[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence and burden of stroke in China is increasing rapidly. However, little is known about trends in mortality during stroke hospitalization. The objectives of this study were to assess trends of in-hospital mortality among patients with stroke and explore influence factors of in-hospital death after stroke in China.
109 grade III class A hospitals were sampled by multistage stratified cluster sampling. All patients admitted to hospitals between 2007 and 2010 with a discharge diagnosis of stroke were included. Trends in in-hospital mortality among patients with stroke were assessed. Influence factors of in-hospital death after stroke were explored using multivariable logistic regression.
Overall stroke hospitalizations increased from 79,894 in 2007 to 85,475 in 2010, and in-hospital mortality of stroke decreased from 3.16% to 2.30% (P<0.0001). The percentage of severe patients increased while odds of mortality (2010 versus 2007) decreased regardless of stroke type: subarachnoid hemorrhage (OR 0.792, 95% CI = 0.636 to 0.987), intracerebral hemorrhage (OR 0.647, 95% CI = 0.591 to 0.708), and ischemic stroke (OR 0.588, 95% CI = 0.532 to 0.649). In multivariable analyses, older age, male, basic health insurance, multiple comorbidities and severity of disease were linked to higher odds of in-hospital mortality.
The mortality of stroke hospitalizations decreased likely reflecting advancements in stroke care and prevention. Decreasing of mortality with increasing of severe stroke patients indicated that we should pay more attention to rehabilitation and life quality of stroke patients. Specific individual and hospital-level characteristics may be targets for facilitating further declines.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e92763. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies have reported inconsistent results for the existence of an association between polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake and risk of lung cancer. The purpose of this study is to summarize the evidence regarding this relationship using a dose response meta-analytic approach.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e99637. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) are important in the regulation of body weight. In this study, we evaluated the individual and combined effects of a polymorphic microsatellite marker in the LEP gene 3â² flanking region and two polymorphisms (Lys109Arg and Lys656Asn) of the LEPR gene on metabolic markers for obesity in a Chinese population. The genotypes of polymorphisms in LEP and LEPR gene were determined by PCR and SSCP assay in 230 simple obese subjects and 202 control subjects of Chinese population. Logistic regression analysis showed that polymorphism in LEP gene 3â² flanking region was associated with waist/hip ratio (WHR) (P = 0.042). Individually, Lys109Arg variant in LEPR gene was associated with systolic blood pressure (P = 0.031) in males, and Lys656Asn variant was associated with serum triglyceride level (P = 0.026). Interestingly, only subjects that simultaneously exhibit all three polymorphisms showed a significantly elevated BMI (29.30 Â± 0.85 vs 26.91 Â± 1.19, P = 0.037). Taken together, our data suggest that a combination of polymorphism in the LEP gene 3â² flanking region, and Lys109Arg, Lys656Asn variants in LEPR gene is associated with obesity in Chinese Han population.:
Obesity Research & Clinical Practice 12/2013; 7(6):e431-500. · 0.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study aims to evaluate the quality of life (QOL) in burn patients in China and find out principal influencing factors, so as to provide evidence for interventions.
A total of 271 burn patients in three major burn units in China were asked to fill in the adapted Chinese version (ACV) of the Burn Specific Health Scale-Brief (ACV BSHS-B) in order to seek out the principal influencing factors in combination with a self-designed demographic and disease condition questionnaire. Multivariable linear regression was used to analyse the principal influencing factors.
The findings showed that there were seven principal influencing factors for the overall ACV BSHS-B score. They were: percent total body surface area (TBSA) burned (with the standardised regression coefficient being -0.594), burn area of lower limber (0.241), itch level (-0.227), pain level (-0.220), gender (0.217), mechanical ventilation (0.216) and hand deformity (-0.141).
QOL decreased in burn patients to different degrees depending on the intensity of burns. With a better understanding of influencing factors of burn patients' QOL, the medical and nursing staff can take specific countermeasures to help patients gain a higher QOL.
Burns: journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries 11/2013; · 1.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stomatin is an important lipid raft-associated protein which interacts with membrane proteins and plays a role in the membrane organization. However, it is unknown whether it is involved in the response to hypoxia and glucocorticoid (GC) in alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). In this study we found that hypoxia and dexamethasone (dex), a synthetic GC not only up-regulated the expression of stomatin alone, but also imposed additive effect on the expression of stomatin in A549 cells, primary AEC and lung of rats. Then we investigated whether hypoxia and dex transcriptionally up-regulated the expression of stomatin by reporter gene assay, and found that dex, but not hypoxia could increase the activity of a stomatin promoter-driven reporter gene. Further deletion and mutational studies demonstrated that a GC response element (GRE) within the promoter region mainly contributed to the induction of stomatin by dex. Moreover, we found that hypoxia exposure did not affect membrane-associated actin, but decreased actin in cytoplasm in A549 cells. Inhibiting stomatin expression by stomatin siRNA significantly decreased dense of peripheral actin ring in hypoxia or dex treated A549 cells. Taken all together, these data indicated that dex and/or hypoxia significantly up-regulated the expression of stomatin in vivo and in vitro, which could stabilize membrane-associated actin in AEC. We suppose that the up-regulation of stomatin by hypoxia and dex may enhance the barrier function of alveolar epithelia and mediate the adaptive role of GC to hypoxia.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 05/2013; · 4.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Fibrates has been extensively used to improve plasma lipid levels and prevent adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, the effect of fibrates on stroke is unclear at the present time. We therefore carried out a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of fibrates on stroke. METHODS: We systematically searched Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, reference lists of articles, and proceedings of major meetings to identify studies for our analysis. We included randomized placebo controlled trials which reported the effects of fibrates on stroke. Relative risk (RR) was used to measure the effect of fibrates on the risk of stroke under random effect model. The analysis was further stratified by factors that could affect the treatment effects. RESULTS: Overall, fibrate therapy was not associated with a significant reduction on the risk of stroke (RR, 1.02, 95%CI, 0.90 to 1.16, P = 0.78). In the subgroup analyses, we observed that gemfibrozil therapy showed a beneficial effect on stroke (RR, 0.72, 95%CI, 0.53 to 0.98, P = 0.04). Similarly, fibrate therapy comparing to placebo had no effect on the incidence of fatal stroke. Subgroup analysis suggested that fibrate therapy showed an effect on fatal stroke when the Jadad score more than 3 (RR, 0.41, 95%CI, 0.17 to 1.00, P = 0.049). Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis indicated that fibrate therapy may play a role in fatal stroke (RR, 0.49, 95%CI, 0.26 to 0.93, P = 0.03) for patients with previous diabetes, cardiovascular disease or stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicated that fibrate therapy might play an important role in reducing the risk of fatal stroke in patients with previous diabetes, cardiovascular disease or stroke. However, it did not have an effect on the incidence of stroke.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pulmonary surfactant (PS) administration has been attempted for the treatment of adults with acute lung injury (ALI)/adult respiratory distress syndrome. Aerosolized surfactants inhaled by spontaneous breathing may be an effective method of surfactant-based therapies. Using a noninvasive apparatus, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of aerosolized PS alone or together with dexamethasone (Dex) on a rat model of ALI. METHODS: Severe ALI was induced by intravenous injection of 20% oleic acid (0.2 mL/kg) into adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were divided into eight groups: sham (n = 10); model (injury only, n = 10); normal saline (NS) aerosol driven by compressed air (air-NS, n = 13); PS aerosol driven by compressed air (air-PS, n = 13); NS aerosol driven by O2 (O2-NS, n = 13); PS aerosol driven by O2 (O2-PS, n = 13); Dex aerosol driven by O2 (O2-Dex, n = 13); and PS and Dex aerosol driven by O2 (O2-PS-Dex, n = 13). Blood gases, breathing rate, lung index, total protein, and proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin 1β, interleukin 6) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung histology were examined. RESULTS: Animals treated with air-PS for 20 minutes had significantly improved lung function, reduced pulmonary edema, decreased concentration of total protein and proinflammatory cytokines in BALF, ameliorated lung injury, and improved animal survival. In the O2-PS group, the breathing rates and lung injury scores were significantly lower than that of the air-PS group. In the O2-PS-Dex group, lung edema, total protein, and inflammatory cytokines in BALF were significantly reduced in comparison with the O2-PS group. CONCLUSION: Inhalation of aerosolized PS generated by the noninvasive apparatus could significantly reduce lung injury, while using oxygen line available in the clinical wards to generate PS aerosol is more convenient and adds further benefits. This method can also be used to deliver Dex and other therapeutic agents to ameliorate lung injury.
The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 09/2012;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Small GTPase RhoB has been well documented in regulating cell adhesion, motility, proliferation, and survival, but to date, there is little information about the relationship between RhoB and inflammation. In this study, the mRNA and protein levels of RhoB were induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in RAW264.7 cells determined by real-time PCR and Western blot. The upregulation of RhoB by LPS was also observed in mouse peritoneal macrophages and in mouse lung, liver, and kidney. RhoB overexpression by transfecting with wild RhoB plasmid increased the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) in RAW264.7 cells, while RhoB knockdown by RNA interference decreased the secretion of TNF-α and NO in RAW264.7 cells. TNF-α and NO synthase are the target genes of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), and overexpression of RhoB increased, whereas inhibition of RhoB decreased the basal and LPS-activated transcriptional activity of NF-κB in the cells. These results demonstrated that LPS induced RhoB expression in mouse in vivo and in vitro and in RAW264.7 cells, and the role of RhoB on LPS-induced secretion of TNF-α and NO was at least partly mediated via NF-κB. These results indicated that RhoB was involved in LPS-induced inflammation in mouse in vivo and in vitro.
Journal of physiology and biochemistry 08/2012; · 1.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aspirin and clopidogrel monotherapies are effective treatments for preventing vascular disease. However, new evidence has emerged regarding the use of combined aspirin and clopidogrel therapy to prevent cardiovascular events. We therefore performed a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the benefits and harms of combined aspirin and clopidogrel therapy on major cardiovascular outcomes.
We systematically searched Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, reference lists of articles, and proceedings of major meetings to identify studies to fit our analysis. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials assessing the effect of combined aspirin and clopidogrel therapy compared with aspirin or clopidogrel monotherapy. We identified 7 trials providing data with a total of 48248 patients. These studies reported 5134 major cardiovascular events, 1626 myocardial infarctions, 1927 strokes, and 1147 major bleeding events. Overall, the addition of aspirin to clopidogrel therapy as compared to single drug therapy resulted in a 9% RR reduction (95%CI, 2 to 17) in major cardiovascular events, 14% RR reduction (95%CI, 3 to 24) in myocardial infarction, 16% RR reduction (95%CI, 1 to 28) in stroke, and 62% RR increase (95%CI, 26 to 108) in major bleeding events. We also present the data as ARR to explore net value as the reduction in cardiovascular events. Overall, we observed that combined therapy yielded 1.06% decrease (95%CI, 0.23% to 1.99%) in major cardiovascular events and 1.23% increase (95%CI, 0.52% to 2.14%) in major bleeding events.
Although the addition of aspirin to clopidogrel resulted in small relative reductions in major cardiovascular events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, it also resulted in a relative increase in major bleeding events. In absolute terms the benefits of combined therapy, a 1.06% reduction in major cardiovascular events, does not outweigh the harms, a 1.23% increase in major bleeding events.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(2):e31642. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-obesity drugs are widely used to prevent the complications of obesity, however, the effects of anti-obesity drugs on cardiovascular risk factors are unclear at the present time. We carried out a comprehensively systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effects of anti-obesity drugs on cardiovascular risk factors.
We systematically searched Medline, EmBase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, reference lists of articles and proceedings of major meetings for relevant literatures. We included randomized placebo-controlled trials that reported the effects of anti-obesity drugs on cardiovascular risk factors compared to placebo. Overall, orlistat produced a reduction of 2.39 kg (95%CI-3.34 to -1.45) for weight, a reduction of 0.27 mmol/L (95%CI: -0.36 to -0.17) for total cholesterol, a reduction of 0.21 mmol/L (95%CI: -0.30 to -0.12) for LDL, a reduction of 0.12 mmol/L (95%CI: -0.20 to -0.04) for fasting glucose, 1.85 mmHg reduction (95%CI: -3.30 to -0.40) for SBP, and a reduction of 1.49 mmHg (95%CI: -2.39 to -0.58) for DBP. Sibutramine only showed effects on weight loss and triglycerides reduction with statistical significances. Rimonabant was associated with statistically significant effects on weight loss, SBP reduction and DBP reduction. No other significantly different effects were identified between anti-obesity therapy and placebo.
We identified that anti-obesity therapy was associated with a decrease of weight regardless of the type of the drug. Orlistat and rimonabant could lead to an improvement on cardiovascular risk factors. However, Sibutramine may have a direct effect on cardiovascular risk factors.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e39062. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxia and inflammation often develop concurrently in numerous diseases, and the influence of hypoxia on natural evolution of inflammatory responses is widely accepted. Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) is thought to be an important mediator of anti-inflammatory and immune-suppressive actions of glucocorticoid (GC). However, whether GILZ is involved in hypoxic response is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of hypoxic exposure and/or the administration of dexamethasone (Dex), a synthetic GC on GILZ expression both in vitro and in vivo, and further explored the relationship between GILZ and proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. We found that hypoxia not only remarkably upregulated the expression of GILZ, but also significantly enhanced Dex-induced expression of GILZ in macrophages and the spleen of rats. ERK activity is found involved in the upregulation of GILZ induced by hypoxia. Inhibiting the expression of GILZ in RAW264.7 cells using specific GILZ small interfering RNA led to a significant increase in mRNA production and protein secretion of IL-1β and IL-6 in hypoxia and abrogated the inhibitory effect of Dex on expression of IL-1β and IL-6 in hypoxia. We also found that adrenal hormones played pivotal roles in upregulation of GILZ expression in vivo. Altogether, data presented in this study suggest that GILZ has an important role not only in adjusting adaptive responses to hypoxia by negatively regulating the activation of macrophages and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, but also in mediating the anti-inflammatory action of GC under hypoxic conditions.
The Journal of Immunology 11/2011; 188(1):222-9. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been reported by us and other groups that the expression of small GTP binding protein RhoB can be induced by genotoxic stressors and glucocorticoid (GC), a stress hormone that plays a key role in stress response. Until now stress-induced genes that confer cytoprotection under stressed conditions are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanism of non-genotoxic stressors, including scalding in vivo and heat stress in vitro on the expression of RhoB. We found for the first time that both scalding, which could induce typical neuroendocrine responses of acute stress and cellular heat stress significantly increased the expression of RhoB at mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, in vitro experiments in human lung epithelial cells (A549) showed that induction of RhoB by heat stress was in a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-independent manner and through multiple pathways including stabilization of RhoB mRNA and activation of p38 MAPK. Further experiments demonstrated that up-regulation of RhoB significantly inhibited heat stress-induced apoptosis and elevated transcriptional activity of NF-κB, but did not affect the expression of Hsp70 in A549 cells. In conclusion, we showed for the first time that RhoB was up-regulated by scalding in vivo and heat stress in vitro and played an important cytoprotective role during heat stress-induced apoptotic cell death.
Journal of Cellular Physiology 03/2011; 226(3):729-38. · 4.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stomatin is an important membrane raft protein which can combine skeleton protein, some ion channel, and transporter to regulate their functions. However, until now no data on its expression and function in CNS are available. In this study, we examined distribution of stomatin in CNS of rat, and investigated the effects of hypoxia exposure and glucocorticoid on stomatin expression in cerebral cortex of rat. Immunofluorescence staining revealed a broad expression of stomatin protein in many areas of adult rat brain and spinal cord, including the ventral horn of spinal cord, causal magnocellular nucleus of hypothalamus, the V layer of the cerebral cortex, solitary nucleus, 10 and 12 nuclei, and so on. Hypoxia or ischemic hypoxia significantly up-regulated stomatin expression in cerebral cortex, and the up-regulation was independent on adrenocortical steroids since it also occurred in adrenalectomized (ADX) rats. Moreover, treatment of ADX or sham-operated rats with dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid alone could significantly stimulate expression of stomatin in lung and heart, but not in cerebral cortex. However, dexamethasone could enhance the hypoxia-stimulated expression of stomatin in cerebral cortex of ADX rats. These findings suggested that stomatin might be involved in various physiological functions and cellular events of neurons in CNS under physiological conditions and play a potential protective role under hypoxic conditions.
Journal of Neurochemistry 02/2011; 116(3):374-84. · 3.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling, acting in a combinatorial manner with androgen signaling, is essential for prostate patterning and development. Recently, elevated activation of SHH signaling has been shown to play important roles in proliferation, progression and metastasis of prostate cancer. In this report, we demonstrate for the first time, that GLI1, which has been shown to play a central role in SHH signaling in prostate cancer, can act as a co-repressor to substantially block androgen receptor (AR)-mediated transactivation, at least in part, by directly interacting with AR. Our observations suggest that the SHH-GLI pathway might be one of determinants governing the transition of prostate cancer from anandrogen-dependent to an androgen-independent state by compensating, or even superseding androgen signaling.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/2011; 404(3):809-15. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Taxanes have been extensively used as adjuvant chemotherapy for the treatment of early or operable breast cancer, particularly in high risk, node-negative breast cancer. Previous studies, however, have reported inconsistent findings regarding their clinical efficacy and safety. We investigated disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and drug-related toxicities of taxanes by a systematic review and meta-analysis.
We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Center Register of Controlled Trials, proceedings of major meetings, and reference lists of articles for studies conducted between January 1980 and April 2011. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing chemotherapy with and without taxanes in the treatment of patients with early-stage or operable breast cancer were eligible for inclusion in our analysis. The primary endpoint was DFS. Nineteen RCTs including 30698 patients were identified, including 8426 recurrence events and 3803 deaths. Taxanes administration yielded a 17% reduction of hazard ratio (HR) for DFS (HR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.79-0.88, p<0.001) and a 17% reduction of HR for OS (HR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.77-0.90, p<0.001). For high risk, node-negative breast cancer, the pooled HR also favoured the taxane-based treatment arm over the taxane-free treatment arm (HR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.77-0.87, p = 0.022). A significantly increased rate of neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, fatigue, diarrhea, stomatitis, and oedema was observed in the taxane-based treatment arm.
Adjuvant chemotherapy with taxanes could reduce the risk of cancer recurrence and death in patients with early or operable breast cancer, although the drug-related toxicities should be balanced. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that patients with high risk, node-negative breast cancer also benefited from taxanes therapy, a result that was not observed in previous studies.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(11):e26946. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Statistical methods are vital to biomedical research. Our aim was to find out whether progress has been made in the last decade in the use of statistical methods in Chinese medical research. We reviewed 10 leading Chinese medical journals published in 1998 and in 2008. Regarding statistical methods, using a multiple t-test for multiple group comparison was the most common error in the t-test in both years, which significantly decreased in 2008. In contingency tables, no significant level adjustment for multiple comparison significantly decreased in 2008. In ANOVA, over a quarter of articles misused the method of multiple pair-wise comparison in both years, and no significant difference was seen between the two years. In the rank transformation nonparametric test, the error of using multiple pair-wise comparison for multiple group comparison became less common. Many mistakes were found in the randomised controlled trial (56.3% in 1998; 67.9% in 2008), non- randomised clinical trial (57.3%; 58.6%), basic science study (72.9%; 65.5%), case study or case series study (48.4%; 47.2%), and cross-sectional study (57.1%; 44.2%). Progress has been made in the use of statistical methods in Chinese medical journals, but much is yet to be done.
The Scientific World Journal 01/2011; 11:2106-14. · 1.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Folic acid is widely used to lower homocysteine concentrations and prevent adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, the effect of folic acid on cardiovascular events is not clear at the present time. We carried out a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effects of folic acid supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes.
We systematically searched Medline, EmBase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, reference lists of articles, and proceedings of major meetings for relevant literature. We included randomized placebo-controlled trials that reported on the effects of folic acid on cardiovascular events compared to placebo. Of 1594 identified studies, we included 16 trials reporting data on 44841 patients. These studies reported 8238 major cardiovascular events, 2001 strokes, 2917 myocardial infarctions, and 6314 deaths. Folic acid supplementation as compared to placebo had no effect on major cardiovascular events (RR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.93-1.04), stroke (RR, 0.89; 95% CI,0.78-1.01), myocardial infarction (RR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.93-1.07), or deaths from any cause (RR, 1.00;95% CI, 0.96-1.05). Moreover, folic acid as compared to placebo also had no effect on the following secondary outcomes: risk of revascularization (RR, 1.05; 95%CI, 0.95-1.16), acute coronary syndrome (RR, 1.06; 95%CI, 0.97-1.15), cancer (RR, 1.08; 95%CI, 0.98-1.21), vascular death (RR, 0.94; 95%CI,0.88-1.02), or non-vascular death (RR, 1.06; 95%CI, 0.97-1.15).
Folic acid supplementation does not effect on the incidence of major cardiovascular events, stroke, myocardial infarction or all cause mortality.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(9):e25142. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although more than 40 beta-defensins have been identified in rat epididymis, little is known about their regulation or their relation to male infertility caused by inflammation. Using a rat model of epididymitis induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we examined expression of SPAG11E (also known as Bin1b), a caput epididymis-specific beta-defensin in rat. Unlike the expression of other beta-defensins in various epithelial cells with upregulated expression after LPS stimulation, expression of SPAG11E was significantly decreased by LPS at the mRNA and protein levels. LPS treatment also significantly decreased both sperm binding to SPAG11E and sperm motility, and supplementation of the spermatozoa with recombinant SPAG11E in vitro remarkably increased both SPAG11E binding and motility of sperm. To clarify whether decreased expression is a common pattern of epididymal beta-defensins after LPS stimulation, we examined the expression of another 12 epididymal beta-defensins expressed in the caput epididymis. For nine of these beta-defensins, expression was decreased, but for the other three, expression remained unaffected. These findings demonstrate that LPS-induced epididymitis can decrease the expression of epididymal beta-defensins and that disruption of SPAG11E expression is involved in the impairment of sperm motility.
Biology of Reproduction 12/2010; 83(6):1064-70. · 4.03 Impact Factor