of each protein class revealed by 1DE and 2DE. Spots were selected from 2DE gels on the basis of known ranges of subunit molecular weights and pH ranges and were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS following trypsin digestion. Comparable lens distribution patterns were found for each species studied. Common crystallins were detected in both species; the most prominent of these was γ-crystallin. Towards the lens centre, there was a decrease in α- and β-crystallin proportions and an increase in γ-crystallins. Subunits representing taxon-specific crystallins demonstrating strong sequence homology with ζ-crystallin/quinone oxidoreductase were found in both L. infrafrenata and P. sauvagei lenses. Further work is needed to determine which amphibians have taxon-specific crystallins, their evolutionary origins, and their function.
    Proteomics 06/2012; 12(11):1830-43. DOI:10.1002/pmic.201100393 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early embryo loss is a key factor affecting fertility in dairy and beef herds. Prior to implantation, the bovine embryo spends around 16 days free-floating in the uterine environment and is dependent on the composition of uterine fluid for normal growth and development. However, there is a lack of information regarding the protein composition of the bovine uterus and how it relates to plasma. In this study, uterine flushings (UF) (n = 6) and blood plasma (n = 4) were collected from beef heifers on day 7 of the oestrous cycle, albumin depleted and compared using iTRAQ proteomics. A total of 35 proteins were higher and 18 were lower in UF including metabolic enzymes, proteins with anti-oxidant activity and those involved in modulation of the immune response. This study confirms the dynamic nature of the bovine uterine proteome and that it differs from plasma. Factors affecting the uterine proteome and how it impacts on embryo survival warrant further study.
    Proteomics 06/2012; 12(12):2014-23. DOI:10.1002/pmic.201100609 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The International Plant Proteomics Organization (INPPO) is a non-profit-organization consisting of people who are involved or interested in plant proteomics. INPPO is constantly growing in volume and activity, which is mostly due to the realization among plant proteomics researchers worldwide for the need of such a global platform. Their active participation resulted in the rapid growth within the first year of INPPO's official launch in 2011 via its website (www.inppo.com) and publication of the 'Viewpoint paper' in a special issue of PROTEOMICS (May 2011). Here, we will be highlighting the progress achieved in the year 2011 and the future targets for the year 2012 and onwards. INPPO has achieved a successful administrative structure, the Core Committee (CC; composed of President, Vice-President, and General Secretaries), Executive Council (EC), and General Body (GB) to achieve INPPO objectives. Various committees and subcommittees are in the process of being functionalized via discussion amongst scientists around the globe. INPPO's primary aim to popularize the plant proteomics research in biological sciences has also been recognized by PROTEOMICS where a section dedicated to plant proteomics has been introduced starting January 2012, following the very first issue of this journal devoted to plant proteomics in May 2011. To disseminate organizational activities to the scientific community, INPPO has launched a biannual (in January and July) newsletter entitled 'INPPO Express: News & Views' with the first issue published in January 2012. INPPO is also planning to have several activities in 2012, including programs within the Education Outreach committee in different countries, and the development of research ideas and proposals with priority on crop and horticultural plants, while keeping tight interactions with proteomics programs on model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, and Medicago truncatula. Altogether, the INPPO progress and upcoming activities are because of immense support, dedication, and hard work of all members of the INPPO community, and also due to the wide encouragement and support from the communities (scientific and non-scientific).
    Proteomics 02/2012; 12(3):359-68. DOI:10.1002/pmic.201290018 · 3.97 Impact Factor
  • Michael J Dunn
    Proteomics 01/2012; 12(1):1-3. DOI:10.1002/pmic.201290000 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Information storage in the brain depends on the ability of neurons to alter synaptic connectivity within key circuitries such as the hippocampus. Memory-associated synaptic plasticity is mediated by a temporal cascade of de novo protein synthesis and altered protein processing. Here, we have used two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) to investigate memory-specific protein changes in the hippocampal dentate gyrus at increasing times following spatial learning. We identified 42 proteins that were significantly regulated in the first 24 h of spatial memory consolidation. Two distinct waves of protein expression regulation were evident, at 3 and 12 h post-learning and this is in agreement with studies employing inhibitors of global translation. Functional classification of the memory-associated proteins revealed that the majority of regulated proteins contributed either to cellular structure or cellular metabolism. For example, actins, tubulins and intermediate filament proteins, core proteins of the three major cytoskeletal components, were dynamically regulated at times that suggest a role in memory-associated synaptic reorganization. Increased proteasome-mediated protein degradation was evident in the early post-training period including the down-regulation of phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes 15 kDa, a key inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling. Some of the most substantial protein expression changes were observed for secreted carrier proteins including transthyretin and serum albumin at 6-12 h post-learning, regulations that could serve an important role in increasing the supply of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone, key synaptic plasticity-promoting signals in the adult brain. Together these observations provide further insight into protein level regulations occurring in the hippocampus during spatial memory consolidation.
    Proteomics 11/2011; 11(21):4189-201. DOI:10.1002/pmic.201100072 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have undertaken the identification of basic proteins (pH 6-11) of the human heart using 2-DE. Tissue from the left ventricle of human heart was lysed and proteins were separated in the first dimension on pH 6-11 IPG strips using paper-bridge loading followed by separation on 12% SDS polyacrylamide gels in the second dimension. Proteins were then identified by mass spectrometry and analysed using Proline, a proteomic data analysis platform that was developed in-house. The proteome map contains 176 identified spots with 151 unique proteins and has been made available as part of the UCD-2DPAGE database at http://proteomics-portal.ucd.ie:8082. The associated mass spectrometry data have been submitted to PRIDE (Accession number ♯10098). This reference map, and the other heart reference maps available through the UCD-2DPAGE database, will aid further proteomic studies of heart diseases such as dilated cardiomyopathy and ischaemic heart disease.
