[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To establish mechanisms of neuroprotective actions induced by Premarin (an estrogen sulfate) during traumatic brain injury.
Chi Mei Medical Center research laboratory.
Male Sprague-Dawley rats 244 to 268 g.
Anesthetized rats, immediately after the onset of fluid percussion injury, were divided into three major groups and given the vehicle solution (1 mL/kg of body weight), Premarin (1 mg/kg of body weight), or Premarin (1 mg/kg of body weight) plus the nonselective estrogen receptor-alpha antagonist ICI 182, 780 (0.25 mg/kg of body weight) intravenously and immediately after fluid percussion injury.
Premarin, in addition to inducing pharmacologic levels of estradiol, causes attenuation of fluid percussion injury-induced cerebral infarction and motor and cognitive function deficits. Fluid percussion injury-induced apoptosis (e.g., increased numbers of both terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling-positive and caspase-3-positive cells) as well as activated inflammation (e.g., increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha) was also significantly Premarin-reduced. In peri-ischemic areas of hippocampus, both angiogenesis (e.g., increased numbers of both 5-bromodeoxyuridine-positive endothelial and vascular endothelial growth factor-positive cells) and neurogenesis (e.g., increased numbers of both 5-bromodeoxyuridine/neuronal-specific nuclear protein double-positive and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-positive cells) were Premarin therapy-promoted. In estrogen receptor-alpha blockade rats, Premarin therapy had less or no effect on fluid percussion injury-induced behavioral deficits, cerebral infarction and apoptosis, and activated inflammation. Furthermore, Premarin-induced angiogenesis and neurogenesis were estrogen receptor-alpha blockade-reduced.
Our results indicate that pharmacologic levels of Premarin therapy-induced estradiol protect against cortical and hippocampal programmed cell death after fluid percussion injury through mechanisms stimulating estrogen receptor-alpha in the male rats.
Critical care medicine 12/2009; 37(12):3097-3106. DOI:10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181bc7986 · 6.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to assess whether Premarin, a water-soluble estrogen sulfate, can act via estrogen receptors (ERs) to rescue mice from heat-induced lethality. Unanesthetized, unrestrained mice were exposed to ambient temperature of 42.4 degrees C to induce heatstroke (HS). Another group of mice was exposed to room temperature (24 degrees C) and used as normothermic controls. They were given isotonic sodium chloride solution, Premarin (0.1 - 1.0 mg/kg of body weight, i.p.), or Premarin (1 mg/kg of body weight, i.p.) plus the nonselective ER antagonist ICI 182, 780 (0.25 mg/kg of body weight, i.p.) 1 h after the termination of heat stress. Their physiologic and biochemical parameters were continuously monitored. Mice that survived on day 4 of heat treatment were considered survivors. When the vehicle-treated mice underwent heat, the fraction survival and core temperature at +4 h of body heating were found to be 0 of 12 and 34.4 degrees C +/- 3 degrees C, respectively. Administration of Premarin (1 mg/kg) 1 h after the cessation of heat stress rescued the mice from heat-induced death (fraction survival, 12/12) and reduced the hypothermia (core temperature, 37.3 degrees C). The beneficial effects of Premarin in ameliorating lethality and hypothermia can be abolished by simultaneous administration of ICI 182, 780. Both IL-10 (an anti-inflammatory cytokine) and estradiol in the serum were increased significantly in heat-stressed mice administered Premarin compared with vehicle-treated HS group. Heat-induced apoptosis, as indicated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated alpha UDP-biotin nick end-labeling staining, in the spleen, liver, and kidney were significantly reduced by Premarin. The increased levels of cellular ischemia (e.g., glutamate, lactate-to-pyruvate ratio, and nitrite) and damage (e.g., glycerol) markers and iNOS expression in the hypothalamus during HS were decreased significantly by Premarin therapy. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha) and renal and hepatic dysfunction markers in plasma that are up-regulated in heat stressed mice were significantly lower in Premarin-administered mice. The data indicate that Premarin may act via ERs to rescue mice form HS-induced lethality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We attempted to assess the prophylactic effect of human umbilical cord blood-derived CD34(+) cells in experimental heatstroke. Anesthetized rats, 1 day before heat stress, were divided into 2 major groups and given CD34(-) cells (defined by 1 x 10(6) human cord blood lymphocytes and monocytes that contained <0.2% CD34(+) cells) or CD34(+) cells (defined by 1 x 10(6) human cord blood lymphocytes and monocytes that contained >95% CD34(+) cells). They were exposed to ambient temperature of 43 degrees C for 70 min to induce heatstroke. When the CD34(-) cells-treated or untreated rats underwent heat stress, their survival time values were found to be 20-24 min. Pretreatment with CD34(+) cells significantly increased survival time (123-351 min). As compared with normothermic controls, all CD34(-) cells-treated heatstroke animals displayed hypotension, hepatic and renal failure, hypercoagulable state, activated inflammation, and cerebral ischemia and injury. However, these heatstroke reactions all were significantly suppressed by CD34(+) cells pretreatment. In addition, the levels of interleukin-10 in plasma and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factors in brain were all significantly increased after CD34(+) cell administration during heatstroke. Our data indicate that human umbilical cord-derived CD34(+) cells can be used as a prophylactic agent for experimental heatstroke.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiorgan dysfunction ensuing from severe heatstroke includes hypotension, hepatic and renal failure, hypercoagulable state, activated inflammation, and cerebral ischemia and injury. We attempted to assess whether human umbilical cord blood-derived CD34+ cell therapy improves survival during experimental heatstroke by attenuating multiorgan dysfunction. Anesthetized rats, immediately after the onset of heatstroke, were divided into 2 major groups and given CD34- or CD34+ cells (1 x 10(5)-5 x 10(5)/mL/kg body weight) i.v. They were exposed to ambient temperature of 43 degrees C to induce heatstroke. Another group of rats were exposed to room temperature (26 degrees C) and used as normothermic controls. Hypotension, hepatic and renal failure (evidenced by increased serum urea nitrogen, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase levels in plasma), hypercoagulable state (evidenced by increased prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and D-dimer, and decreased platelet count and protein C in plasma), activated inflammation (evidence by increased TNF-alpha levels in serum), and cerebral dysfunction (evidenced by intracranial hypertension, cerebral hypoperfusion and hypoxia, and cerebral ischemia and injury) were monitored. When the CD34- cell-treated or untreated rats underwent heat stress, their survival time values were found to be 19 to 23 min. Resuscitation with CD34+ cells significantly improved survival time (duration, 63-291 min). As compared with normothermic controls, all CD34- cell-treated heatstroke animals displayed hypotension, hepatic and renal failure, hypercoagulable state, activated inflammation, and cerebral ischemia and injury. However, CD34+ cell therapy significantly caused attenuation of all the above-mentioned heatstroke reactions. In addition, the levels of IL-10 in plasma and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factors in brain were all significantly increased after CD34+ cell therapy during heatstroke. Our data indicate that CD34+ cell therapy may resuscitate persons who had a heatstroke by reducing multiorgan dysfunction or failure.