    Proteomics 09/2011; 11(17):3582-6. DOI:10.1002/pmic.201000182 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neutrophils, cells of the innate immune system, contain an array of proteases and reactive oxygen species-generating enzymes that assist in controlling the invasion of bacteria and pathogens. The high content of intracellular proteolytic enzymes makes them difficult cells to work with as they can degrade proteins of potential interest. Here, we describe the benefits of heat treatment of neutrophils in reducing protein degradation for subsequent proteome analysis. Neutrophils isolated from four healthy volunteers were each divided into three aliquots and subjected to different preparation methods for 2-DE: (i) Heat treatment, (ii) resuspension in NP40 lysis buffer and (iii) resuspension in standard 2-DE lysis buffer. Representative spots found to be statistically significant between groups (p<0.01) were excised and identified by LC-MS/MS, three of which were validated by immunoblotting. Heat-treated samples contained proteins in the high-molecular-weight range that were absent from NP40-treated samples. Moreover, NP40-treated samples showed an increase in spot number and volume at lower molecular weights suggestive of protein degradation. Incorporating heat treatment into sample preparation resulted in the identification of proteins that may not have previously been detected due to sample degradation, thus leading to a more comprehensive 2-DE map of the human neutrophil proteome.
    Proteomics 06/2011; 11(12):2560-4. DOI:10.1002/pmic.201000625 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Current MS-based proteomics has facilitated the identification of large numbers of proteins from complex mixtures. The bovine plasma proteome has the potential to provide a wealth of information concerning the biological state of an animal. However, during MS-based experiments, higher abundance proteins such as albumin and immunoglobulin G (IgG) can hinder the identification of potentially important proteins that are present in much lower abundance. While a variety of readily available technologies exist for the depletion of multiple high-abundance proteins from human, mouse and rat samples, there are few available for bovine. In this study, we report the depletion of >97% of albumin and >92% of IgG from bovine plasma.
    Proteomics 06/2011; 11(11):2329 - 2335. DOI:10.1002/pmic.201000364 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The hippocampus is strongly implicated in schizophrenia and, to a lesser degree, bipolar disorder. Proteomic investigations of the different regions of the hippocampus may help us to clarify the basis and the disease specificity of the changes. To determine whether schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are associated with distinct patterns of differential protein expression in specific regions of the hippocampus. A postmortem comparative proteomic study, including validation of differential expression, was performed. Midhippocampus samples from well-matched groups of 20 subjects with schizophrenia, 20 subjects with bipolar disorder, and 20 control cases from the Stanley Medical Research Institute Array Collection were analyzed. We used laser-assisted microdissection to enrich for tissue from the hippocampal regions and 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis to compare protein profiles. Levels of differentially expressed proteins were confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting. Hippocampi from haloperidol-treated mice were used to help discriminate drug-associated from disease-associated protein changes. Across all hippocampal regions, 108 protein spots in schizophrenia and 165 protein spots in bipolar disorder were differentially expressed compared with controls. Sixty-one proteins were differentially expressed in both disorders. One hundred fifty-two of these proteins were identified by mass spectrometry, and they implicated a range of different processes including cytoskeletal and metabolic functions. In both disorders, cornu ammonis regions 2 and 3 were affected to a significantly greater degree than other hippocampal regions. Additionally, numerous proteins showed expression changes in more than 1 region and more than 1 disorder. Validation work confirmed changes in septin 11 and in the expression of proteins involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Overall, similar protein changes were observed in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and for the first time indicate that the most prominent proteomic changes occur within the hippocampus in cornu ammonis regions 2 and 3. The cytoskeletal protein septin 11 and the cellular trafficking process of clathrin-mediated endocytosis are implicated by our study.
    Archives of general psychiatry 05/2011; 68(5):477-88. DOI:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.43 · 13.75 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

9k Citations
1,290.12 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2015
    • University College Dublin
      • • School of Medicine & Medical Science
      • • Conway Institute of Biomolecular & Biomedical Research
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
    • London Research Institute
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2005–2014
    • Beaumont Hospital
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
  • 2011
    • St. Vincents University Hospital
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
    • Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Dublin, L, Ireland
  • 1999–2011
    • Imperial College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2010
    • University of Coimbra
      • Centro de Neurociências e Biologia Celular (CNC)
      Coimbra, Distrito de Coimbra, Portugal
  • 2009
    • TobaccoFree Research Institute Ireland
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
    • Wellcome Trust
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2008
    • Mater Misericordiae University Hospital
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
  • 2003–2008
    • King's College London
      • • Institute of Psychiatry
      • • Department of Neuroscience (IoP)
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
    • Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust
      • Cardiothoracic Surgery & Transplantation Unit
      Harefield, England, United Kingdom
    • The University of Arizona
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 2004–2005
    • UK Department of Health
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2003–2005
    • ICL
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1989–2003
    • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
      Maryland, United States
  • 2001
    • University of Sussex
      Brighton, England, United Kingdom
  • 1998
    • Policlinico San Matteo Pavia Fondazione IRCCS
      Ticinum, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1997
    • Imperial Valley College
      Middlesex, New Jersey, United States
    • University of Liverpool
      Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
  • 1995
    • The Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry
      Plymouth, England, United Kingdom
  • 1991–1995
    • The Heart Lung Center
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1994
    • Royal Veterinary College
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1984
    • Universität Heidelberg
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany